thylakoids

Summary

Summary: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.

Top Publications

  1. Haferkamp S, Haase W, Pascal A, van Amerongen H, Kirchhoff H. Efficient light harvesting by photosystem II requires an optimized protein packing density in Grana thylakoids. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17020-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Slight dilution of the protein packing from 80% area fraction to the value found in intact grana thylakoids (70%) leads to an improved functionality of PSII (increased antenna size, enhanced connectivity between reaction ..
  2. Sirpiö S, Suorsa M, Aro E. Analysis of thylakoid protein complexes by two-dimensional electrophoretic systems. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;775:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Critical points in all protocols are addressed and representative examples of the composition of Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membrane protein complexes are shown...
  3. Checchetto V, Segalla A, Allorent G, La Rocca N, Leanza L, Giacometti G, et al. Thylakoid potassium channel is required for efficient photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11043-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data shed light on the function of a prokaryotic potassium channel and reports evidence, by means of a genetic approach, on the requirement of a thylakoid ion channel for optimal photosynthesis...
  4. Bohler S, Sergeant K, Hoffmann L, Dizengremel P, Hausman J, Renaut J, et al. A difference gel electrophoresis study on thylakoids isolated from poplar leaves reveals a negative impact of ozone exposure on membrane proteins. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:3003-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be the result of oxidative processes on chloroplast proteins but could also be a way to down-regulate photochemical reactions in response to an inhibition in Calvin cycle activity...
  5. Yamamoto H, Peng L, Fukao Y, Shikanai T. An Src homology 3 domain-like fold protein forms a ferredoxin binding site for the chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase-like complex in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1480-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Although CRR31 can accumulate in thylakoids independently of NDH, its accumulation requires CRRJ, and CRRL accumulation depends on CRRJ and NDH...
  6. Johnson M, Goral T, Duffy C, Brain A, Mullineaux C, Ruban A. Photoprotective energy dissipation involves the reorganization of photosystem II light-harvesting complexes in the grana membranes of spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1468-79 pubmed publisher
    ..It is demonstrated that these changes occur rapidly and reversibly within 5 min of illumination and dark relaxation, are dependent on ?pH, and are enhanced by the deepoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin...
  7. Gabilly S, Kropat J, Karamoko M, Page M, Nakamoto S, Merchant S, et al. A novel component of the disulfide-reducing pathway required for cytochrome c assembly in plastids. Genetics. 2011;187:793-802 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that CCS4 might function to stabilize CCDA or regulate its activity...
  8. Kouril R, Oostergetel G, Boekema E. Fine structure of granal thylakoid membrane organization using cryo electron tomography. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The positions of individual dimeric PSII cores within an entire membrane layer indicates that about 23% supercomplexes must be of smaller size than full C(2)S(2)M(2) supercomplexes, to avoid overlap...
  9. Duffy C, Johnson M, Macernis M, Valkunas L, Barford W, Ruban A. A theoretical investigation of the photophysical consequences of major plant light-harvesting complex aggregation within the photosynthetic membrane. J Phys Chem B. 2010;114:15244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A(535) may therefore be considered a "marker of aggregation" between LHCII trimers upon qE formation...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Armbruster U, Zühlke J, Rengstl B, Kreller R, Makarenko E, Rühle T, et al. The Arabidopsis thylakoid protein PAM68 is required for efficient D1 biogenesis and photosystem II assembly. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3439-60 pubmed publisher
    ..PAM68 is a conserved integral membrane protein found in cyanobacterial and eukaryotic thylakoids and interacts in split-ubiquitin assays with several PSII core proteins and known PSII assembly factors...
  2. Albus C, Ruf S, Sch ttler M, Lein W, Kehr J, Bock R. Y3IP1, a nucleus-encoded thylakoid protein, cooperates with the plastid-encoded Ycf3 protein in photosystem I assembly of tobacco and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2838-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Y3IP1 represents a novel factor for PSI biogenesis that cooperates with the plastid genome-encoded Ycf3 in the assembly of stable PSI units in the thylakoid membrane...
  3. Ozawa S, Onishi T, Takahashi Y. Identification and characterization of an assembly intermediate subcomplex of photosystem I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20072-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We, thus, infer that PsaK and PsaG stabilize the association between PSI core and LHCI complexes and that PsaK and PsaG bind to the PSI core complex after the integration of LHCI in one of the last steps of PSI complex assembly...
  4. Zanetti M, Teardo E, La Rocca N, Zulkifli L, Checchetto V, Shijuku T, et al. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10118 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies...
  5. Wu H, Liu M, Lin T, Cheng Y. Structural and functional assays of AtTLP18.3 identify its novel acid phosphatase activity in thylakoid lumen. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1015-25 pubmed publisher
    ..3. Our structural and biochemical studies revealed that AtTLP18.3 has the molecular function of a novel acid phosphatase in the thylakoid lumen. DUF477 is accordingly renamed the thylakoid acid phosphatase domain...
