gingival crevicular fluid

Summary

Summary: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)

Top Publications

  1. Bostanci N, Heywood W, Mills K, Parkar M, Nibali L, Donos N. Application of label-free absolute quantitative proteomics in human gingival crevicular fluid by LC/MS E (gingival exudatome). J Proteome Res. 2010;9:2191-9 pubmed publisher
    Periodontal disease is perhaps the most common infectious disease in humans. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a local inflammatory exudate of the periodontal tissues...
  2. Barbieri G, Solano P, Alarcon J, Vernal R, Ríos Lugo J, Sanz M, et al. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in gingival crevicular fluid during early orthodontic tooth movement. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteopontin (OPN), and transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of teeth subjected to orthodontic forces...
  3. Emingil G, Gürkan A, Atilla G, Kantarci A. Subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline and cytokine-chemokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid. J Periodontol. 2011;82:452-61 pubmed publisher
    ..doxycycline (SDD) on the local inflammatory response through cytokine and chemokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from patients with chronic periodontitis...
  4. Tsuchida S, Satoh M, Umemura H, Sogawa K, Kawashima Y, Kado S, et al. Proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid for discovery of novel periodontal disease markers. Proteomics. 2012;12:2190-202 pubmed publisher
    The protein composition of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) may reflect the pathophysiology of periodontal diseases...
  5. Rai B, Kaur J, Catalina M. Bone mineral density, bone mineral content, gingival crevicular fluid (matrix metalloproteinases, cathepsin K, osteocalcin), and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels in human mandible and alveolar bone under conditions of simulated microgravity. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:385-90 pubmed
    ..bone mineral content; matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, cathepsin K, and osteocalcin levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF); and salivary and serum osteocalcin levels in normal healthy men and women under conditions of ..
  6. Tymkiw K, Thunell D, Johnson G, Joly S, Burnell K, Cavanaugh J, et al. Influence of smoking on gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in severe chronic periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:219-28 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of 22 chemokines and cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and periodontally healthy control subjects...
  7. Bathena S, Huang J, Nunn M, Miyamoto T, Parrish L, Lang M, et al. Quantitative determination of lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) in human saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by LC-MS/MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011;56:402-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and validated to quantify LPA species (LPA 18:0, LPA 16:0, LPA 18:1 and LPA 20:4) in human saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF)...
  8. Reinhardt R, Stoner J, Golub L, Lee H, Nummikoski P, Sorsa T, et al. Association of gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers during periodontal maintenance with subsequent progressive periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2010;81:251-9 pubmed publisher
    The analysis of biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) may be helpful in forecasting patient vulnerability to future attachment loss...
  9. Corbi S, Anovazzi G, Finoti L, Kim Y, Capela M, Secolin R, et al. Haplotypes of susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in the Interleukin 8 gene do not influence protein level in the gingival crevicular fluid. Arch Oral Biol. 2012;57:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..aim of the study was to investigate whether the IL8 haplotype ATC/TTC was associated with the volume of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), the concentration of interleukin IL-8 in the GCF, as well as periodontal conditions in patients ..

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Pradeep A, Raghavendra N, Prasad M, Kathariya R, Patel S, Sharma A. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum visfatin concentration: their relationship in periodontal health and disease. J Periodontol. 2011;82:1314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of visfatin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum samples and to find out their association, if any...
  2. Dommisch H, Vorderwülbecke S, Eberhard J, Steglich M, Jepsen S. SELDI-TOF-MS of gingival crevicular fluid--a methodological approach. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:803-9 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) technology and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyze gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples...
  3. Sorsa T, Hernandez M, Leppilahti J, Munjal S, Netuschil L, Mäntylä P. Detection of gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 levels with different laboratory and chair-side methods. Oral Dis. 2010;16:39-45 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to compare four methods for gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 detection...
