meconium

Summary

Summary: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.

Top Publications

  1. Pichini S, Puig C, Zuccaro P, Marchei E, Pellegrini M, Murillo J, et al. Assessment of exposure to opiates and cocaine during pregnancy in a Mediterranean city: preliminary results of the "Meconium Project". Forensic Sci Int. 2005;153:59-65 pubmed
    For the first time in Europe, the "Meconium Project" aimed to estimate the prevalence of drug use by pregnant women and the effects of exposure to illicit drugs during pregnancy on the fetus and infant...
  2. Lee P, Shim J, Won H, Kim A. Antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis in dichorionic twins: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:243-6 pubmed
    b>Meconium peritonitis (MP) is a chemical peritonitis, and little is known about its natural history. Below we report MP in both fetuses from a twin pregnancy, with identical clinical ultrasonographic findings but a delay in presentation...
  3. Jiménez E, Marín M, Martin R, Odriozola J, Olivares M, Xaus J, et al. Is meconium from healthy newborns actually sterile?. Res Microbiol. 2008;159:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the presence of such bacteria in meconium of 21 healthy neonates was investigated...
  4. Gosalbes M, Llop S, Valles Y, Moya A, Ballester F, Francino M. Meconium microbiota types dominated by lactic acid or enteric bacteria are differentially associated with maternal eczema and respiratory problems in infants. Clin Exp Allergy. 2013;43:198-211 pubmed publisher
    Culture-dependent methods have shown that meconium, the newborn's first intestinal discharge, is not sterile, but the diversity of bacteria present in this material needs to be further characterized by means of more sensitive molecular ..
  5. Lozano J, Garcia Algar O, Marchei E, Vall O, Monleon T, Giovannandrea R, et al. Prevalence of gestational exposure to cannabis in a Mediterranean city by meconium analysis. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1734-7 pubmed
    ..A validated gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay was used for meconium analysis. Prenatal exposure to cannabis was detected in 5.3% newborns; however, only 1...
  6. Bakdash A, Burger P, Goecke T, Fasching P, Reulbach U, Bleich S, et al. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010;396:2469-77 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption...
  7. Escobar M, Grosfeld J, Burdick J, Powell R, Jay C, Wait A, et al. Surgical considerations in cystic fibrosis: a 32-year evaluation of outcomes. Surgery. 2005;138:560-71; discussion 571-2 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 6.2 years (range, 1 d to 26 y) and 109 were neonates. Fifteen of 42 (36%) babies with simple meconium ileus (MI) were treated nonoperatively with hypertonic enemas, 27 of 42 and all 45 patients with complicated MI ..
  8. Cowles R, Berdon W, Holt P, Buonomo C, Stolar C. Neonatal intestinal obstruction simulating meconium ileus in infants with long-segment intestinal aganglionosis: radiographic findings that prompt the need for rectal biopsy. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:133-7 pubmed
    ..with long-segment intestinal aganglionosis involving the entire colon, ileum and sometimes the jejunum can mimic meconium ileus. This makes the diagnosis difficult for the radiologist and surgeon...
  9. Castro Nájera J, Martínez Burnes J, Mota Rojas D, Cuevas Reyes H, Lopez A, Ramírez Necoechea R, et al. Morphological changes in the lungs of meconium-stained piglets. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:622-7 pubmed
    b>Meconium staining of the skin is a common event associated with fetal hypoxia, stillbirths, weak-born piglets, and neonatal mortality. Aspiration of meconium leads to meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)...

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bhutani V. Developing a systems approach to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome: lessons learned from multinational studies. J Perinatol. 2008;28 Suppl 3:S30-5 pubmed publisher
    Passage of fetal bowel movement (meconium) is common (in about one out of six births), and in some the staining of the amniotic fluid is a sign of fetal distress...
  2. Dorfman R, Li W, Sun L, Lin F, Wang Y, Sandford A, et al. Modifier gene study of meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis: statistical considerations and gene mapping results. Hum Genet. 2009;126:763-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we conduct a modifier gene study for meconium ileus (MI), an intestinal obstruction that occurs in 16-20% of CF newborns, providing linkage and association ..
  3. Lu K, Goerke J, Clements J, Taeusch H. Hyaluronan reduces surfactant inhibition and improves rat lung function after meconium injury. Pediatr Res. 2005;58:206-10 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined whether HA can ameliorate the inactivating effects of meconium in vitro and in vivo...
