flumazenil

Summary

Summary: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.

Top Publications

  1. Wicks P, Turner M, Abrahams S, Hammers A, Brooks D, Leigh P, et al. Neuronal loss associated with cognitive performance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an (11C)-flumazenil PET study. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2008;9:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The PET GABA(A) receptor ligand [11C]-flumazenil is a marker of neuronal dysfunction in ALS...
  2. Wiebking C, Duncan N, Qin P, Hayes D, Lyttelton O, Gravel P, et al. External awareness and GABA--a multimodal imaging study combining fMRI and [18F]flumazenil-PET. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014;35:173-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This in turn has implications for our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying awareness in general and its potential impact on psychiatric disorders. ..
  3. Yamauchi H, Nishii R, Higashi T, Kagawa S, Fukuyama H. Hemodynamic compromise as a cause of internal border-zone infarction and cortical neuronal damage in atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery disease. Stroke. 2009;40:3730-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In 62 patients, BZRs were measured using (11)C-flumazenil. By using 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projections, the abnormally decreased BZR index ("BZR index&..
  4. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Fornasiero A, Lechi A, Gerra G, Mezzelani P. Dependence on zolpidem: two case reports of detoxification with flumazenil infusion. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;20:285-7 pubmed
    ..b>Flumazenil is usually considered to be a BDZ antagonist...
  5. Kato H, Shimosegawa E, Oku N, Kitagawa K, Kishima H, Saitoh Y, et al. MRI-based correction for partial-volume effect improves detectability of intractable epileptogenic foci on 123I-iomazenil brain SPECT images. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..006). MRI-based PVE correction for (123)I-iomazenil brain SPECT improves the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of cortical epileptogenic foci in patients with intractable epilepsy. ..
  6. Turner M, Hammers A, al Chalabi A, Shaw C, Andersen P, Brooks D, et al. Distinct cerebral lesions in sporadic and 'D90A' SOD1 ALS: studies with [11C]flumazenil PET. Brain. 2005;128:1323-9 pubmed
    ..The GABA(A) receptor PET ligand [11C]flumazenil has demonstrated motor and extra-motor cortical changes in sporadic ALS...
  7. Pascual B, Prieto E, Arbizu J, Marti Climent J, Penuelas I, Quincoces G, et al. Decreased carbon-11-flumazenil binding in early Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2012;135:2817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured whole-brain GABA(A) binding potential in vivo using [(11)C]-flumazenil positron emission tomography and compared GABA(A) binding with metabolic and volumetric measurements...
  8. Syvänen S, de Lange E, Tagawa Y, Schenke M, Molthoff C, Windhorst A, et al. Simultaneous in vivo measurements of receptor density and affinity using [11C]flumazenil and positron emission tomography: comparison of full saturation and steady state methods. Neuroimage. 2011;57:928-37 pubmed publisher
    The binding of PET radiotracer [(11)C]flumazenil to the GABA(A) receptors is described by the receptor density (B(max)) and binding affinity (K(D))...
  9. Hammers A, Panagoda P, Heckemann R, Kelsch W, Turkheimer F, Brooks D, et al. [11C]Flumazenil PET in temporal lobe epilepsy: do we need an arterial input function or kinetic modeling?. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:207-16 pubmed
    Reduced signal on [(11)C]]flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET) is associated with epileptogenic foci...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Klumpers U, Veltman D, Drent M, Boellaard R, Comans E, Meynen G, et al. Reduced parahippocampal and lateral temporal GABAA-[11C]flumazenil binding in major depression: preliminary results. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;37:565-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The subjects were scanned using the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(11)C]flumazenil ([(11)C]FMZ)...
  2. Odano I, Halldin C, Karlsson P, Varrone A, Airaksinen A, Krasikova R, et al. [18F]flumazenil binding to central benzodiazepine receptor studies by PET--quantitative analysis and comparisons with [11C]flumazenil. Neuroimage. 2009;45:891-902 pubmed publisher
    11)C]flumazenil is the reference radioligand for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of central benzodiazepine (BZ) receptors. Fluorine is available in the flumazenil molecule and [(18)F]flumazenil has recently been prepared...