  4. Vitkov L, Klappacher M, Hannig M, Krautgartner W. Neutrophil fate in gingival crevicular fluid. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2010;34:25-30 pubmed publisher
    ..and confocal laser scanning microscopy were employed to analyze purulent crevicular exudate and gingival crevicular fluid in periodontitis...
  5. Pradeep A, Daisy H, Hadge P. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in periodontal health and disease. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:503-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Its increased gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels in periodontal disease have been reported in previous studies...
  6. Laaksonen M, Salo T, Vardar Sengul S, Atilla G, Saygan B, Simmer J, et al. Gingival crevicular fluid can degrade Emdogain and inhibit Emdogain-induced proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to find out whether gingival crevicular fluid or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) could degrade EMD, and whether this degradation has consequences for ..
  7. Teles R, Sakellari D, Konstantinidis A, Socransky S, Haffajee A. Application of the checkerboard immunoblotting technique to the quantification of host biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid. J Periodontol. 2009;80:447-56 pubmed
    ..CBIB) technique for the high-throughput quantification of multiple inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples...
  8. Akalin F, Baltacioğlu E, Alver A, Karabulut E. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid in pregnant women with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2009;80:457-67 pubmed
    ..In this study, serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) total AO capacity (TAOC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme concentrations in pregnant patients ..
  9. Asikainen S, Dogan B, Turgut Z, Paster B, Bodur A, Oscarsson J. Specified species in gingival crevicular fluid predict bacterial diversity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13589 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples may give information of unattached (planktonic) subgingival bacteria. Our study represents the first one targeting the identity of bacteria in GCF...
  10. Tüter G, Serdar M, Kurtis B, Walker S, Atak A, Toyman U, et al. Effects of scaling and root planing and subantimicrobial dose doxycycline on gingival crevicular fluid levels of matrix metalloproteinase-8, -13 and serum levels of HsCRP in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of subantimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) in conjunction with scaling and root planing (SRP) on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -13 and on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-..
  11. Surlin P, Rauten A, Mogoanta L, Siloşi I, Oprea B, Pirici D. Correlations between the gingival crevicular fluid MMP8 levels and gingival overgrowth in patients with fixed orthodontic devices. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2010;51:515-9 pubmed
    Levels of metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) in gingival crevicular fluid were studied in case of treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances...
  12. Sakiyama Y, Kato R, Inoue S, Suzuki K, Itabe H, Yamamoto M. Detection of oxidized low-density lipoproteins in gingival crevicular fluid from dental patients. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gingival crevicular fluid, the exudate from gingival tissues into the sulci, can be easily collected in a non-invasive manner...
  13. Marcaccini A, Amato P, Leão F, Gerlach R, Ferreira J. Myeloperoxidase activity is increased in gingival crevicular fluid and whole saliva after fixed orthodontic appliance activation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2010;138:613-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine MPO activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva (whole stimulated saliva) of orthodontic patients at different time points after fixed ..
  14. Anil S, Preethanath R, Alasqah M, Mokeem S, Anand P. Increased levels of serum and gingival crevicular fluid monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in smokers with periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2013;84:e23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Estimation of serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) MCP levels could be a reliable indicator of periodontal disease activity...
  15. Capelli J, Kantarci A, Haffajee A, Teles R, Fidel R, Figueredo C. Matrix metalloproteinases and chemokines in the gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:705-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) provides a non-invasive method to assess longitudinally the release of inflammatory mediators ..
  16. Machtei E, Younis M. The use of 2 antibiotic regimens in aggressive periodontitis: comparison of changes in clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers. Quintessence Int. 2008;39:811-9 pubmed
    ..GCF (gingival crevicular fluid) samples were collected and assayed for PGE(2), IL-1beta, and TNFalpha...
  17. Perinetti G, Franchi L, Castaldo A, Contardo L. Gingival crevicular fluid protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity in relation to pubertal growth phase. Angle Orthod. 2012;82:1047-52 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) protein content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in growing subjects in relation to stages of skeletal maturation, ie, the growth phase, as prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal...
