Summary: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.

Top Publications

  1. Barberis A, Petrini E, Cherubini E. Presynaptic source of quantal size variability at GABAergic synapses in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:1803-10 pubmed
    ..In the presence of flurazepam, a drug believed to increase the affinity of GABA for GABAAR, small mIPSCs were enhanced more efficiently than ..
  2. Zhang L, Wang L. Changes of brain neuropeptide Y and its receptors in rats with flurazepam tolerance and dependence. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1290-6 pubmed
    ..reactions, changes of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors in the hippocampus of rat models, in relation to flurazepam (FZP, a member of BDZ) tolerance and dependence, were investigated...
  3. Shen G, Van Sickle B, Tietz E. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mediates hippocampal glutamatergic plasticity during benzodiazepine withdrawal. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1897-909 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinase II (CaMKII) to enhanced glutamatergic synaptic strength during withdrawal from 1-week oral flurazepam (FZP) administration was further examined in hippocampal slices...
  4. Mercik K, Piast M, Mozrzymas J. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists affect both binding and gating of recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. Neuroreport. 2007;18:781-5 pubmed
    ..In this work, we have used the ultrafast application system to examine the impact of flurazepam and zolpidem on recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors...
  5. Xiang K, Tietz E. Chronic benzodiazepine-induced reduction in GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic currents in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons prevented by prior nimodipine injection. Neuroscience. 2008;157:153-63 pubmed publisher
    One week oral flurazepam (FZP) administration in rats results in reduced GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons associated with benzodiazepine tolerance in vivo and in vitro...
  6. Deutsch S, Mastropaolo J, Burket J, Rosse R. An epigenetic intervention interacts with genetic strain differences to modulate the stress-induced reduction of flurazepam's antiseizure efficacy in the mouse. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;19:398-401 pubmed publisher
    ..work to look at sodium butyrate's modulatory effect on stress-induced changes in the antiseizure efficacy of flurazepam, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, in two strains of mice...
  7. Lima S, Tavares J, Gameiro P, de Castro B, Cordeiro da Silva A. Flurazepam inhibits the P-glycoprotein transport function: an insight to revert multidrug-resistance phenotype. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;581:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of this study was to examine the effects of some benzodiazepines (bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and flurazepam) able to bind to P-glycoprotein in proteoliposomes on its transport function and ATPase activity in the human ..
  8. Song J, Shen G, Greenfield L, Tietz E. Benzodiazepine withdrawal-induced glutamatergic plasticity involves up-regulation of GluR1-containing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in Hippocampal CA1 neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:569-81 pubmed
    ..either acutely dissociated or in hippocampal slices, revealed that AMPAR function was enhanced up to 50% during flurazepam (FZP) withdrawal, without changes in whole-cell channel kinetic properties...
  9. Boyle J, Wolford D, Gargano C, McCrea J, Cummings C, Cerchio K, et al. Next-day residual effects of gaboxadol and flurazepam administered at bedtime: a randomized double-blind study in healthy elderly subjects. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..women (N = 15) and men (N = 10) aged 65-79 years received a single bedtime (22:00 h) dose of gaboxadol 10 mg, flurazepam 30 mg (positive control), and placebo in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study...

More Information


  1. Wright N, Belyavin A, Borland R, Nicholson A. Modulation of delta activity by hypnotics in middle-aged subjects: studies with a benzodiazepine (flurazepam) and a cyclopyrrolone (zopiclone). Sleep. 1986;9:348-52 pubmed
    Period crossing analysis was used to study the effects of flurazepam (30 mg) and zopiclone (5, 7.5, and 10 mg) on delta wave activity (0.5-2.0 Hz) during the first 4 h of sleep in middle-aged subjects...
  2. Scharf M, Roth P, Dominguez R, Ware J. Estazolam and flurazepam: a multicenter, placebo-controlled comparative study in outpatients with insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;30:461-7 pubmed
    ..placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of estazolam compared with flurazepam as hypnotics...
  3. Blin O, Micallef J, Audebert C, Legangneux E. A double-blind, placebo- and flurazepam-controlled investigation of the residual psychomotor and cognitive effects of modified release zolpidem in young healthy volunteers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006;26:284-9 pubmed
    ..5 mg in 18 healthy young adults. Flurazepam 30 mg was used as a positive control. No comparison with standard immediate-release zolpidem was made...