  4. Tassiopoulos K, Read J, Brogly S, Rich K, Lester B, Spector S, et al. Substance use in HIV-Infected women during pregnancy: self-report versus meconium analysis. AIDS Behav. 2010;14:1269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..For 264 mother/infant pairs with meconium results, sensitivity of self-report was 86% for tobacco, 80% for marijuana and 67% for cocaine...
  5. Tessler R, Pan J, Fiori H, Belik J. Human meconium has a pulmonary vascular and airway smooth muscle relaxant effect. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:24-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium aspiration is believed to cause persistent pulmonary hypertension syndrome of the newborn (PPHN) via vasoconstriction, whereas meconium has a relaxant effect on rat tracheal muscle...
  6. Ivanov V, Gewolb I, Uhal B. A new look at the pathogenesis of the meconium aspiration syndrome: a role for fetal pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in epithelial cell detachment. Pediatr Res. 2010;68:221-4 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that fetal pancreatic digestive enzymes play a role in the lung damage after meconium aspiration. We studied the effect of meconium on the A549 alveolar epithelial cell line. The exposure of the cells to 0...
  7. Turker G, Ozsoy G, Ozdemir S, Barutçu B, Gokalp A. Effect of heavy metals in the meconium on preterm mortality: preliminary study. Pediatr Int. 2013;55:30-4 pubmed publisher
    ..was therefore to measure the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium) and trace elements (zinc, iron, copper) in meconium samples and elucidate their association with preterm mortality...
  8. Xu H, Mas Calvet M, Wei S, Luo Z, Fraser W. Abnormal fetal heart rate tracing patterns in patients with thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid: association with perinatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:283.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to evaluate, in labors complicated by thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid, the association between specific fetal heart rate (FHR) patterns and adverse perinatal outcomes...
  9. Unuvar E, Ahmadov H, Kiziler A, Aydemir B, Toprak S, Ulker V, et al. Mercury levels in cord blood and meconium of healthy newborns and venous blood of their mothers: clinical, prospective cohort study. Sci Total Environ. 2007;374:60-70 pubmed
    ..Venous blood from the mother, cord blood from the neonate, and meconium were collected for mercury analysis...
  10. van der Doef H, Slieker M, Staab D, Alizadeh B, Seia M, Colombo C, et al. Association of the CLCA1 p.S357N variant with meconium ileus in European patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of Clca3, acts as a modifier gene in a cohort of 682 European patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)-99 patients with meconium ileus...
  11. Funai E, Labowsky A, Drewes C, Kliman H. Timing of fetal meconium absorption by amnionic macrophages. Am J Perinatol. 2009;26:93-7 pubmed publisher
    This study sought to determine the time interval from fetal defecation to membrane staining and subsequent meconium uptake by amnionic macrophages. Pieces of external membranes were fastened to Teflon rings to create a well...
  12. Marin S, Merrell M, McMillin G. Drugs of abuse detection in meconium: a comparison between ELISA and biochip microarray. J Anal Toxicol. 2011;35:40-5 pubmed
    The results of meconium specimens and fortified samples screened for drugs of abuse by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Immunalysis) and biochip microarray (Randox) methods were compared...
  13. Gareri J, Lynn H, Handley M, Rao C, Koren G. Prevalence of fetal ethanol exposure in a regional population-based sample by meconium analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), products of nonoxidative ethanol metabolism, have been established as a novel ..
  14. Khazardoost S, Hantoushzadeh S, Khooshideh M, Borna S. Risk factors for meconium aspiration in meconium stained amniotic fluid. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:577-9 pubmed
    b>Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening respiratory disease in infants born through meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF)...
  15. Morini L, Marchei E, Pellegrini M, Groppi A, Stramesi C, Vagnarelli F, et al. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection for the measurement of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium: new biomarkers of gestational ethanol exposure?. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30:725-32 pubmed publisher
    ..postcolumn addition of acetonitrile for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium was developed and validated using pentadeuterated EtG and pentadeuterated EtS as internal standards...
  16. Turker G, Ergen K, Karakoc Y, Arisoy A, Barutcu U. Concentrations of toxic metals and trace elements in the meconium of newborns from an industrial city. Biol Neonate. 2006;89:244-50 pubmed
    ..Relationships between meconium mineral contents and parental occupation and location of residence were also tested...