  18. Yetkin Ay Z, Sutcu R, Uskun E, Bozkurt F, Berker E. The impact of the IL-11:IL-17 ratio on the chronic periodontitis pathogenesis: a preliminary report. Oral Dis. 2009;15:93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to determine the total amount, concentration and ratio of interleukin (IL)-11 and IL-17 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients...
  19. Petković A, Matić S, Stamatović N, Vojvodić D, Todorović T, Lazić Z, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) and chemokines (IL-8 and MIP-1alpha) as markers of peri-implant tissue condition. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Positive correlation was noted in the control group between IL-1beta and TNF-alpha and between MIP-1alpha and IL-8 in the group with early mucositis. The results suggest that cytokines could be prognostic markers of implant failure. ..
  20. Offenbacher S, Barros S, Mendoza L, Mauriello S, Preisser J, Moss K, et al. Changes in gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory mediator levels during the induction and resolution of experimental gingivitis in humans. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:324-33 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study is to characterize the changes in 33 biomarkers within the gingival crevicular fluid during the 3-week induction and 4-week resolution of stent-induced, biofilm overgrowth mediated, experimental gingivitis in ..
  21. Pradeep A, Kathariya R, Raghavendra N, Sharma A. Levels of pentraxin-3 in gingival crevicular fluid and plasma in periodontal health and disease. J Periodontol. 2011;82:734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a classic pentraxin, C-reactive protein, and its association with various systemic diseases is well documented in the periodontal literature, there is no data on PTX3 to our knowledge...
  22. Duarte P, De Mendonça A, Máximo M, Santos V, Bastos M, Nociti F. Effect of anti-infective mechanical therapy on clinical parameters and cytokine levels in human peri-implant diseases. J Periodontol. 2009;80:234-43 pubmed
    ..05). The proposed anti-infective therapies may locally modulate the levels of TNF-alpha and the OPG/RANKL ratio and improve clinical parameters around peri-implant tissues. ..
  23. Zhang S, Tian F, Jiang X, Li J, Xu C, Guo X, et al. Evidence for calcifying nanoparticles in gingival crevicular fluid and dental calculus in periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1462-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether CNPs are present in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from subjects with periodontal disease and whether they can induce the pathologic calcification of ..
  24. Trombelli L, Scapoli C, Carrieri A, Giovannini G, Calura G, Farina R. Interleukin-1 beta levels in gingival crevicular fluid and serum under naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:697-704 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in either naturally occurring (N-O) or experimentally induced (E-I) plaque-associated gingivitis...
  25. Baliban R, Sakellari D, Li Z, DiMaggio P, Garcia B, Floudas C. Novel protein identification methods for biomarker discovery via a proteomic analysis of periodontally healthy and diseased gingival crevicular fluid samples. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:203-12 pubmed publisher
    To identify possible novel biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy individuals using high-throughput proteomic analysis...
  26. Kardesler L, Buduneli N, Cetinkalp S, Lappin D, Kinane D. Gingival crevicular fluid IL-6, tPA, PAI-2, albumin levels following initial periodontal treatment in chronic periodontitis patients with or without type 2 diabetes. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:143-51 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate initial periodontal treatment effects on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2), albumin levels in type 2 diabetic patients...
  27. de Oliveira R, Schwartz Filho H, Novaes A, Garlet G, de Souza R, Taba M, et al. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: cytokine profile in gingival crevicular fluid, preliminary results. J Periodontol. 2009;80:98-105 pubmed
    ..The aim of this trial was to investigate cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with aggressive periodontitis, after treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT) or ..
  28. Yamaguchi M, Takizawa T, Nakajima R, Imamura R, Kasai K. The Damon System and release of substance P in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement in adults. World J Orthod. 2009;10:141-6 pubmed
    ..One of these neuropeptides, substance P (SP), a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), may exponentiate the inflammatory process during orthodontic tooth movement...
