polyribosomes

Summary

Summary: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Brenet F, Socci N, Sonenberg N, Holland E. Akt phosphorylation of La regulates specific mRNA translation in glial progenitors. Oncogene. 2009;28:128-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, La appears to be an important contributor to Akt-mediated translational regulation of these transcripts in murine glial cells...
  2. Xu N, Segerman B, Zhou X, Akusjarvi G. Adenovirus virus-associated RNAII-derived small RNAs are efficiently incorporated into the rna-induced silencing complex and associate with polyribosomes. J Virol. 2007;81:10540-9 pubmed
    ..Potentially, they function as miRNAs, regulating translation of cellular mRNAs. In support of this hypothesis, we detected a fraction of the VA RNAII-derived mivaRNAs on polyribosomes.
  3. Afonina Z, Myasnikov A, Khabibullina N, Belorusova A, Menetret J, Vasiliev V, et al. Topology of mRNA chain in isolated eukaryotic double-row polyribosomes. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2013;78:445-54 pubmed publisher
    In the process of protein synthesis, the translating ribosomes of eukaryotic cells form polyribosomes that are found to be multiplex functional complexes possessing elements of ordered spatial organization...
  4. Damgaard C, Lykke Andersen J. Translational coregulation of 5'TOP mRNAs by TIA-1 and TIAR. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2057-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This presents a fundamental example of how a group of mRNAs can be translationally coregulated in response to changes in the cellular environment...
  5. Henderson A, Hershey J. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 5A stimulates protein synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This discrepancy is discussed...
  6. Perlewitz A, Nafz B, Skalweit A, Fähling M, Persson P, Thiele B. Aldosterone and vasopressin affect {alpha}- and {gamma}-ENaC mRNA translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5746-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoprecipitation and UV-crosslinking analysis of ?-ENaC-mRNA/HuR complexes document the significance of ?-ENaC-mRNA-3'-UTR/HuR interaction for hormonal control of ENaC synthesis...
  7. Hu W, Sweet T, Chamnongpol S, Baker K, Coller J. Co-translational mRNA decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature. 2009;461:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that dissociation of ribosomes from mRNA is not a prerequisite for decay and we suggest that the 5'-3' polarity of mRNA degradation has evolved to ensure that the last translocating ribosome can complete translation...
  8. Darnell J, Fraser C, Mostovetsky O, Darnell R. Discrimination of common and unique RNA-binding activities among Fragile X mental retardation protein paralogs. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3164-77 pubmed publisher
    ..kcRNA was able to displace FXR1P and FXR2P from polyribosomes as it does for FMRP, and this displacement was FMRP-independent...
  9. Powley I, Kondrashov A, Young L, Dobbyn H, Hill K, Cannell I, et al. Translational reprogramming following UVB irradiation is mediated by DNA-PKcs and allows selective recruitment to the polysomes of mRNAs encoding DNA repair enzymes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1207-20 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications62

  1. Brandt F, Etchells S, Ortiz J, Elcock A, Hartl F, Baumeister W. The native 3D organization of bacterial polysomes. Cell. 2009;136:261-71 pubmed publisher
  2. Bianchini A, Loiarro M, Bielli P, Busà R, Paronetto M, Loreni F, et al. Phosphorylation of eIF4E by MNKs supports protein synthesis, cell cycle progression and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2279-88 pubmed publisher
  3. Weber C, Nover L, Fauth M. Plant stress granules and mRNA processing bodies are distinct from heat stress granules. Plant J. 2008;56:517-30 pubmed publisher
    ..SGs and PBs can be clearly discriminated from the previously described heat stress granules (HSGs), which evidently do not contain mRNPs. Thus, the role of HSGs as putative mRNP storage sites must be revised...
  4. Mollet S, Cougot N, Wilczynska A, Dautry F, Kress M, Bertrand E, et al. Translationally repressed mRNA transiently cycles through stress granules during stress. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4469-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, most arrested mRNAs are located outside stress granules. Overall, these kinetic data do not support a direct role of stress granules neither as storage site nor as intermediate location before degradation...
  5. Amrani N, Ghosh S, Mangus D, Jacobson A. Translation factors promote the formation of two states of the closed-loop mRNP. Nature. 2008;453:1276-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the termination factors is independent of a termination event. ..
  6. Hesling C, Oliveira C, Castilho B, Zanchin N. The Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome associated protein interacts with HsNip7 and its down-regulation affects gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:4180-95 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SBDS is required for accurate expression of genes important for proper brain, skeletal, and blood cell development...
  7. Rivera C, Lloyd R. Modulation of enteroviral proteinase cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) by conformation and PABP-associated factors. Virology. 2008;375:59-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The results further elucidate complex mechanisms where multiple inherent PABP conformations and protein and RNA interactions both serve to differentially regulate PABP cleavage by 3CD, 3C(pro) and 2A(pro)...