  17. Johnson J, Bush A, Buchdahl R. Does presenting with meconium ileus affect the prognosis of children with cystic fibrosis?. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2010;45:951-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a matter of debate as to what extent the long-term outcome of cystic fibrosis (CF) is affected by presenting with meconium ileus (MI)...
  18. Gray T, Magri R, Shakleya D, Huestis M. Meconium nicotine and metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: differentiation of passive and nonexposure and correlation with neonatal outcome measures. Clin Chem. 2008;54:2018-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium analysis is a diagnostically sensitive and objective alternative to maternal self-report for detecting prenatal tobacco exposure...
  19. Lilja M, Palva T, Ramsay H, Laitinen K, Andersson S. Meconium contaminated amniotic fluid and infant otitis media. Is it a risk factor in children surviving aspiration and initial distress of respiration?. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:655-62 pubmed
    ..how factors related to birth and environment affect proneness to acute otitis media (AOM) in infants born through meconium contaminated amniotic fluid...
  20. Nam S, Kim S, Kim D, Kim A, Kim K, Pi S, et al. Experience with meconium peritonitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:1822-5 pubmed
    b>Meconium peritonitis is a sterile chemical peritonitis resulting from intrauterine bowel perforation. With the development of neonatal care, the prognosis of meconium peritonitis improved much. We report our clinical experience...
  21. Madan J, Salari R, Saxena D, Davidson L, O Toole G, Moore J, et al. Gut microbial colonisation in premature neonates predicts neonatal sepsis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012;97:F456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..324 350 sequences were obtained. The meconium was not sterile and had predominance of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and Enterobacteriales...
  22. Velaphi S, Vidyasagar D. Intrapartum and postdelivery management of infants born to mothers with meconium-stained amniotic fluid: evidence-based recommendations. Clin Perinatol. 2006;33:29-42, v-vi pubmed
    ..available evidence to determine whether the current recommendations for the management of infants born through meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) should be maintained...
  23. Nakaoka T, Shiokawa C, Nishihara M, Tamai H, Funato M, Uemura S. Iopamidol enema treatment for meconium obstruction of prematurity in extremely low-birth weight infants: a safe and effective method. Pediatr Surg Int. 2009;25:273-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium obstruction of prematurity (MO) often occurs in extremely low-birth weight (ELBW) infants, and its treatment is quite a challenge for neonatologists...
  24. Morini L, Marchei E, Vagnarelli F, Garcia Algar O, Groppi A, Mastrobattista L, et al. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in meconium and hair-potential biomarkers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol. Forensic Sci Int. 2010;196:74-7 pubmed publisher
    This study investigated ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) concentration in meconium and in maternal and neonatal hair (HEtG and HFAEEs, respectively) as potential markers of intrauterine exposure to ethanol together with ..
  25. Balchin I, Whittaker J, Lamont R, Steer P. Maternal and fetal characteristics associated with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:828-35 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the rates of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (AF) and adverse outcome in relation to gestational age and racial group, and to investigate the predictors of meconium-stained AF...
  26. Braun J, Daniels J, Poole C, Olshan A, Hornung R, Bernert J, et al. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight. Environ Health. 2010;9:53 pubmed publisher
    The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure...
  27. Goh Y, Chudley A, Clarren S, Koren G, Orrbine E, Rosales T, et al. Development of Canadian screening tools for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;15:e344-66 pubmed
    ..following five tools were selected for the FASD screening toolkit: screening fatty acid ethyl esters in neonatal meconium, the modified Child Behaviour Checklist, Medicine Wheel tool, Asante Centre Probation Officer Tool, and maternal ..
  28. Kappler M, Feilcke M, Schroter C, Kraxner A, Griese M. Long-term pulmonary outcome after meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009;44:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    To identify cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a history of meconium ileus (MI) and to compare long-term outcome of these patients with CF patients without MI. 370 CF patients who were treated at the Munich CF centre in 2006, mean age 17...