  29. Pradeep A, Priyanka N, Prasad M, Kalra N, Kumari M. Association of progranulin and high sensitivity CRP concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in chronic periodontitis subjects with and without obesity. Dis Markers. 2012;33:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..presence of progranulin (PGRN) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs CRP) levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find an association, if any...
  30. Vitkov L, Klappacher M, Hannig M, Krautgartner W. Extracellular neutrophil traps in periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:664-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of neutrophil extracellular traps and crevicular exudate outflow appears to be a 'novel' defense mechanism for the clearance of crevicular bacteria in chronic periodontitis. ..
  31. Carneiro L, Venuleo C, Oppenheim F, Salih E. Proteome data set of human gingival crevicular fluid from healthy periodontium sites by multidimensional protein separation and mass spectrometry. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:248-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Gingival crevicular fluid has been of major interest for many decades as a valuable body fluid that may serve as a source of biomarkers for both periodontal and systemic diseases...
  32. Teles R, Sakellari D, Teles F, Konstantinidis A, Kent R, Socransky S, et al. Relationships among gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers, clinical parameters of periodontal disease, and the subgingival microbiota. J Periodontol. 2010;81:89-98 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were to measure levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers and subgingival bacterial species in periodontally healthy subjects and subjects with periodontitis to explore the relationships among ..
  33. Twetman S, Derawi B, Keller M, Ekstrand K, Yucel Lindberg T, Stecksen Blicks C. Short-term effect of chewing gums containing probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri on the levels of inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid. Acta Odontol Scand. 2009;67:19-24 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of a chewing gum containing probiotic bacteria on gingival inflammation and the levels of selected inflammatory mediators in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
  34. Salvi G, Franco L, Braun T, Lee A, Rutger Persson G, Lang N, et al. Pro-inflammatory biomarkers during experimental gingivitis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a proof-of-concept study. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:9-16 pubmed publisher
    To compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarker levels and microbial distribution in plaque biofilm (SP) samples for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) versus healthy subjects without diabetes during experimental gingivitis (EG).
  35. Baser U, Cekici A, Tanrikulu Kucuk S, Kantarci A, Ademoglu E, Yalcin F. Gingival inflammation and interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in gingival crevicular fluid during the menstrual cycle. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1983-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This longitudinal and prospective study aims to investigate clinical and laboratory markers of gingival inflammation in women at different phases during their menstrual cycles...
  36. Gursoy M, Kononen E, Gürsoy U, Tervahartiala T, Pajukanta R, Sorsa T. Periodontal status and neutrophilic enzyme levels in gingival crevicular fluid during pregnancy and postpartum. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1790-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates the relationship between neutrophilic enzymes in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and periodontal status during pregnancy and postpartum.
  37. van Gastel J, Teughels W, Quirynen M, Struyf S, Van Damme J, Coucke W, et al. Longitudinal changes in gingival crevicular fluid after placement of fixed orthodontic appliances. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139:735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..research were to monitor microbiologic and periodontal changes after placement of orthodontic attachments over a 1-year period and to link these changes to alterations in cytokine concentrations in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF).
  38. Yakob M, Kari K, Tervahartiala T, Sorsa T, Söder P, Meurman J, et al. Associations of periodontal microorganisms with salivary proteins and MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39:256-63 pubmed publisher
    We investigated in subjects with and without periodontitis, the levels of certain salivary proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), in relation to the presence of specific periodontal pathogens.
  39. Raghavendra N, Pradeep A, Kathariya R, Sharma A, Rao N, Naik S. Effect of non surgical periodontal therapy on gingival crevicular fluid and serum visfatin concentration in periodontal health and disease. Dis Markers. 2012;32:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Visfatin concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis, and to evaluate the effect of non-surgical ..
  40. Bolamperti L, Montanari P, Levrini L, Macchi A, Tagliabue A, Caprioglio A. Tissue response during self-ligating treatment. Prog Orthod. 2012;13:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Self-ligating brackets are able to minimize the sliding resistance and to reduce the forces necessary to move a tooth, with a better tissue response...