  3. Pericić D, Jazvinsćak Jembrek M, Svob Strac D, Lazić J, Spoljarić I. Enhancement of benzodiazepine binding sites following chronic treatment with flumazenil. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;507:7-13 pubmed
    ..expressing recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2S GABA(A) receptors to the antagonist of benzodiazepine binding sites, flumazenil (5 microM), enhanced the maximum number (B(max)) and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K(d)) of [3H]..
  4. Costa C, Kohn D, de Lima V, Gargano A, Florio J, Costa M. The GABAergic system contributes to the anxiolytic-like effect of essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;137:828-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite this widely use, there are few controlled studies confirming its biological activity in central nervous system...
  5. Dahaba A, Bornemann H, Rehak P, Wang G, Wu X, Metzler H. Effect of flumazenil on bispectral index monitoring in unpremedicated patients. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:1036-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Flumazenil is an imidazobenzodiazepine that promptly reverses via competitive inhibition the hypnotic/sedative effects of benzodiazepines on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors...
  6. Hood S, O Neil G, Hulse G. The role of flumazenil in the treatment of benzodiazepine dependence: physiological and psychological profiles. J Psychopharmacol. 2009;23:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..presented here, detailing our early experience with benzodiazepine-dependent patients treated with a four-day flumazenil infusion using a novel delivery technique...
  7. Savić M, Obradović D, Ugresic N, Cook J, Yin W, Bokonjic D. Bidirectional effects of benzodiazepine binding site ligands in the passive avoidance task: differential antagonism by flumazenil and beta-CCt. Behav Brain Res. 2005;158:293-300 pubmed
    ..We tested the effects of the non-selective antagonist flumazenil (0-20...
  8. McLeod M, Scarr E, Dean B. Effects of benzodiazepine treatment on cortical GABA(A) and muscarinic receptors: studies in schizophrenia and rats. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These data would therefore support our previously stated hypotheses that changes in the cortical cholinergic and GABAergic systems are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. ..
  9. Karakosta A, Andreotti B, Chapsa C, Pouliou A, Anastasiou E. Flumazenil expedites recovery from sevoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia when administered to healthy unpremedicated patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:955-9 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the hypothesis that 0.3 mg flumazenil administered to healthy unpremedicated patients at the end of deep surgical sevoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia would expedite recovery...
  10. Scaife J, Hou R, Samuels E, Baqui F, Langley R, Bradshaw C, et al. Diazepam-induced disruption of classically-conditioned fear-potentiation of late-latency auditory evoked potentials is prevented by flumazenil given before, but not after, CS/US pairing. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:93-101 pubmed
    ..The benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil was used to block the effect of diazepam either during the association period or during subsequent consolidation...
  11. Kuroda S, Shiga T, Houkin K, Ishikawa T, Katoh C, Tamaki N, et al. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and neuronal integrity in patients with impaired vasoreactivity attributable to occlusive carotid artery disease. Stroke. 2006;37:393-8 pubmed
    ..were determined in all patients by (15)O-gas PET, and neuronal integrity was evaluated in 19 patients using 11C-flumazenil (FMZ) PET. OEF was significantly elevated in 20 (43.5%) of 46 type 3 patients...
  12. Li J, Fish R, Cook S, Tattersall F, Atack J. Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo [3H]flumazenil binding assays to determine occupancy at the benzodiazepine binding site of rat brain GABAA receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2006;51:168-72 pubmed
    In the present study, the occupancy of flumazenil (Ro 15-1788; 1-30mg/kg p.o.) at the benzodiazepine site of rat brain GABA(A) receptors was compared using in vivo and ex vivo binding methodologies with [(3)H]flumazenil as the radioligand...
  13. Hemmeter U, Hatzinger M, Brand S, Holsboer Trachsler E. Effect of flumazenil-augmentation on microsleep and mood in depressed patients during partial sleep deprivation. J Psychiatr Res. 2007;41:876-84 pubmed
    ..The GABA-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil augments vigilance and reduces NonREM-sleep pressure in early morning recovery sleep in volunteers after SD...
  14. Araki H, Fujiwara Y, Shimada Y. Effect of flumazenil on recovery from sevoflurane anesthesia in children premedicated with oral midazolam before undergoing herniorrhaphy with or without caudal analgesia. J Anesth. 2005;19:204-7 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to evaluate the effect of flumazenil on reversal of midazolam during recovery from sevoflurane-induced anesthesia in children who underwent caudal ..