  29. Stichtenoth G, Jung P, Walter G, Johansson J, Robertson B, Curstedt T, et al. Polymyxin B/pulmonary surfactant mixtures have increased resistance to inactivation by meconium and reduce growth of gram-negative bacteria in vitro. Pediatr Res. 2006;59:407-11 pubmed
    Pulmonary surfactant is inactivated in meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal pneumonia. Development of an exogenous surfactant less sensitive to inactivation might be useful for treating these diseases...
  30. Ostrea E, Villanueva Uy E, Ngerncham S, Punnakanta L, Batilando M, Agarwal P, et al. An epidemiologic study comparing fetal exposure to tobacco smoke in three Southeast Asian countries. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008;14:257-62 pubmed
    ..This study determined fetal exposure to tobacco smoke by meconium analysis for cotinine in 3 locations in SEA: Bulacan Province, Philippines (N=316), Bangkok, Thailand (N=106) and ..
  31. Copeland D, St Peter S, Sharp S, Islam S, Cuenca A, Tolleson J, et al. Diminishing role of contrast enema in simple meconium ileus. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:2130-2 pubmed publisher
    Contrast enema is the initial study of choice for simple meconium ileus to confirm diagnosis and to relieve obstruction...
  32. van der Doef H, Kokke F, van der Ent C, Houwen R. Intestinal obstruction syndromes in cystic fibrosis: meconium ileus, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, and constipation. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2011;13:265-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium ileus at birth, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), and constipation are an interrelated group of intestinal obstruction syndromes with a variable severity of obstruction that occurs in cystic fibrosis patients...
  33. Munck A, Gérardin M, Alberti C, Ajzenman C, Lebourgeois M, Aigrain Y, et al. Clinical outcome of cystic fibrosis presenting with or without meconium ileus: a matched cohort study. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1556-60 pubmed
    ..the nutritional and the pulmonary long-term outcomes of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients presenting a history of meconium ileus (MI) with early-diagnosed symptomatic CF without MI (non-MI)...
  34. Mshvildadze M, Neu J, Shuster J, Theriaque D, Li N, Mai V. Intestinal microbial ecology in premature infants assessed with non-culture-based techniques. J Pediatr. 2010;156:20-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Microbial DNA was detected in meconium, suggesting an intrauterine origin...
  35. Jawaheer J, Khalil B, Plummer T, Bianchi A, Morecroft J, Rakoczy G, et al. Primary resection and anastomosis for complicated meconium ileus: a safe procedure?. Pediatr Surg Int. 2007;23:1091-3 pubmed
    Various options are available for the surgical treatment of meconium ileus (MI). This paper examines the use of resection and primary anastomosis as the favoured option for the treatment of complicated meconium ileus...
  36. Smith V, Schäppi M, Bisset W, Kiparissi F, Jaffe A, Milla P, et al. Lymphocytic leiomyositis and myenteric ganglionitis are intrinsic features of cystic fibrosis: studies in distal intestinal obstruction syndrome and meconium ileus. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Full-thickness terminal ileal tissues from 6 children with CF and severe DIOS, 6 infants with complicated meconium ileus (MI), and 6 children with non-CF intestinal atresia were studied...
  37. van Ierland Y, de Beaufort A. Why does meconium cause meconium aspiration syndrome? Current concepts of MAS pathophysiology. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:617-20 pubmed publisher
    One in every 7 pregnancies ends with meconium-stained amniotic fluid and approximately 5% of these infants develop the meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)...
  38. Hutson J, Rao C, Fulga N, Aleksa K, Koren G. An improved method for rapidly quantifying fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium suitable for prenatal alcohol screening. Alcohol. 2011;45:193-9 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, and elevated levels of FAEE in meconium are a useful biomarker for heavy prenatal alcohol exposure...
  39. Peterson J, Kirchner H, Xue W, Minnes S, Singer L, Bearer C. Fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium are associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes to two years of age. J Pediatr. 2008;152:788-92 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relationship between fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium and neurodevelopment in infants exposed to alcohol in utero at 6.5 months, 1 year, and 2 years of age...
  40. Roehsig M, de Paula D, Moura S, Diniz E, Yonamine M. Determination of eight fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci. 2010;33:2115-22 pubmed publisher
    A number of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) have recently been detected in meconium samples. Several of these FAEEs have been evaluated as possible biomarkers for in utero ethanol exposure...