  41. Yue Y, Liu Q, Xu C, Loo W, Wang M, Wen G, et al. Comparative evaluation of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis. Int J Biol Markers. 2013;28:108-12 pubmed publisher
    This study aims to evaluate and compare cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) before and after treatment.
  42. Lu R, Meng H, Gao X, Feng L, Xu L. [Analysis of short chain fatty acids in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with aggressive periodontitis]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008;43:664-7 pubmed
    To investigate 7 short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to analyze the relationship between levels of SCFA and AgP clinical parameters.
  43. Bildt M, Bloemen M, Kuijpers Jagtman A, Von den Hoff J. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate differences in MMP and TIMP levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at the resorption and apposition sides of orthodontically moved teeth, and to compare these with ..
  44. Turkoglu O, Emingil G, Kutukculer N, Atilla G. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of cathelicidin LL-37 and interleukin-18 in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2009;80:969-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of cathelicidin LL-37 and IL-18 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis...
  45. Pradeep A, Daisy H, Hadge P, Garg G, Thorat M. Correlation of gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-18 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in periodontal health and disease. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was carried out to examine the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of IL-18 and MCP-1 in periodontal health and disease and to evaluate any correlation ..
  46. Ngo L, Veith P, Chen Y, Chen D, Darby I, Reynolds E. Mass spectrometric analyses of peptides and proteins in human gingival crevicular fluid. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:1683-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a pathophysiological fluid that flows into the oral cavity...
  47. Turkoglu O, Emingil G, Kutukculer N, Atilla G. Evaluation of gingival crevicular fluid adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptide 1-3 levels of patients with different periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2010;81:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study is to investigate the levels of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) adrenomedullin and human neutrophil peptides 1 through 3 (HNP1-3) in patients with different ..
  48. Sakellari D, Menti S, Konstantinidis A. Free soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappab ligand in gingival crevicular fluid correlates with distinct pathogens in periodontitis patients. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:938-43 pubmed
  49. Inzitari R, Cabras T, Pisano E, Fanali C, Manconi B, Scarano E, et al. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of oral human fluids reveals that gingival crevicular fluid is the main source of oral thymosins beta(4) and beta(10). J Sep Sci. 2009;32:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid revealed high relative amounts of Tbeta(4), Tbeta(4) sulfoxide, and Tbeta(10) in all the samples...
  50. Buduneli N, Buduneli E, Kutukculer N. Interleukin-17, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin levels in gingival crevicular fluid from smoking and non-smoking patients with chronic periodontitis during initial periodontal treatment. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1274-80 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of initial periodontal treatment on the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-17, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), and ..
  51. Dilsiz A, Kilic N, Aydin T, Ates F, Zihni M, Bulut C. Leptin levels in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement. Angle Orthod. 2010;80:504-8 pubmed publisher
    To test if leptin can be detected in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) around moving teeth, and to determine whether any changes occur during orthodontic tooth movement.
  52. Wei D, Zhang X, Wang Y, Yang C, Chen G. Lipid peroxidation levels, total oxidant status and superoxide dismutase in serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in chronic periodontitis patients before and after periodontal therapy. Aust Dent J. 2010;55:70-8 pubmed publisher
  53. Megson E, Fitzsimmons T, Dharmapatni K, Bartold P. C-reactive protein in gingival crevicular fluid may be indicative of systemic inflammation. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:797-804 pubmed publisher
    Periodontitis is associated with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) in both serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Although the liver is the primary source of CRP, extra-hepatic production of CRP has been reported...
  54. Sharma A, Pradeep A, Raghavendra N, Arjun P, Kathariya R. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum cystatin c levels in periodontal health and disease. Dis Markers. 2012;32:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was designed to assess the concentration of CSTC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum, to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease...