  8. Lee B, Udagawa T, Singh C, Asano K. Yeast phenotypic assays on translational control. Methods Enzymol. 2007;429:105-37 pubmed
    ..Different amino acid analogs or amino acid enzyme inhibitors are used to study Gcd(-) or Gcn(-) phenotypes. The method of polysome profiling is also described to gain an ultimate "phenotypic" proof for translation defects...
  9. Melamed D, Arava Y. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA polysomal profiles with spotted DNA microarrays. Methods Enzymol. 2007;431:177-201 pubmed
    ..We then provide a detailed protocol for analysis of polysomal fractions using spotted DNA microarrays...
  10. Tuxworth W, Shiraishi H, Moschella P, Yamane K, McDermott P, Kuppuswamy D. Translational activation of 5'-TOP mRNA in pressure overload myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol. 2008;103:41-53 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our in vitro studies indicate that distinct pathways are operational during the early course of hypertrophic growth and converge to activate mTOR resulting in the translational activation of 5'-TOP mRNA...
  11. Ramírez Valle F, Braunstein S, Zavadil J, Formenti S, Schneider R. eIF4GI links nutrient sensing by mTOR to cell proliferation and inhibition of autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:293-307 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of mRNAs that were translationally impaired with eIF4GI depletion were excluded from polyribosomes due to the presence of multiple upstream open reading frames and low mRNA abundance...
  12. Picard F, Milhem H, Loubiere P, Laurent B, Cocaign Bousquet M, Girbal L. Bacterial translational regulations: high diversity between all mRNAs and major role in gene expression. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:528 pubmed publisher
    ..To experimentally explore mRNA translational level regulation at the systemic level, the detailed translational status (translatome) of all mRNAs was measured in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis in exponential phase growth...
  13. Iwaki A, Izawa S. Acidic stress induces the formation of P-bodies, but not stress granules, with mild attenuation of bulk translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J. 2012;446:225-33 pubmed publisher
  14. Felden B, Gillet R. SmpB as the handyman of tmRNA during trans-translation. RNA Biol. 2011;8:440-9 pubmed
  15. Unsworth H, Raguz S, Edwards H, Higgins C, Yague E. mRNA escape from stress granule sequestration is dictated by localization to the endoplasmic reticulum. FASEB J. 2010;24:3370-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for cell survival given that many membrane proteins, which are translated at the ER, have important roles in detoxification...
  16. VALASEK L, Szamecz B, Hinnebusch A, Nielsen K. In vivo stabilization of preinitiation complexes by formaldehyde cross-linking. Methods Enzymol. 2007;429:163-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, different conditions for displaying the polysome profile or PIC analysis by SDC, used to address different questions, will be outlined...
  17. Van Dyke N, Pickering B, Van Dyke M. Stm1p alters the ribosome association of eukaryotic elongation factor 3 and affects translation elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6116-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ribosomes with increased levels of Stm1p exhibit decreased association with eEF3. Taken together, our data indicate that Stm1p plays a complementary role to eEF3 in translation...
  18. Koritzinsky M, Wouters B. Hypoxia and regulation of messenger RNA translation. Methods Enzymol. 2007;435:247-73 pubmed
    ..We have emphasized the qualitative and quantitative analysis of polysome profiles, which can yield interesting information regarding the mechanistic basis for (gene-specific) translational regulation...
  19. Weaver B, Dufner Beattie J, Kambe T, Andrews G. Novel zinc-responsive post-transcriptional mechanisms reciprocally regulate expression of the mouse Slc39a4 and Slc39a5 zinc transporters (Zip4 and Zip5). Biol Chem. 2007;388:1301-12 pubmed
    ..After zinc-gavage, ZIP5 is rapidly resynthesized and targeted to the basolateral membranes of these cell types...
  20. Bechara E, Didiot M, Melko M, Davidovic L, Bensaid M, Martin P, et al. A novel function for fragile X mental retardation protein in translational activation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e16 pubmed publisher
  21. Noll H. The discovery of polyribosomes. Bioessays. 2008;30:1220-34 pubmed publisher
  22. Grosso S, Volta V, Sala L, Vietri M, Marchisio P, Ron D, et al. PKCbetaII modulates translation independently from mTOR and through RACK1. Biochem J. 2008;415:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results of the present study show that PKCbetaII can act as a specific PKC isoform regulating translation, in an mTOR-independent fashion, possibly close to the ribosomal machinery...