  15. Miederer I, Ziegler S, Liedtke C, Spilker M, Miederer M, Sprenger T, et al. Kinetic modelling of [11C]flumazenil using data-driven methods. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:659-70 pubmed publisher
    11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) is a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that binds reversibly to central-type gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) sites...
  16. Liefaard L, Ploeger B, Molthoff C, de Jong H, Dijkstra J, van der Weerd L, et al. Changes in GABAA receptor properties in amygdala kindled animals: in vivo studies using [11C]flumazenil and positron emission tomography. Epilepsia. 2009;50:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The GABA(A) receptor density was quantified by conducting a [(11)C]flumazenil (FMZ) positron emission tomography (PET) study according to the full saturation method, in which each animal ..
  17. Lingford Hughes A, Wilson S, Cunningham V, Feeney A, Stevenson B, Brooks D, et al. GABA-benzodiazepine receptor function in alcohol dependence: a combined 11C-flumazenil PET and pharmacodynamic study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;180:595-606 pubmed
    ..We used positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]flumazenil, a non-selective tracer for brain GABA-benzodiazepine (GABA-BDZ) receptor binding, to determine in vivo the ..
  18. Frankle W, Cho R, Narendran R, Mason N, Vora S, Litschge M, et al. Tiagabine increases [11C]flumazenil binding in cortical brain regions in healthy control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the ability to increase GABA in eight healthy subjects by comparing the binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer specific for the benzodiazepine (BDZ) site, at baseline and in ..
  19. Savić M, Obradović D, Ugresic N, Cook J, Yin W, Bokonjic D. Bidirectional effects of benzodiazepine binding site ligands in the elevated plus-maze: differential antagonism by flumazenil and beta-CCt. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79:279-90 pubmed
    ..We tested the effects of the non-selective antagonist flumazenil (0-20...
  20. Ochalski P, Fellows Mayle W, Hsieh L, Srinivas R, Okonkwo D, Dixon C, et al. Flumazenil administration attenuates cognitive impairment in immature rats after controlled cortical impact. J Neurotrauma. 2010;27:647-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of flumazenil treatment, a benzodiazepine antagonist approved by the U.S...
  21. Massaweh G, Schirrmacher E, la Fougere C, Kovacevic M, Wängler C, Jolly D, et al. Improved work-up procedure for the production of [(18)F]flumazenil and first results of its use with a high-resolution research tomograph in human stroke. Nucl Med Biol. 2009;36:721-7 pubmed publisher
    ..18)F-Labeled flumazenil ([(18)F]FZ) provides a potentially useful tracer to investigate those disorders by means of positron emission ..
  22. Atack J, Wafford K, Tye S, Cook S, Sohal B, Pike A, et al. TPA023 [7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine], an agonist selective for alpha2- and alpha3-containing GABAA receptors, is a nonsedating anxiolytic in rodents and primates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:410-22 pubmed
    ..In summary, the novel alpha2/alpha3-selective efficacy profile of TPA023 translates into a nonsedating anxiolytic profile that is distinct from nonselective agonists. ..
  23. Ryzhikov N, Seneca N, Krasikova R, Gomzina N, Shchukin E, Fedorova O, et al. Preparation of highly specific radioactivity [18F]flumazenil and its evaluation in cynomolgus monkey by positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Biol. 2005;32:109-16 pubmed
    A straightforward method for the preparation of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [18F]flumazenil via standard nucleophilic radiofluorination of the corresponding nitro-analog Ro 15-2344 has been developed...
  24. Boecker H, Weindl A, Brooks D, Ceballos Baumann A, Liedtke C, Miederer M, et al. GABAergic dysfunction in essential tremor: an 11C-flumazenil PET study. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been argued that this overactivity may be due to impaired central inhibition, and converging evidence points toward a potential role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction in tremor generation...
  25. Chida K, Ogasawara K, Suga Y, Saito H, Kobayashi M, Yoshida K, et al. Postoperative cortical neural loss associated with cerebral hyperperfusion and cognitive impairment after carotid endarterectomy: 123I-iomazenil SPECT study. Stroke. 2009;40:448-53 pubmed publisher
    ..003 to 77.381; P=0.0496) were also significantly associated with postoperative cognitive impairment. Cerebral hyperperfusion after CEA results in postoperative cortical neural loss that correlates with postoperative cognitive impairment. ..