  55. Kamma J, Mombelli A, Tsinidou K, Vasdekis V, Giannopoulou C. Cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid of adolescents and young adults. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:7-10 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of the cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-4, and IL-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of adolescents and young adults.
  56. Iwasaki L, Chandler J, Marx D, Pandey J, Nickel J. IL-1 gene polymorphisms, secretion in gingival crevicular fluid, and speed of human orthodontic tooth movement. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009;12:129-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate genetic, biologic, and mechanical factors that affect speed of human tooth movement. Setting and Sample Population - Sixty-six maxillary canines in 33 subjects were translated distally for 84 days...
  57. Grant M, Creese A, Barr G, Ling M, Scott A, Matthews J, et al. Proteomic analysis of a noninvasive human model of acute inflammation and its resolution: the twenty-one day gingivitis model. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:4732-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have analyzed gingival crevicular fluid, an oral fluid comprising a serum transudate and tissue exudates, by LC-MS/MS using Fourier transform ..
  58. Esen C, Alkan B, Kirnap M, Akgul O, Isikoglu S, Erel O. The effects of chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis on serum and gingival crevicular fluid total antioxidant/oxidant status and oxidative stress index. J Periodontol. 2012;83:773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of both CP and RA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases with regard to antioxidant and oxidant status...
  59. Perinetti G, Baccetti T, Di Leonardo B, Di Lenarda R, Contardo L. Dentition phase and chronological age in relation to gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity in growing subjects. Prog Orthod. 2011;12:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been shown to be a reliable biomarker of skeletal ..
  60. Chaudhari A, Byakod G, Waghmare P, Karhadkar V. Correlation of levels of interleukin-1? in gingival crevicular fluid to the clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2011;12:52-9 pubmed
    ..Another objective of this study was to correlate IL-1? levels with the clinical parameters of the periodontal disease progression...
  61. Gupta G. Gingival crevicular fluid as a periodontal diagnostic indicator--I: Host derived enzymes and tissue breakdown products. J Med Life. 2012;5:390-7 pubmed
    ..supporting tissues during chronic periodontitis and highlights the potential array of biomarkers present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), which may relate to existing or predicted tissue regions undergoing metabolic change.
  62. Turkoglu O, Becerik S, Emingil G, Kutukculer N, Baylas H, Atilla G. The effect of adjunctive chlorhexidine mouthrinse on clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid cytokine levels in untreated plaque-associated gingivitis. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effectiveness of chlorhexidine mouthrinse (CHX) in addition to daily plaque control on gingival inflammation...
  63. Andriankaja O, Barros S, Moss K, Panagakos F, DeVizio W, Beck J, et al. Levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6 and gingival crevicular fluid of IL-1beta and prostaglandin E(2) among non-smoking subjects with gingivitis and type 2 diabetes. J Periodontol. 2009;80:307-16 pubmed
  64. Sanders A, Slade G, Fitzsimmons T, Bartold P. Physical activity, inflammatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2009;36:388-95 pubmed publisher
  65. Biyikoğlu B, Buduneli N, Kardesler L, Aksu K, Pitkala M, Sorsa T. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 and -13 and TIMP-1 levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2009;80:1307-14 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to compare gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -13 and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemically healthy ..
  66. Srinath R, Acharya A, Thakur S. Salivary and gingival crevicular fluid melatonin in periodontal health and disease. J Periodontol. 2010;81:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to detect the presence of melatonin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and to assess the levels of salivary and GCF melatonin in periodontal disease and show the ..
  67. Brajović G, Stefanović G, Ilic V, Petrović S, Stefanović N, Nikolić Jakoba N, et al. Association of fibronectin with hypogalactosylated immunoglobulin G in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study focuses on the possible interaction between FN and IgG present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy controls, with the aim to determine whether ..
  68. Ribeiro F, De Mendonça A, Santos V, Bastos M, Figueiredo L, Duarte P. Cytokines and bone-related factors in systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis and patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2011;82:1187-96 pubmed publisher
    This study compares the levels of cytokines and bone-related factors in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of systemically healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (CP); and better-controlled, and poorly controlled patients with type ..