  41. Sun L, Rommens J, Corvol H, Li W, Li X, Chiang T, et al. Multiple apical plasma membrane constituents are associated with susceptibility to meconium ileus in individuals with cystic fibrosis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:562-9 pubmed publisher
    Variants associated with meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis were identified in 3,763 affected individuals by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Five SNPs at two loci near SLC6A14 at Xq23-24 (minimum P = 1...
  42. Kato K, Silva M, Needham L, Calafat A. Quantifying phthalate metabolites in human meconium and semen using automated off-line solid-phase extraction coupled with on-line SPE and isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2006;78:6651-5 pubmed
    ..mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in human meconium and in semen. First, we used off-line SPE to remove interfering proteins and other biomolecules from the samples...
  43. Littner Y, Cudd T, O Riordan M, Cwik A, Bearer C. Elevated fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium of sheep fetuses exposed in utero to ethanol--a new animal model. Pediatr Res. 2008;63:164-8 pubmed
    Specific fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium of newborns have been shown to correlate with maternal ethanol exposure. An animal model is needed to assess the validity of this biomarker...
  44. Ameh N, Ameh E. Timing of passage of first meconium and stooling pattern in normal Nigerian newborns. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009;29:129-33 pubmed publisher
    The time of passing meconium and the subsequent stooling pattern is an important marker in the diagnosis of colonic motility problems in newborns, particularly in Hirschsprung's disease (HD)...
  45. Henry J, Baker R, Yanowitz T. The in utero passage of meconium by very low birth weight infants: a marker for adverse outcomes. J Perinatol. 2006;26:125-9 pubmed
    To determine the incidence of in utero meconium passage and the rate of associated complications among VLBW infants.
  46. Ochs M, Schüttler M, Stichtenoth G, Herting E. Morphological alterations of exogenous surfactant inhibited by meconium can be prevented by dextran. Respir Res. 2006;7:86 pubmed
    Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome...
  47. Mokry J, Mokra D, Antosova M, Bulikova J, Calkovska A, Nosalova G. Dexamethasone alleviates meconium-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and lung inflammation in rabbits. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006;41:55-60 pubmed
    ..dexamethasone on in vitro airway reactivity associated with lung inflammation were investigated in rabbits with meconium aspiration...
  48. Ojha R, Singh S, Batra S, Sreenivas V, Puliyel J. Lactate: creatinine ratio in babies with thin meconium staining of amniotic fluid. BMC Pediatr. 2006;6:13 pubmed
    ACOG states meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) as one of the historical indicators of perinatal asphyxia. Thick meconium along with other indicators is used to identify babies with severe intrapartum asphyxia...
  49. Brien J, Chan D, Green C, Iqbal U, Gareri J, Kobus S, et al. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure and increased concentration of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium of term fetal Guinea pig. Ther Drug Monit. 2006;28:345-50 pubmed
    ..Increased concentration of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in the meconium of the newborn may be a biomarker of prenatal ethanol exposure...
  50. Haiden N, Jilma B, Gerhold B, Klebermass K, Prusa A, Kuhle S, et al. Small volume enemas do not accelerate meconium evacuation in very low birth weight infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007;44:270-3 pubmed
    We hypothesized that small volume enemas accelerate meconium evacuation in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants...
  51. Koshinaga T, Inoue M, Ohashi K, Sugito K, Ikeda T, Tomita R. Therapeutic strategies of meconium obstruction of the small bowel in very-low-birthweight neonates. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:338-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium obstruction without cystic fibrosis in low-birthweight neonates is a distinct clinical entity...
  52. Pichini S, Marchei E, Vagnarelli F, Tarani L, Raimondi F, Maffucci R, et al. Assessment of prenatal exposure to ethanol by meconium analysis: results of an Italian multicenter study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence of prenatal exposure to ethanol by determining fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs; palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic esters) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in neonatal meconium samples.
  53. Arnoldi R, Leva E, Macchini F, Di Cesare A, Colnaghi M, Fumagalli M, et al. Delayed meconium passage in very low birth weight infants. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2011;21:395-8 pubmed publisher
    Delayed meconium passage, typical of premature newborns, is a predisposing condition for bowel perforation with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality.
  54. Bearer C, Santiago L, O Riordan M, Buck K, Lee S, Singer L. Fatty Acid ethyl esters: quantitative biomarkers for maternal alcohol consumption. J Pediatr. 2005;146:824-30 pubmed
    ..To develop a laboratory marker to identify newborns exposed to alcohol...