  26. la Fougere C, Grant S, Kostikov A, Schirrmacher R, Gravel P, Schipper H, et al. Where in-vivo imaging meets cytoarchitectonics: the relationship between cortical thickness and neuronal density measured with high-resolution [18F]flumazenil-PET. Neuroimage. 2011;56:951-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed this relationship using high-resolution [(18)F]-labelled flumazenil (FMZ) PET and SCT-mapping...
  27. Di Lio A, Benke D, Besson M, Desmeules J, Daali Y, Wang Z, et al. HZ166, a novel GABAA receptor subtype-selective benzodiazepine site ligand, is antihyperalgesic in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Neuropharmacology. 2011;60:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This antihyperalgesic activity was antagonized by flumazenil and hence mediated via the BDZ-binding site of GABA(A) receptors...
  28. Savić M, Obradović D, Ugresic N, Cook J, Sarma P, Bokonjic D. Bidirectional effects of benzodiazepine binding site ligands on active avoidance acquisition and retention: differential antagonism by flumazenil and beta-CCt. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;180:455-65 pubmed
    ..We tested the effects of the nonselective antagonist flumazenil, the preferential alpha1-subunit selective antagonist beta-carboline-3-carboxylate-t-butyl ester (beta-CCt), the ..
  29. Salmi E, Kaisti K, Metsahonkala L, Oikonen V, Aalto S, Någren K, et al. Sevoflurane and propofol increase 11C-flumazenil binding to gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors in humans. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:1420-6; table of contents pubmed
    ..However, this fundamental characteristic has not been extensively investigated in humans. We studied (11)C-flumazenil binding to GABA(A) receptors during sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia in the living human brain using positron ..
  30. Yano M, Adachi N, Liu K, Arai T. Flumazenil-induced improvement of the central dopaminergic system in rats with acute hepatic failure. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2005;17:69-74 pubmed
    Several reports have demonstrated the alleviation of hepatic encephalopathy by flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine receptors...
  31. Anton R, Myrick H, Baros A, Latham P, Randall P, Wright T, et al. Efficacy of a combination of flumazenil and gabapentin in the treatment of alcohol dependence: relationship to alcohol withdrawal symptoms. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29:334-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated a medication combination of intravenous flumazenil (FMZ) and oral gabapentin (GBP) in alcoholics who did and did not exhibit pretreatment alcohol withdrawal (AW) ..
  32. Hasler G, Nugent A, Carlson P, Carson R, Geraci M, Drevets W. Altered cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptor binding in panic disorder determined by [11C]flumazenil positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65:1166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Images of BZD receptor binding were acquired using positron emission tomography and flumazenil tagged with carbon 11...
  33. Verdurand M, Fillman S, Weickert C, Zavitsanou K. Increases in [3H]muscimol and [3H]flumazenil binding in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia are linked to ?4 and ?2S mRNA levels respectively. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52724 pubmed publisher
    ..the benzodiazepine allosteric binding sites were assessed autoradiographically using [(3)H]Muscimol and [(3)H]Flumazenil, respectively, in a large cohort of individuals with schizophrenia (n?=?37) and their matched controls (n?=?37)...
  34. Syvänen S, Labots M, Tagawa Y, Eriksson J, Windhorst A, Lammertsma A, et al. Altered GABAA receptor density and unaltered blood-brain barrier transport in a kainate model of epilepsy: an in vivo study using 11C-flumazenil and PET. J Nucl Med. 2012;53:1974-83 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate if flumazenil blood-brain barrier transport and binding to the benzodiazepine site on the ?-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor complex is altered in an experimental model of epilepsy and ..
  35. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Nassiri Asl M, Mansouri M. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:BR106-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism(s) of the action of thymoquinone more precisely via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection...
  36. Mourik J, Lubberink M, Klumpers U, Comans E, Lammertsma A, Boellaard R. Partial volume corrected image derived input functions for dynamic PET brain studies: methodology and validation for [11C]flumazenil. Neuroimage. 2008;39:1041-50 pubmed
    ..11)C]flumazenil data of 10 subjects were used in the present study...
  37. Klumpers U, Veltman D, Boellaard R, Comans E, Zuketto C, Yaqub M, et al. Comparison of plasma input and reference tissue models for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil studies. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008;28:579-87 pubmed
    A single-tissue compartment model with plasma input is the established method for analysing [(11)C]flumazenil ([(11)C]FMZ) studies. However, arterial cannulation and measurement of metabolites are time-consuming...