  69. Fujita Y, Ito H, Sekino S, Numabe Y. Correlations between pentraxin 3 or cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid and clinical parameters of chronic periodontitis. Odontology. 2012;100:215-21 pubmed publisher
    The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains various biomarkers, such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and IL-10, among others...
  70. Becerik S, Afacan B, Oztürk V, Atmaca H, Emingil G. Gingival crevicular fluid calprotectin, osteocalcin and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptid levels in health and different periodontal diseases. Dis Markers. 2011;31:343-52 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) calprotectin, osteocalcin and cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) levels in health along with different periodontal diseases.
  71. Becerik S, Oztürk V, Atmaca H, Atilla G, Emingil G. Gingival crevicular fluid and plasma acute-phase cytokine levels in different periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1304-13 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to investigate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and plasma acute-phase cytokines, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-11 (IL-11), oncostatin M (OSM), and leukemia inhibitory factor (..
  72. Yamazaki Kubota T, Miyamoto M, Sano Y, Kusumoto M, Yonezu T, Sugita K, et al. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8 and MMP-2) activity in gingival crevicular fluid from children with Down's syndrome. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify the relationship between Down's syndrome and periodontitis, we investigated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and detection of periodontopathic bacteria from subgingival plaque.
  73. Hernandez M, Gamonal J, Tervahartiala T, Mäntylä P, Rivera O, Dezerega A, et al. Associations between matrix metalloproteinase-8 and -14 and myeloperoxidase in gingival crevicular fluid from subjects with progressive chronic periodontitis: a longitudinal study. J Periodontol. 2010;81:1644-52 pubmed publisher
    ..and degree of activation of MMP-8 and -14, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from patients with progressive periodontitis at baseline and after periodontal therapy.
  74. Ehlers V, Willershausen I, Kraft J, Munzel T, Willershausen B. Gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8-concentrations in patients after acute myocardial infarction. Head Face Med. 2011;7:1 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of matrix metalloproteinase-8 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
  75. Guentsch A, Kramesberger M, Sroka A, Pfister W, Potempa J, Eick S. Comparison of gingival crevicular fluid sampling methods in patients with severe chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2011;82:1051-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Rgps are an important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the exact concentration of which in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) has not been quantified.
  76. Pradeep A, Prapulla D, Sharma A, Sujatha P. Gingival crevicular fluid and serum vascular endothelial growth factor: their relationship in periodontal health, disease and after treatment. Cytokine. 2011;54:200-4 pubmed publisher
    The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) correlate well with clinical parameters of periodontal disease...
  77. Giannopoulou C, Cappuyns I, Cancela J, Cionca N, Mombelli A. Effect of photodynamic therapy, diode laser, and deep scaling on cytokine and acute-phase protein levels in gingival crevicular fluid of residual periodontal pockets. J Periodontol. 2012;83:1018-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study is to compare the local biologic effects of PDT, diode soft laser (DSL) therapy, and conventional deep scaling and root planing (SRP) in residual pockets...
  78. Laugisch O, Schacht M, Guentsch A, Kantyka T, Sroka A, Stennicke H, et al. Periodontal pathogens affect the level of protease inhibitors in gingival crevicular fluid. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2012;27:45-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the level of selected protease inhibitors in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in relation to periodontal infection...
  79. Hiroshima Y, Bando M, Inagaki Y, Mihara C, Kataoka M, Murata H, et al. Resistin in gingival crevicular fluid and induction of resistin release by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide in human neutrophils. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:554-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify resistin in human gingival crevicular fluid, to compare the resistin levels in gingival crevicular fluid between subjects with and without ..
  80. Ngo L, Darby I, Veith P, Locke A, Reynolds E. Mass spectrometric analysis of gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers can predict periodontal disease progression. J Periodontal Res. 2013;48:331-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Gingival crevicular fluid has been suggested as a possible source of biomarkers for periodontal disease progression...