  55. Sherif N, Kamel S, Al Ashkar O, Sharaki O, Seif E, Hegazy E. Detection of cotinine in neonate meconium as a marker for nicotine exposure in utero. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:96-105 pubmed
    Neonate meconium cotinine level was evaluated as a marker of prenatal exposure to nicotine from tobacco smoking by mothers...
  56. Zagariya A, Bhat R, Navale S, Chari G, Vidyasagar D. Inhibition of meconium-induced cytokine expression and cell apoptosis by pretreatment with captopril. Pediatrics. 2006;117:1722-7 pubmed
    To study whether pretreatment of newborn lungs by captopril inhibits meconium-induced lung injury and inflammatory cytokine expression.
  57. Williamson S, Jackson L, Skeoch C, Azzim G, Anderson R. Determination of the prevalence of drug misuse by meconium analysis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006;91:F291-2 pubmed
    In a pilot study to determine the local prevalence of maternal drug misuse, meconium from 400 infants was analysed for metabolites of eight controlled drugs. Cannabinoids were found in 13.25%, cocaine in 2.75%, and amphetamine in 1.75%...
  58. Angert R, Pilon A, Chester D, Davis J. CC10 reduces inflammation in meconium aspiration syndrome in newborn piglets. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:684-8 pubmed
    Complications from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) remain significant despite a variety of therapeutic interventions...
  59. Burd L, Hofer R. Biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure: a critical review of fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2008;82:487-93 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was a review of published studies utilizing measurement of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in meconium as biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure.
  60. Romi H, Cohen I, Landau D, Alkrinawi S, Yerushalmi B, Hershkovitz R, et al. Meconium ileus caused by mutations in GUCY2C, encoding the CFTR-activating guanylate cyclase 2C. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:893-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium ileus, intestinal obstruction in the newborn, is caused in most cases by CFTR mutations modulated by yet-unidentified modifier genes...
  61. Pichini S, Pellegrini M, Gareri J, Koren G, Garcia Algar O, Vall O, et al. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium: assessment of prenatal exposure to alcohol in two European cohorts. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008;48:927-33 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium emerged as a reliable, direct biological marker for establishing fetal exposure to ethanol...
  62. Gray T, Lagasse L, Smith L, Derauf C, Grant P, Shah R, et al. Identification of prenatal amphetamines exposure by maternal interview and meconium toxicology in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) study. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31:769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal self-reported drug use and/or meconium toxicology results defined drug exposure status...
  63. Siddiqui M, Drewett M, Burge D. Meconium obstruction of prematurity. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2012;97:F147-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium obstruction of prematurity is an entity primarily affecting very low birthweight or extremely low birthweight babies causing low intestinal obstruction...
  64. Hilgendorff A, Doerner M, Rawer D, Leick J, Trotter A, Ebsen M, et al. Effects of a recombinant surfactant protein-C-based surfactant on lung function and the pulmonary surfactant system in a model of meconium aspiration syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:203-10 pubmed
    b>Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) remains a relevant cause of neonatal respiratory failure and is characterized by severe impairment of pulmonary gas exchange, surfactant inactivation, and pronounced inflammatory changes...
  65. Oyelese Y, Culin A, Ananth C, Kaminsky L, Vintzileos A, Smulian J. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid across gestation and neonatal acid-base status. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:345-9 pubmed
    To estimate whether the acid-base status of neonates born to women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid varies across gestation.
  66. Das A, Jana N, DasGupta S, Samanta B. Intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007;97:182-6 pubmed
    ..the rates of cesarean deliveries and perinatal outcome following intrapartum transcervical amnioinfusion in women with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) in a setting with no electronic fetal monitoring or specialized neonatal care.
  67. Basu D, Thornton J. Abdominal dystocia in a case of undetected intrauterine meconium peritonitis due to cystic fibrosis. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2007;47:72-3 pubmed
    ..Dystocia due to massive abdominal distension complicated the second stage. The newborn girl had meconium peritonitis with colonic perforation and required colonic resection with colostomy...