  38. Yamauchi H, Kudoh T, Kishibe Y, Iwasaki J, Kagawa S. Selective neuronal damage and borderzone infarction in carotid artery occlusive disease: a 11C-flumazenil PET study. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:1973-9 pubmed
    ..We measured BZR using PET and 11C-flumazenil in 62 nondisabled patients with ICA steno-occlusive lesions in the chronic stage...
  39. Dedeurwaerdere S, Gregoire M, Vivash L, Roselt P, Binns D, Fookes C, et al. In-vivo imaging characteristics of two fluorinated flumazenil radiotracers in the rat. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2009;36:958-65 pubmed publisher
    11)C]Flumazenil shows promise as a clinical and research PET radiotracer to image changes in GABA(A) central benzodiazepine receptor (cBZR), but its widespread use has been limited by practical limitations of [(11)C]...
  40. Hammers A, Koepp M, Brooks D, Duncan J. Periventricular white matter flumazenil binding and postoperative outcome in hippocampal sclerosis. Epilepsia. 2005;46:944-8 pubmed
    ..White matter (WM) [11C]flumazenil volume of distribution (FMZ-Vd) reflects the number of neuronal cell bodies in WM...
  41. Bouvard S, Costes N, Bonnefoi F, Lavenne F, Mauguiere F, Delforge J, et al. Seizure-related short-term plasticity of benzodiazepine receptors in partial epilepsy: a [11C]flumazenil-PET study. Brain. 2005;128:1330-43 pubmed
    We have undertaken a test-re-test [11C]flumazenil (FMZ) PET study in 10 drug-resistant epileptic patients, including six with a mesiotemporal epilepsy (MTE), and 10 normal controls, in order to investigate seizure-related short-term ..
  42. Frankle W, Cho R, Mason N, Chen C, Himes M, Walker C, et al. [11C]flumazenil binding is increased in a dose-dependent manner with tiagabine-induced elevations in GABA levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32443 pubmed publisher
    ..tomography (PET) paradigm measuring the change in binding of the benzodiazepine (BDZ) site radiotracer [(11)C]flumazenil associated with increases in extracellular GABA induced via GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blockade with ..
  43. Salmi E, Aalto S, Hirvonen J, Långsjö J, Maksimow A, Oikonen V, et al. Measurement of GABAA receptor binding in vivo with [11C]flumazenil: a test-retest study in healthy subjects. Neuroimage. 2008;41:260-9 pubmed publisher
    11)C]Flumazenil is widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies to measure GABA(A) receptors in vivo in humans...
  44. van Rij C, Huitema A, Swart E, Greuter H, Lammertsma A, van Loenen A, et al. Population plasma pharmacokinetics of 11C-flumazenil at tracer concentrations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;60:477-85 pubmed
    The objectives of the study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for (11)C-flumazenil at tracer concentrations, to assess the effects of patient-related covariates and to derive an optimal sampling protocol for clinical use...
  45. Lingford Hughes A, Wilson S, Feeney A, Grasby P, Nutt D. A proof-of-concept study using [11C]flumazenil PET to demonstrate that pagoclone is a partial agonist. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005;180:789-91 pubmed
  46. Weiss M, Tikhonov D, Buldakova S. Effect of flumazenil on GABAA receptors in isolated rat hippocampal neurons. Neurochem Res. 2002;27:1605-12 pubmed
    ..cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells acutely dissociated from rat hippocampal slices, Ro-15 1788 (flumazenil, FLU) was shown to enhance the GABAA-receptor mediated currents evoked by application of gamma-aminobutyric acid ..
  47. Okazawa H, Yamauchi H, Sugimoto K, Magata Y, Kudo T, Yonekura Y. Effects of metabolite correction for arterial input function on quantitative receptor images with 11C-flumazenil in clinical positron emission tomography studies. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2004;28:428-35 pubmed
    ..the effect of inputs estimated from different methods for metabolite correction on binding potential (BP) of C-flumazenil (FMZ). Five healthy volunteers underwent C-FMZ positron emission tomography...
  48. Hammers A, Koepp M, Richardson M, Hurlemann R, Brooks D, Duncan J. Grey and white matter flumazenil binding in neocortical epilepsy with normal MRI. A PET study of 44 patients. Brain. 2003;126:1300-18 pubmed
    ..gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. [(11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) PET images most subtypes of GABA(A) receptors, present on most neurons...