  23. Kong Y, Cannell I, de Moor C, Hill K, Garside P, Hamilton T, et al. The mechanism of micro-RNA-mediated translation repression is determined by the promoter of the target gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data establish a link between the nuclear history of an mRNA and the mechanism of miRNA-mediated translational regulation in the cytoplasm...
  24. Asp E, Nilsson D, Sunnerhagen P. Fission yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 interacts with translation factors. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:328-38 pubmed
  25. Kopeina G, Afonina Z, Gromova K, Shirokov V, Vasiliev V, Spirin A. Step-wise formation of eukaryotic double-row polyribosomes and circular translation of polysomal mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2476-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Removal or replacements of 5' and 3' UTRs affected the initial phase of translation, but did not prevent the formation of the double-row polysomes during translation...
  26. Branco Price C, Kaiser K, Jang C, Larive C, Bailey Serres J. Selective mRNA translation coordinates energetic and metabolic adjustments to cellular oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2008;56:743-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia stress and reoxygenation promoted adjustments in the levels of polyribosomes (polysomes) that were highly coordinated with cellular ATP content...
  27. Regmi S, Rothberg K, Hubbard J, Ruben L. The RACK1 signal anchor protein from Trypanosoma brucei associates with eukaryotic elongation factor 1A: a role for translational control in cytokinesis. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:724-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The synergy between anisomycin and TbRACK1 RNAi suggests that continued translation is required for complete ingression of the cleavage furrow...
  28. Kramer S, Queiroz R, Ellis L, Webb H, Hoheisel J, Clayton C, et al. Heat shock causes a decrease in polysomes and the appearance of stress granules in trypanosomes independently of eIF2(alpha) phosphorylation at Thr169. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3002-14 pubmed publisher
  29. Graber T, Hébert Seropian S, Khoutorsky A, David A, Yewdell J, Lacaille J, et al. Reactivation of stalled polyribosomes in synaptic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..in situ evidence supporting an alternative model in which synaptic mRNAs are transported as stably paused polyribosomes. Remarkably, we show that metabotropic glutamate receptor activation allows the synthesis of proteins that ..
  30. Melamed D, Pnueli L, Arava Y. Yeast translational response to high salinity: global analysis reveals regulation at multiple levels. RNA. 2008;14:1337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Since a relatively small number of genes was affected by Hog1p deletion, additional signaling pathways are likely to be involved in coordinating the translational response to severe salinity stress...
  31. Tsai Morris C, Sato H, Gutti R, Dufau M. Role of gonadotropin regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/Ddx25) on polysomal associated mRNAs in mouse testis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32470 pubmed publisher
    ..from nucleus to cytoplasmic sites of meiotic and haploid germ cells and associates with actively translating polyribosomes. It is also a negative regulator of steroidogenesis in Leydig cells...
  32. Sammons M, Samir P, Link A. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gis2 interacts with the translation machinery and is orthogonal to myotonic dystrophy type 2 protein ZNF9. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:13-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Gis2 is functionally orthologous to ZNF9 and acts as a cap-independent translation factor...
  33. Jiao Y, Meyerowitz E. Cell-type specific analysis of translating RNAs in developing flowers reveals new levels of control. Mol Syst Biol. 2010;6:419 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we identified a new class of noncoding RNAs associated with polysomes. Findings from our profiling lead to new hypotheses in the understanding of flower development...
  34. Sheets M, Fritz B, Hartley R, Zhang Y. Polyribosome analysis for investigating mRNA translation in Xenopus oocytes, eggs and embryos. Methods. 2010;51:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..assay of an mRNA's translational state is polyribosome association; mRNAs actively translated are engaged with polyribosomes while mRNAs translationally repressed are not...
  35. Matsuura H, Ishibashi Y, Shinmyo A, Kanaya S, Kato K. Genome-wide analyses of early translational responses to elevated temperature and high salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:448-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the importance of dynamic changes in mRNA translation, which include selective translation and extensive repression of a subset of transcripts, in plant abiotic stress responses...
  36. Blackwell E, Zhang X, Ceman S. Arginines of the RGG box regulate FMRP association with polyribosomes and mRNA. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that PRMT1 methylates FMRP in cells, suggesting a model where methylation of the RGG box modulates either the quantity or the identity of the RNAs bound by FMRP...
  37. Ohn T, Kedersha N, Hickman T, Tisdale S, Anderson P. A functional RNAi screen links O-GlcNAc modification of ribosomal proteins to stress granule and processing body assembly. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of enzymes of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in budding yeast may contribute to differences between mammalian SGs and related yeast EGP (eIF4E, 4G and Pab1 containing) bodies...
  38. Balagopal V, Parker R. Polysomes, P bodies and stress granules: states and fates of eukaryotic mRNAs. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2009;21:403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss how these different granules suggest a dynamic model for the metabolism of cytoplasmic mRNAs wherein they cycle between different mRNP states with different functional properties and subcellular locations...