  4. Downing S, Lee Y, Farb D, Gibbs T. Benzodiazepine modulation of partial agonist efficacy and spontaneously active GABA(A) receptors supports an allosteric model of modulation. Br J Pharmacol. 2005;145:894-906 pubmed
    ..To further test the validity of the model, the effects of diazepam, flurazepam, and zolpidem were examined using wild-type and spontaneously active mutant alpha1(L263S)beta3gamma2 GABA(A) ..
  5. Blednov Y, Walker D, Iyer S, Homanics G, Harris A. Mice lacking Gad2 show altered behavioral effects of ethanol, flurazepam and gabaxadol. Addict Biol. 2010;15:45-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We also studied behavioral responses to a benzodiazepine (flurazepam) and a GABAA receptor agonist (gabaxadol)...
  6. Wojtowicz T, Wyrembek P, Lebida K, Piast M, Mozrzymas J. Flurazepam effect on GABAergic currents depends on extracellular pH. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154:234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..80 micros). At acidic pH, flurazepam produced a stronger enhancement of mIPSC amplitudes than at physiological pH...
  7. Xiang K, Tietz E. Benzodiazepine-induced hippocampal CA1 neuron alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxasole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor plasticity linked to severity of withdrawal anxiety: differential role of voltage-gated calcium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartic ac. Behav Pharmacol. 2007;18:447-60 pubmed
    Withdrawal from 1-week oral administration of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam (FZP) is associated with increased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxasole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor (AMPAR) miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (..
  8. Reynolds J, Prasad A, Gillespie L, Paterno G. Developmental expression of functional GABAA receptors containing the gamma 2 subunit in neurons derived from embryonal carcinoma (P19) cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1996;35:11-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the ability of the benzodiazepine agonist flurazepam to potentiate GABA-induced membrane current was the same at 7 and 12 days after retinoic acid treatment...
  9. Brodzki M, Rutkowski R, Jatczak M, Kisiel M, Czyzewska M, Mozrzymas J. Comparison of kinetic and pharmacological profiles of recombinant ?1?2L and ?1?2?2L GABAA receptors - A clue to the role of intersubunit interactions. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;784:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flurazepam exerted a similar effect on both receptors but the rapid deactivation components were differently affected and ..
  10. Ferrari A, Licata M, Rustichelli C, Baraldi C, Vandelli D, Marchesi F, et al. Monitoring of adherence to headache treatments by means of hair analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017;73:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..alprazolam, amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, clonazepam, delorazepam, diazepam, duloxetine, fluoxetine, flurazepam, levomepromazine, levosulpiride, lorazepam, lormetazepam, mirtazapine, paroxetine, quetiapine, sertraline, ..
  11. Safiulina V, Fattorini G, Conti F, Cherubini E. GABAergic signaling at mossy fiber synapses in neonatal rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2006;26:597-608 pubmed
    ..the plasma membrane GABA transporter GAT-1 with NO-711 or by allosterically modulating GABAA receptors with flurazepam. Chemical stimulation of granule cell dendrites with glutamate induced barrages of GABAA-mediated postsynaptic ..
  12. Onaka T, Yamashita T, Liu X, Honda K, Saito T, Yagi K. Medullary A1 noradrenergic neurones may mediate oxytocin release after noxious stimuli. Neuroreport. 2001;12:2499-502 pubmed
    ..From these and reported data, we conclude that the medullary A1 noradrenergic neurones contribute, at least in part, to oxytocin release from the pituitary after noxious stimuli. ..
  13. Tomita M, Okuyama T. Application of capillary electrophoresis to the simultaneous screening and quantitation of benzodiazepines. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996;678:331-7 pubmed
    ..We made a simultaneous analysis of nitrazepam, diazepam, estazolam, bromazepam, triazolam and flurazepam using CE with on-column detection at 200 nm...
  14. Hanson S, Czajkowski C. Disulphide trapping of the GABA(A) receptor reveals the importance of the coupling interface in the action of benzodiazepines. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;162:673-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Loop 9 to ???-strand 9 (via ?? S195C/F203C and ?? S187C/L206C) significantly decreased maximum potentiation by flurazepam, suggesting that modulation of GABA-induced current (I(GABA)) by flurazepam involves movements of ?? Loop 9 ..
  15. da Silveira Petruci J, Liebetanz M, Cardoso A, Hauser P. Absorbance detector for high performance liquid chromatography based on a deep-UV light-emitting diode at 235nm. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1512:143-146 pubmed publisher
    ..of the anti-diabetic drugs pioglitazone and glimepiride in an isocratic separation and the benzodiazepines flurazepam, oxazepam and clobazam in a gradient elution. Good linearities (r>0.99), a precision better than 0...