  49. McKernan R, Rosahl T, Reynolds D, Sur C, Wafford K, Atack J, et al. Sedative but not anxiolytic properties of benzodiazepines are mediated by the GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subtype. Nat Neurosci. 2000;3:587-92 pubmed
    ..This finding suggests ways to improve anxiolytics and to develop drugs for other neurological disorders based on their specificity for GABA(A) receptor subtypes in distinct neuronal circuits. ..
  50. Davis D, Hamilton R, Webster T. Reversal of midazolam-induced laryngospasm with flumazenil. Ann Emerg Med. 1998;32:263-5 pubmed
    ..Laryngospasm is listed by the manufacturer as a rare side effect of midazolam. Flumazenil is a competitive inhibitor of the benzodiazepines that is available for reversal at the end of such a procedure ..
  51. Lassaletta A, Martino R, Gónzalez Santiago P, Torrijos C, Cebrero M, García Frías E. Reversal of an antihistamine-induced coma with flumazenil. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2004;20:319-20 pubmed
    b>Flumazenil is a competitive antagonist with specific action at the central benzodiazepine receptor. It is used when benzodiazepine intoxication is suspected...
  52. Jones E, Giger Mateeva V, Reits D, Riemslag F, Liberov B, Spekrijse H. Visual event-related potentials in cirrhotic patients without overt encephalopathy: the effects of flumazenil. Metab Brain Dis. 2001;16:43-53 pubmed
    ..cirrhotic patients without overt HE, who were alcohol, drug, and caffeine free, were randomized to receive flumazenil (1 mg) and placebo intravenously, double-blind...
  53. Heiss W, Sobesky J, Smekal U, Kracht L, Lehnhardt F, Thiel A, et al. Probability of cortical infarction predicted by flumazenil binding and diffusion-weighted imaging signal intensity: a comparative positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging study in early ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2004;35:1892-8 pubmed
    ..Positron emission tomography (PET) of the central benzodiazepine receptor ligand 11C flumazenil (FMZ) has been shown to be a reliable marker of neuronal integrity...
  54. Ryvlin P, Bouvard S, Le Bars D, De Lamérie G, Gregoire M, Kahane P, et al. Clinical utility of flumazenil-PET versus [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and MRI in refractory partial epilepsy. A prospective study in 100 patients. Brain. 1998;121 ( Pt 11):2067-81 pubmed
    We assessed the clinical utility of [11C]flumazenil-PET (FMZ-PET) prospectively in 100 epileptic patients undergoing a pre-surgical evaluation, and defined the specific contribution of this neuro-imaging technique with respect to those of ..
  55. Loscher W, Hönack D. Effects of the non-NMDA antagonists NBQX and the 2,3-benzodiazepine GYKI 52466 on different seizure types in mice: comparison with diazepam and interactions with flumazenil. Br J Pharmacol. 1994;113:1349-57 pubmed
    ..This prompted us to study the effect of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, flumazenil, on anticonvulsant and adverse effects of GYKI 52466 in different seizure models in mice...
  56. Weinbroum A, Geller E. Flumazenil improves cognitive and neuromotor emergence and attenuates shivering after halothane-, enflurane- and isoflurane-based anesthesia. Can J Anaesth. 2001;48:963-72 pubmed
    To conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, clinical experiment testing the hypothesis that flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist, may affect recovery from halothane-, enflurane- and isoflurane-based anesthesia...
  57. Hammers A, Koepp M, Labbe C, Brooks D, Thom M, Cunningham V, et al. Neocortical abnormalities of [11C]-flumazenil PET in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2001;56:897-906 pubmed
    ..in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using [(11)C]-flumazenil-(FMZ) PET and complementary voxel-based and quantitative volume-of-interest (VOI) methods...
  58. Neave N, Reid C, Scholey A, Thompson J, Moss M, Ayre G, et al. Dose-dependent effects of flumazenil on cognition, mood, and cardio-respiratory physiology in healthy volunteers. Br Dent J. 2000;189:668-74 pubmed
    To assess the possible effects of flumazenil on cognitive processing, physiology, and mood. Design A double-blind, placebo controlled, four-way cross-over study, using healthy volunteers...