  81. Jiang Z, Cui Y, Gao R, Li Y, Fu Z, Zhang B, et al. Study of TNF-?, IL-1? and LPS levels in the gingival crevicular fluid of a rat model of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. Dis Markers. 2013;34:295-304 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we sought to investigate the dynamic changes in the levels of TNF-?, IL-1? and LPS in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in a rat model of diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis (PD)...
  82. Silva Boghossian C, Colombo A, Tanaka M, Rayo C, Xiao Y, Siqueira W. Quantitative proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid in different periodontal conditions. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75898 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the proteome composition of the GCF in periodontal health (HH) and in sites with different clinical conditions in chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects...
  83. Thunell D, Tymkiw K, Johnson G, Joly S, Burnell K, Cavanaugh J, et al. A multiplex immunoassay demonstrates reductions in gingival crevicular fluid cytokines following initial periodontal therapy. J Periodontal Res. 2010;45:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the effect of initial periodontal therapy on gingival crevicular fluid levels of a comprehensive panel of cytokines and chemokines, including several less extensively studied ..
  84. Grenier G, Gagnon G, Grenier D. Detection of herpetic viruses in gingival crevicular fluid of patients suffering from periodontal diseases: prevalence and effect of treatment. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:506-9 pubmed publisher
    ..prevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples obtained from periodontally healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis patients...
  85. Marcaccini A, Meschiari C, Zuardi L, de Sousa T, Taba M, Teofilo J, et al. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-2, and MPO decrease after periodontal therapy. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP)-8, tissue Inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and MMP-9 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients and controls at baseline and 3 months after non-surgical ..
  86. Tyrovola J, Perrea D, Halazonetis D, Dontas I, Vlachos I, Makou M. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:299-311 pubmed
    ..study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model...
  87. Perinetti G, Baccetti T, Contardo L, Di Lenarda R. Gingival crevicular fluid alkaline phosphatase activity as a non-invasive biomarker of skeletal maturation. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2011;14:44-50 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in growing subjects in relation to the stages of individual skeletal maturation.
  88. Kaner D, Bernimoulin J, Dietrich T, Kleber B, Friedmann A. Calprotectin levels in gingival crevicular fluid predict disease activity in patients treated for generalized aggressive periodontitis. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of calprotectin in gingival crevicular fluid correlate with periodontal disease severity and treatment outcome...
  89. Kido J, Bando M, Hiroshima Y, Iwasaka H, Yamada K, Ohgami N, et al. Analysis of proteins in human gingival crevicular fluid by mass spectrometry. J Periodontal Res. 2012;47:488-99 pubmed publisher
    b>Gingival crevicular fluid is a bodily fluid transuded from periodontal tissues into the gingival crevice and periodontal pocket, and contains many species of components...
  90. Celebi A, Demirer S, Catalbas B, Arikan S. Effect of ovarian activity on orthodontic tooth movement and gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-1? and prostaglandin E(2) in cats. Angle Orthod. 2013;83:70-5 pubmed publisher
    ..whether there is any correlation between ovarian activity and two potent bone-resorbing mediators (prostaglandin E(2) [PGE(2)], interleukin-1? [IL-1?]) secreted from the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement.
  91. Bostanci N, Ramberg P, Wahlander A, Grossman J, Jönsson D, Barnes V, et al. Label-free quantitative proteomics reveals differentially regulated proteins in experimental gingivitis. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:657-78 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the sequential protein expression in gingival crevicular fluid samples during the induction (I) and resolution (R) of experimental gingivitis...
  92. Tsuchida S, Satoh M, Kawashima Y, Sogawa K, Kado S, Sawai S, et al. Application of quantitative proteomic analysis using tandem mass tags for discovery and identification of novel biomarkers in periodontal disease. Proteomics. 2013;13:2339-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is extracted from the gingival sulcus and pocket...