  16. Earl D, Das P, Gunning W, Tietz E. Regulation of Ca²?/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling within hippocampal glutamatergic postsynapses during flurazepam withdrawal. Neural Plast. 2012;2012:405926 pubmed publisher
    Cessation of one-week oral administration of the benzodiazepine flurazepam (FZP) to rats results in withdrawal anxiety after 1 day of withdrawal...
  17. Palmiere C, Staub C, La Harpe R, Mangin P. Ignition of a human body by a modest external source: a case report. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;188:e17-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alcohol concentration was 1.10 per thousand, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were 12% and cyanide concentration was 0.05 mg/L. Toxicological analyses carried out on the dog's blood showed carboxyhaemoglobin levels at 65%. ..
  18. Petrini E, Marchionni I, Zacchi P, Sieghart W, Cherubini E. Clustering of extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptors modulates tonic inhibition in cultured hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45833-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, diffuse GABA(A) receptors were less sensitive to the GAT-1 inhibitor NO-711 and to flurazepam. Quantitative analysis of GABA-evoked currents after prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of GABA ..
  19. Waters W, Hurry M, Binks P, Carney C, Lajos L, Fuller K, et al. Behavioral and hypnotic treatments for insomnia subtypes. Behav Sleep Med. 2003;1:81-101 pubmed
    ..sleep restriction and stimulus control (SR/SC), hypothesized to better improve sleep maintenance, versus a flurazepam (Dalmane) positive contrast condition (MED) and a sleep hygiene education minimal treatment control condition (..
  20. Blednov Y, Jung S, Alva H, Wallace D, Rosahl T, Whiting P, et al. Deletion of the alpha1 or beta2 subunit of GABAA receptors reduces actions of alcohol and other drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:30-6 pubmed
    ..and beta2 (-/-) null mutant mice showed markedly decreased sleep time induced by nonselective benzodiazepine, flurazepam, and GABAA agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol...
  21. Mendelson W. Effects of flurazepam and zolpidem on the perception of sleep in normal volunteers. Sleep. 1995;18:88-91 pubmed
    ..In the present study we have administered placebo, flurazepam 30 mg and zolpidem 10 mg to 15 normal sleepers and awakened them with an electronic tone at five points across ..
  22. Stahlmann S, Herkert T, Röseler C, Rager I, Kovar K. New sorbent for HPTLC--FTIR in situ determination of impurities in flurazepam. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2001;12:461-9 pubmed
    An efficient HPTLC--UV/FTIR coupling procedure is presented for the separation and rapid identification of flurazepam hydrochloride and its related substances in bulk powder and capsules...
  23. Mendelson W. Effects of flurazepam and zolpidem on the perception of sleep in insomniacs. Sleep. 1995;18:92-6 pubmed
    ..Ten insomniacs were given placebo, flurazepam 30 mg and zolpidem 10 mg and were awakened at five times during subsequent sleep in a random-sequence repeated-..
  24. Hassanzadeh P, Hassanzadeh A. Implication of NGF and endocannabinoid signaling in the mechanism of action of sesamol: a multi-target natural compound with therapeutic potential. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;229:571-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) or the benzodiazepine flurazepam (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), brain regional levels of NGF and eCB contents were quantified in rats by Bio-Rad protein ..
  25. Kato K, Yasui Furukori N, Fukasawa T, Aoshima T, Suzuki A, Kanno M, et al. Effects of itraconazole on the plasma kinetics of quazepam and its two active metabolites after a single oral dose of the drug. Ther Drug Monit. 2003;25:473-7 pubmed
    ..Itraconazole treatment did not affect either of the psychomotor function parameters. The present study thus suggests that CYP 3A4 is partly involved in the metabolism of quazepam. ..
  26. Marin S, McMillin G. LC-MS/MS analysis of 13 benzodiazepines and metabolites in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;603:89-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum and plasma specimens are quantified using the urine calibrators but employing plasma-based controls. Oxazepam glucuronide is used as a hydrolysis control. ..
  27. Lima S, Cordeiro da Silva A, de Castro B, Gameiro P. Sensitivity of P-glycoprotein tryptophan residues to benzodiazepines and ATP interaction. Biophys Chem. 2007;125:143-50 pubmed
    ..was used to understand the P-glycoprotein response to three benzodiazepines (bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide and flurazepam) in the presence and absence of ATP...