  68. Zangheri G, Andreani M, Ciriello E, Urban G, Incerti M, Vergani P. Fetal intra-abdominal calcifications from meconium peritonitis: sonographic predictors of postnatal surgery. Prenat Diagn. 2007;27:960-3 pubmed
    To study the relationship between prenatal ultrasound features and postnatal course of meconium peritonitis.
  69. Kohler E, Avenarius S, Rabsilber A, Gerloff C, Jorch G. Assessment of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure by determining nicotine and its metabolites in meconium. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2007;26:535-44 pubmed
    b>Meconium samples collected from 115 neonates were analysed for nicotine, cotinine and trans -3-hydroxycotinine (OH-cotinine) by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify prenatal smoke exposure...
  70. Shinohara T, Tsuda M, Koyama N. Management of meconium-related ileus in very low-birthweight infants. Pediatr Int. 2007;49:641-4 pubmed
    Although administration of a water-soluble contrast enema has been recognized to be effective for meconium-related ileus, there have been no definitive management guidelines for very low-birthweight infants.
  71. Islam S, Soldes O, Ruiz R, Geiger J. Primary colonic congenital infantile fibrosarcoma presenting as meconium peritonitis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:621-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of this tumor arising from the left colon in a newborn presenting with an intrauterine perforation and meconium peritonitis.
  72. Pelizzo G, Codrich D, Zennaro F, Dell oste C, Maso G, D Ottavio G, et al. Prenatal detection of the cystic form of meconium peritonitis: no issues for delayed postnatal surgery. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:1061-5 pubmed publisher
    Prenatal ultrasound (US) diagnosis and postnatal outcome are reviewed in three babies with the complex form of meconium peritonitis (MP), the cystic type. Perinatal management is discussed...
  73. Vidyasagar D, Zagariya A. Studies of meconium-induced lung injury: inflammatory cytokine expression and apoptosis. J Perinatol. 2008;28 Suppl 3:S102-7 pubmed publisher
    To review current literature related to cellular mechanisms of meconium-induced lung injury (MILI). Review of published experimental in vitro and in vivo MAS studies using human and animal lung cells...
  74. Danzer E, Ernst L, Rintoul N, Johnson M, Adzick N, Flake A. In utero meconium passage in fetuses and newborns with myelomeningocele. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2009;3:141-6 pubmed publisher
    The authors retrospectively investigated whether midgestational fetal myelomeningocele (fMMC) repair alters intrauterine meconium exposure.
  75. Marin S, Keith L, Merrell M, McMillin G. Comparison of drugs of abuse detection in meconium by EMIT II and ELISA. J Anal Toxicol. 2009;33:148-54 pubmed
    The results of meconium specimens and fortified samples screened for drugs of abuse by both enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT((R) )II) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods were compared...
  76. Efrati O, Nir J, Fraser D, Cohen Cymberknoh M, Shoseyov D, Vilozni D, et al. Meconium ileus in patients with cystic fibrosis is not a risk factor for clinical deterioration and survival: the Israeli Multicenter Study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50:173-8 pubmed publisher
    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) presenting with meconium ileus (MI) tend to have worse outcomes than those without MI...
  77. Moller M, Karaskov T, Koren G. Opioid detection in maternal and neonatal hair and meconium: characterization of an at-risk population and implications to fetal toxicology. Ther Drug Monit. 2010;32:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..From June 2007 to January 2009, 563 neonatal hair and 1318 meconium specimens were assessed for opioids and were positive in 11.4% and 17.0%, respectively...
  78. Gray T, Eiden R, Leonard K, Connors G, Shisler S, Huestis M. Nicotine and metabolites in meconium as evidence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and predictors of neonatal growth deficits. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12:658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing meconium, the first neonatal feces, for tobacco biomarkers offers objective evidence of prenatal tobacco exposure...
  79. Montgomery D, Plate C, Alder S, Jones M, Jones J, Christensen R. Testing for fetal exposure to illicit drugs using umbilical cord tissue vs meconium. J Perinatol. 2006;26:11-4 pubmed
    We assessed the agreement of testing for fetal exposure to illicit drugs contrasting paired specimens of meconium vs umbilical cord tissue.
  80. Wong A, Toh C, Lien R, Chao A, Wong H, Ng K. Prenatal MR imaging of a meconium pseudocyst extending to the right subphrenic space with right lung compression. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:1208-11 pubmed
    b>Meconium pseudocyst results from a loculated inflammation occurring in response to spillage of meconium into the peritoneal cavity after a bowel perforation...