  39. Anderson P, Kedersha N. RNA granules: post-transcriptional and epigenetic modulators of gene expression. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009;10:430-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that RNA granules can be both a cause and a consequence of altered mRNA translation, decay or editing. In this capacity, RNA granules serve as key modulators of post-transcriptional and epigenetic gene expression...
  40. Clarkson B, Gilbert W, Doudna J. Functional overlap between eIF4G isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9114 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that total eIF4G levels, but not isoform-specific functions, determine mRNA-specific translational efficiency...
  41. Ostroff L, Cain C, Bedont J, Monfils M, LeDoux J. Fear and safety learning differentially affect synapse size and dendritic translation in the lateral amygdala. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..There were more polyribosomes and multivesicular bodies throughout the dendrites from fear conditioned rats, indicating increases in both ..
  42. Rasouly A, Schonbrun M, Shenhar Y, Ron E. YbeY, a heat shock protein involved in translation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that YbeY is an important factor for bacterial translation even at 37 degrees C but becomes essential at high temperatures...
  43. Suzuki Y, Makino A. Availability of Rubisco small subunit up-regulates the transcript levels of large subunit for stoichiometric assembly of its holoenzyme in rice. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the availability of RBCS protein up-regulates the gene expression of rbcL primarily at the transcript level in a quantitative manner for stoichiometric assembly of Rubisco holoenzyme...
  44. Darnell J, Van Driesche S, Zhang C, Hung K, Mele A, Fraser C, et al. FMRP stalls ribosomal translocation on mRNAs linked to synaptic function and autism. Cell. 2011;146:247-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they provide insight into the molecular basis of the cognitive and allied defects in FXS and ASD and suggest multiple targets for clinical intervention...
  45. Alekhina O, Vassilenko K, Spirin A. Translation of non-capped mRNAs in a eukaryotic cell-free system: acceleration of initiation rate in the course of polysome formation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6547-59 pubmed
    ..The eIF4F-mediated circularization of polysomes may be considered as a possible event that leads to the re-initiation switch and the resultant acceleration effect...
  46. Mortimer S, Xu D, McGrew D, Hamaguchi N, Lim H, Bowne S, et al. IMP dehydrogenase type 1 associates with polyribosomes translating rhodopsin mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that both IMPDH type 1 (IMPDH1) and IMPDH type 2 are associated with polyribosomes, suggesting that these housekeeping proteins have an unanticipated role in translation regulation...
  47. Myasnikov A, Afonina Z, Klaholz B. Single particle and molecular assembly analysis of polyribosomes by single- and double-tilt cryo electron tomography. Ultramicroscopy. 2013;126:33-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is illustrated by the analysis of eukaryotic polyribosomes in which individual ribosomes were reconstructed using single-tilt, partial and full double-tilt geometries...
  48. Sharma A, Chowdhury D. Stochastic theory of protein synthesis and polysome: ribosome profile on a single mRNA transcript. J Theor Biol. 2011;289:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The theoretical framework developed here will serve in guiding further experiments and in analyzing the data to gain deep insight into various kinetic processes involved in translation...
  49. Blower M, Feric E, Weis K, Heald R. Genome-wide analysis demonstrates conserved localization of messenger RNAs to mitotic microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:1365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..laevis meiotic spindles, and a subset of microtubule-bound mRNAs (MT-mRNAs) associate with polyribosomes. Although many MT-mRNAs associate with polyribosomes, we find that active translation is not required for mRNA ..
  50. Sormani R, Delannoy E, Lageix S, Bitton F, Lanet E, Saez Vasquez J, et al. Sublethal cadmium intoxication in Arabidopsis thaliana impacts translation at multiple levels. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:436-47 pubmed publisher
  51. Zhang M, Fu W, Prabhu S, Moore J, Ko J, Kim J, et al. Inhibition of polysome assembly enhances imatinib activity against chronic myelogenous leukemia and overcomes imatinib resistance. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6496-509 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this work supports the inhibition of translation initiation as a therapeutic strategy for treating cancers fueled by dysregulated translation...
  52. Fähling M, Mrowka R, Steege A, Kirschner K, Benko E, Förstera B, et al. Translational regulation of the human achaete-scute homologue-1 by fragile X mental retardation protein. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified hASH1 as a novel downstream target of FMRP. Improved translation efficiency of hASH1 mRNA by FMRP may represent an important regulatory switch in neuronal differentiation...
  53. Lin C, Robert F, Sukarieh R, Michnick S, Pelletier J. The antidepressant sertraline inhibits translation initiation by curtailing mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that sertraline exerts antiproliferative activity by targeting the mTOR signaling pathway in a REDD1-dependent manner...