  28. Gifkins A, Greba Q, Kokkinidis L. Ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons mediate the shock sensitization of acoustic startle: a potential site of action for benzodiazepine anxiolytics. Behav Neurosci. 2002;116:785-94 pubmed
    ..the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, and the benzodiazepine receptor agonist flurazepam into the VTA was observed to suppress the shock enhancement of acoustic startle amplitudes...
  29. Loncar C, Franic T, Bilusic M. Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by flurazepam?. Psychiatr Danub. 2005;17:236-9 pubmed
    ..Although benzodiazepines had been suspected in some cases, flurazepam has not been implicated thus far...
  30. Kalluri H, Ticku M. Ethanol-mediated inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in mouse brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;439:53-8 pubmed
    ..Likewise, MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg) or flurazepam (75 mg/kg) also decreased the phospho-MAP kinase content...
  31. Dussy F, Hamberg C, Briellmann T. Quantification of benzodiazepines in whole blood and serum. Int J Legal Med. 2006;120:323-30 pubmed
    ..2 and 3 microg/l for the following benzodiazepines or metabolites: 7-amino-flunitrazepam, alprazolam, desalkyl-flurazepam, desmethyl-flunitrazepam, diazepam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, alpha-hydroxy-midazolam, lorazepam, midazolam, ..
  32. Roca D, Schiller G, Friedman L, Rozenberg I, Gibbs T, Farb D. gamma-Aminobutyric acidA receptor regulation in culture: altered allosteric interactions following prolonged exposure to benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and methylxanthines. Mol Pharmacol. 1990;37:710-9 pubmed
    ..Chronic exposure to flurazepam (a high efficacy benzodiazepine) elicits no change in the number of benzodiazepine binding sites or the affinity ..
  33. Lamberty Y, Margineanu D, Dassesse D, Klitgaard H. H3 agonist immepip markedly reduces cortical histamine release, but only weakly promotes sleep in the rat. Pharmacol Res. 2003;48:193-8 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that a marked H3 receptor agonist-mediated reduction in cortical histamine release is not corroborated by a significant sleep promoting effect and therefore question the hypnotic potential of H3 agonists. ..
  34. Hegener O, Jordan R, Häberlein H. Benzodiazepine binding studies on living cells: application of small ligands for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biol Chem. 2002;383:1801-7 pubmed
    ..32 +/- 0.26) microm2/s; D(bound2) = (2.63 +/- 0.63) x 10(-2) microm2/s] are related to binding sites, which shows a mono-exponential decay in a time-dependent dissociation of the ligand-receptor complex. ..
  35. Cohn J, Wilcox C, Bremner J, Ettinger M. Hypnotic efficacy of estazolam compared with flurazepam in outpatients with insomnia. J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;31:747-50 pubmed
    ..The authors designed an investigation to compare its hypnotic efficacy to that of flurazepam, generally considered the reference standard...
  36. Omran A, Kitamura K, Takegami S, el Sayed A, Abdel Mottaleb M. Determination of partition coefficients of diazepam and flurazepam between phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles and water by second derivative spectrophotometric method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2001;25:319-24 pubmed
    ..The absorption spectra of diazepam (DZ) and flurazepam (FZ) in phosphatidylcholine (egg yolk) bilayer vesicle suspensions showed small spectral changes depending on ..
  37. Verster J, Roth T. Gender differences in highway driving performance after administration of sleep medication: a review of the literature. Traffic Inj Prev. 2012;13:286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed significant gender differences in driving performance the morning following bedtime administration of flurazepam (30 mg) and after middle-of-the-night administration of zolpidem (10 mg)...
  38. Burket J, Mastropaolo J, Rosse R, Deutsch S. Genetically inbred Balb/C mice are more sensitive to an effect of flurazepam and more resistant to an effect of stress than a genetically outbred mouse strain. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;16:415-7 pubmed publisher
    The inbred Balb/c mouse strain was more sensitive than the outbred NIH Swiss mouse to flurazepam's ability to antagonize electrically precipitated seizures...
  39. Tietz E, Zeng X, Chen S, Lilly S, Rosenberg H, Kometiani P. Antagonist-induced reversal of functional and structural measures of hippocampal benzodiazepine tolerance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;291:932-42 pubmed
    One week oral flurazepam (FZP) administration in rats results in anticonvulsant tolerance in vivo, tolerance measured in vitro in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and regulation of hippocampal gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-receptor subunit ..