  81. Shono T, Taguchi T, Suita S, Nakanami N, Nakano H. Prenatal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of congenital cloacal anomalies associated with meconium peritonitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:681-4 pubmed
    ..We herein describe the characteristic prenatal US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the cloacal malformations associated with meconium peritonitis.
  82. Velaphi S, Vidyasagar D. The pros and cons of suctioning at the perineum (intrapartum) and post-delivery with and without meconium. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;13:375-82 pubmed publisher
    ..ONPS is performed to remove lung fluid, meconium, or other secretions from the airway, thereby improving oxygenation and/or preventing aspiration...
  83. Kacinko S, Jones H, Johnson R, Choo R, Huestis M. Correlations of maternal buprenorphine dose, buprenorphine, and metabolite concentrations in meconium with neonatal outcomes. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;84:604-12 pubmed publisher
    For the first time, relationships among maternal buprenorphine dose, meconium buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations, and neonatal outcomes are reported...
  84. Gunn J, Sweeney B, Dahn T, Bell S, Newhouse R, Terrell A. Simultaneous quantification of amphetamine and methamphetamine in meconium using ISOLUTE HM-N-supported liquid extraction columns and GC-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 2008;32:485-90 pubmed
    A procedure is described for the rapid extraction and quantification of amphetamine and methamphetamine from meconium using ISOLUTE HM-N-supported liquid extraction columns and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
  85. Lee Y, Chen C. Meconium pseudocyst: a classical and successfully treated case. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:247-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium peritonitis with pseudocyst formation is rare and can be lethal. We report a newborn infant with antenatal sonographic diagnosis of bowel dilatation and giant meconium pseudocyst...
  86. Pichini S, Morini L, Marchei E, Palmi I, Rotolo M, Vagnarelli F, et al. Ethylglucuronide and ethylsulfate in meconium to assess gestational ethanol exposure: preliminary results in two Mediterranean cohorts. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;16:e370-5 pubmed
    In recent years, fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium emerged as reliable, direct biological markers for establishing gestational ethanol exposure...
  87. Abubakar A, Odelola M, Bode C, Sowande A, Bello M, Chinda J, et al. Meconium peritonitis in Nigerian children. Ann Afr Med. 2008;7:187-91 pubmed
    b>Meconium peritonitis is a rare disease with a fatal outcome. In Nigeria and Africa, there are only the occasional case reports on the subject matter.
  88. Launiainen T, Nupponen I, Halmesmaki E, Ojanpera I. Meconium drug testing reveals maternal misuse of medicinal opioids among addicted mothers. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5:529-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Meconium drug testing is a non-invasive method to detect prenatal drug exposure, which can cause severe problems for the infant, indicating the need for follow-up measures to ensure the welfare of the child...
  89. Morini L, Marchei E, Tarani L, Trivelli M, Rapisardi G, Elicio M, et al. Testing ethylglucuronide in maternal hair and nails for the assessment of fetal exposure to alcohol: comparison with meconium testing. Ther Drug Monit. 2013;35:402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of ethylglucuronide (EtG) in alternative biological matrices, including neonatal and maternal hair, neonatal meconium, and maternal nails, is receiving increasing interest for the accurate evaluation of the in utero exposure to ..
  90. Moles L, Gomez M, Heilig H, Bustos G, Fuentes S, de Vos W, et al. Bacterial diversity in meconium of preterm neonates and evolution of their fecal microbiota during the first month of life. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66986 pubmed publisher
    ..communities in infants may have a profound impact in their health, but information about the composition of meconium microbiota and its evolution in hospitalized preterm infants is scarce...
  91. Ortega García J, Carrizo Gallardo D, Ferris i Tortajada J, García M, Grimalt J. Meconium and neurotoxicants: searching for a prenatal exposure timing. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:642-6 pubmed
    Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) has been a subject of interest in recent years, given their potential neurotoxicity. Meconium is easily available and accumulates neurotoxicants and/or metabolites from the 12th week of gestation.
  92. Nagar H. Meconium ileus--is a single surgical procedure adequate?. Asian J Surg. 2006;29:161-4 pubmed
    b>Meconium ileus is one of the gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF), and affects 15% of neonates. The condition results from the accumulation of sticky inspissated meconium...