  40. Lima S, Cordeiro da Silva A, de Castro B, Gameiro P. Benzodiazepine-mediated structural changes in the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein: an intrinsic fluorescence quenching analysis. J Membr Biol. 2008;223:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and flurazepam on P-glycoprotein structure was investigated by measuring the intrinsic fluorescence of the transporter ..
  41. Sharkey L, Czajkowski C. Individually monitoring ligand-induced changes in the structure of the GABAA receptor at benzodiazepine binding site and non-binding-site interfaces. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of flurazepam or the BZD-site antagonist flumazenil (Ro15-1788) decreased the rate of modification of alpha(1)H101C at the BZD ..
  42. Bian F, Wang L, Wang Y, Wang Y. [Drugs and the mechanism for reversing the tolerance of flurazepan in rats]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2010;12:56-61 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to seek drugs which can reverse the tolerance of flurazepam (FZP), and to explore the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the reversal effect...
  43. Dzierszinski F, Coppin A, Mortuaire M, Dewailly E, Slomianny C, Ameisen J, et al. Ligands of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor are potent inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:3197-207 pubmed
    ..In this quest, we have found that ligands to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor such as flurazepam, an agonist of the benzodiazepine family, and PK11195, an antagonist derived from isoquinoline, were active ..
  44. Mendelson W, Martin J, Perlis M, Wagner R, Majewska M, Paul S. Sleep induction by an adrenal steroid in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1987;93:226-9 pubmed
    ..sleep recordings were obtained on rats given 5 and 10 mg/kg of these steroids alone and in combination with flurazepam. THDOC, but not 3 alpha-OH-DHP, had potent dose-dependent sleep-inducing properties and increased nonREM sleep...
  45. Zhang L, Tardy M, Berry J, Escaig F, Galle P. [Localization of two neurotropic molecules in cultured glial cells by ion microscopy]. C R Acad Sci III. 1992;314:55-60 pubmed
    The intracellular localization of two families of neurotropic drugs: flunitrazepam and flurazepam (benzodiazepine), triflupromazine and trifluoperazine (phenothiazine) has been studied by ion microscopy...
  46. Popova E. Effects of benzodiazepines on frog ERG. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;134:457-64 pubmed
    Effect of flurazepam (water-soluble benzodiazepine) on the amplitude and time course of ERG waves was investigated in superfused frog eyecups (Rana ridibunda)...
  47. Abrahamowicz M, Bartlett G, Tamblyn R, du Berger R. Modeling cumulative dose and exposure duration provided insights regarding the associations between benzodiazepines and injuries. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006;59:393-403 pubmed
    ..risk of fall related injuries among the elderly new users of three benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, temazepam, and flurazepam) in Quebec...
  48. Vantaggiato D, De Giovanni N. Suicide by multidrug ingestion: hypothesis on the role played by the self-administration of activated charcoal. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2007;28:55-8 pubmed
    ..The obtained results supported the hypothesis of a death due to acute intoxication delayed by the self-administration of activated charcoal, which elimination was probably hindered by the action of pridinol. ..
  49. Davis D, Patel R. Noninvasive capnometry for continuous monitoring of mental status: a tale of 2 patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2006;24:752-4 pubmed
  50. Lilly S, Zeng X, Tietz E. Role of protein kinase A in GABAA receptor dysfunction in CA1 pyramidal cells following chronic benzodiazepine treatment. J Neurochem. 2003;85:988-98 pubmed
    One-week treatment with the benzodiazepine (BZ) flurazepam (FZP), results in anticonvulsant tolerance, associated with reduced GABAA receptor (GABAR) subunit protein and miniature inhibitory post-synaptic current (mIPSC) amplitude in CA1 ..
  51. Omran A, Kitamura K, Takegami S, Kitade T, El Sayed A, Mohamed M, et al. Effect of phosphatidylserine content on the partition coefficients of diazepam and flurazepam between phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylserine bilayer of small unilamellar vesicles and water studied by second derivative spectrophotometry. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:312-5 pubmed
    The affinity of the psychotropic benzodiazepine drugs diazepam (DZ) and flurazepam (FZ) to phosphatidylserine (PS) was examined since PS is abundantly contained in brain membranes...
  52. Kloda J, Czajkowski C. Agonist-, antagonist-, and benzodiazepine-induced structural changes in the alpha1 Met113-Leu132 region of the GABAA receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:483-93 pubmed
    ..acid hydrobromide (SR-95531; antagonist), pentobarbital (allosteric modulator), and flurazepam (allosteric modulator)...
  53. Hibbard K, Propst A, Frank D, Wyse J. Fatalities associated with clozapine-related constipation and bowel obstruction: a literature review and two case reports. Psychosomatics. 2009;50:416-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The discussion outlines potential mechanisms and management of clozapine-related constipation. ..
  54. Thi M, Grant M, Mullen A, Tettey J, MacKay S, Clark R. Metabolism of two new benzodiazepine-type anti-leishmanial agents in rat hepatocytes and hepatic microsomes and their interaction with glutathione in macrophages. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..The metabolism and toxicity of flurazepam was assessed for comparison...
  55. Wójtowicz T, Lebida K, Mozrzymas J. 17beta-estradiol affects GABAergic transmission in developing hippocampus. Brain Res. 2008;1241:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term treatment with estradiol did not change the susceptibility of mIPSC amplitude to upregulation by flurazepam while mIPSC decay was prolonged by this drug to a larger extent in 17beta-estradiol-treated animals...
  56. Linden A, Aller M, Leppä E, Rosenberg P, Wisden W, Korpi E. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;327:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (..
  57. Mozrzymas J, Wójtowicz T, Piast M, Lebida K, Wyrembek P, Mercik K. GABA transient sets the susceptibility of mIPSCs to modulation by benzodiazepine receptor agonists in rat hippocampal neurons. J Physiol. 2007;585:29-46 pubmed
    ..In the present study we have examined the impact of flurazepam and zolpidem on mIPSCs by investigating their effects on GABA(A)R binding and gating and by considering dynamic ..
  58. Abrahamowicz M, Beauchamp M, Sylvestre M. Comparison of alternative models for linking drug exposure with adverse effects. Stat Med. 2012;31:1014-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We illustrated the practical advantages of AIC-based a posteriori model selection and WCE modeling in a real-life pharmacoepidemiology example. ..
  59. Van Sickle B, Tietz E. Selective enhancement of AMPA receptor-mediated function in hippocampal CA1 neurons from chronic benzodiazepine-treated rats. Neuropharmacology. 2002;43:11-27 pubmed
    Two days following one-week administration of the benzodiazepine, flurazepam (FZP), rats exhibit anticonvulsant tolerance in vivo, while reduced GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition and enhanced EPSP amplitude are present in CA1 pyramidal ..
  60. Cohn M, Morris D, Juan D. Effects of estazolam and flurazepam on cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Drug Saf. 1992;7:152-8 pubmed
    ..crossover study to compare the effects of a new benzodiazepine, estazolam ('ProSom'), with those of flurazepam ('Dalmane') on cardiopulmonary function in COPD patients...
  61. Delaney A, Sah P. GABA receptors inhibited by benzodiazepines mediate fast inhibitory transmission in the central amygdala. J Neurosci. 1999;19:9698-704 pubmed
    ..In contrast to their actions at GABA(A) receptors, diazepam and flurazepam inhibited the bicuculline-resistant IPSC in a concentration-dependent manner...
  62. Pounder D, Jones G. Post-mortem drug redistribution--a toxicological nightmare. Forensic Sci Int. 1990;45:253-63 pubmed
    ..0 to 21.5 mg/l and 1.7 to 8.1 mg/l, respectively and flurazepam 0.15 to 0.99 mg/l; imipramine and desipramine from 4.1 to 18.1 mg/l and 1.0 to 3.6 mg/l, respectively...
  63. Stebler T, Guentert T. Determination of diazepam and nordazepam in milk and plasma in the presence of oxazepam and temazepam. J Chromatogr. 1991;564:330-7 pubmed
    ..b>Flurazepam was used as an internal standard...
  64. Kumar K, Ballantyne J, Baker A. Determination of droperidol in plasma by liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1996;14:1529-33 pubmed
    ..Following extraction, separation of droperidol and the internal standard flurazepam was achieved with a Spherisorb Nitrile, 5 microns, S5CN 250 mm x 4.6 mm column at 200 nm...
  65. Kalluri H, Ticku M. Role of GABA(A) receptors in the ethanol-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002;451:51-4 pubmed
    ..Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ethanol (3.5 g), flurazepam (75 mg) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d] cycloheptane-5,10-iminemaleate (MK-801) (0...
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