  6. Rumak I, Gieczewska K, Kierdaszuk B, Gruszecki W, Mostowska A, Mazur R, et al. 3-D modelling of chloroplast structure under (Mg2+) magnesium ion treatment. Relationship between thylakoid membrane arrangement and stacking. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1736-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we showed that stacking processes always affect the structural changes of chloroplast as a whole...
  7. Wientjes E, van Amerongen H, Croce R. Quantum yield of charge separation in photosystem II: functional effect of changes in the antenna size upon light acclimation. J Phys Chem B. 2013;117:11200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained values for the efficiency of PSII are compared with the values of Fv/Fm, a parameter that is widely used to indicate the PSII quantum efficiency, and the observed differences are discussed. ..
  8. Tsiavos T, Ioannidis N, Kotzabasis K. Polyamines induce aggregation of LHC II and quenching of fluorescence in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:735-43 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of observations within this work, some links between polyamines and the activation of qE in vivo is discussed...
  9. Nagy G, Posselt D, Kovacs L, Holm J, Szabó M, Ughy B, et al. Reversible membrane reorganizations during photosynthesis in vivo: revealed by small-angle neutron scattering. Biochem J. 2011;436:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This non-invasive technique reveals light-induced reversible reorganizations in the seconds-to-minutes time scale, which appear to be associated with functional changes in vivo...
  10. Xiao J, Li J, Ouyang M, Yun T, He B, Ji D, et al. DAC is involved in the accumulation of the cytochrome b6/f complex in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1911-22 pubmed publisher
    ..DAC appears to be a novel factor involved in the assembly/stabilization of the cytochrome b(6)/f complex, possibly through interaction with the PetD protein...
  11. Benz J, Lintala M, Soll J, Mulo P, Bölter B. A new concept for ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase binding to plant thylakoids. Trends Plant Sci. 2010;15:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent progress has allowed us to revisit how FNR is bound to thylakoids and to revaluate the current view that only membrane-bound FNR is active in photosynthetic reactions...
  12. Austin J, Staehelin L. Three-dimensional architecture of grana and stroma thylakoids of higher plants as determined by electron tomography. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1601-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher-plant thylakoids are differentiated into two interconnected and functionally distinct domains, the photosystem II/light-..
  13. Yin L, Lundin B, Bertrand M, Nurmi M, Solymosi K, Kangasjärvi S, et al. Role of thylakoid ATP/ADP carrier in photoinhibition and photoprotection of photosystem II in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:666-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that TAAC plays a critical role in the disassembly steps during PSII repair and in addition may balance the trans-thylakoid electrochemical H(+) gradient storage...
  14. Pagliano C, Chimirri F, Saracco G, Marsano F, Barber J. One-step isolation and biochemical characterization of a highly active plant PSII monomeric core. Photosynth Res. 2011;108:33-46 pubmed publisher
    ..2009)...
  15. Croce R, van Amerongen H. Light-harvesting and structural organization of Photosystem II: from individual complexes to thylakoid membrane. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;104:142-53 pubmed publisher
    ..It is shown that it is still very difficult to combine all available results into one comprehensive picture...
  16. Posselt D, Nagy G, Kirkensgaard J, Holm J, Aagaard T, Timmins P, et al. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the ultrastructure of chloroplast thylakoid membranes - periodicity and structural flexibility of the stroma lamellae. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:1220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial...
  17. Batista Santos P, Lidon F, Fortunato A, Leitão A, Lopes E, Partelli F, et al. The impact of cold on photosynthesis in genotypes of Coffea spp.--photosystem sensitivity, photoprotective mechanisms and gene expression. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:792-806 pubmed publisher
    ..that could be exploited in breeding programs, which should be assisted by useful markers of cold tolerance, namely the upregulation of antioxidative molecules, the expression of selected genes and PSI sensitivity...
  18. Nevo R, Charuvi D, Tsabari O, Reich Z. Composition, architecture and dynamics of the photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants. Plant J. 2012;70:157-76 pubmed publisher
  19. Sinha R, Komenda J, Knoppová J, Sedlárová M, Pospisil P. Small CAB-like proteins prevent formation of singlet oxygen in the damaged photosystem II complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:806-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the formation of hydroxyl radicals was similar in both strains. Our results show that SCPs prevent (1)O(2) formation during PSII damage, most probably by the binding of free Chl released from the damaged PSII complexes...
  20. Rengstl B, Oster U, Stengel A, Nickelsen J. An intermediate membrane subfraction in cyanobacteria is involved in an assembly network for Photosystem II biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21944-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, formation of complexes containing both YCF48 and Sll0933 was substantiated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The findings are integrated into a refined model for PSII biogenesis in Synechocystis 6803...
  21. Belgio E, Johnson M, Jurić S, Ruban A. Higher plant photosystem II light-harvesting antenna, not the reaction center, determines the excited-state lifetime-both the maximum and the nonphotochemically quenched. Biophys J. 2012;102:2761-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ...
  22. Goral T, Johnson M, Duffy C, Brain A, Ruban A, Mullineaux C. Light-harvesting antenna composition controls the macrostructure and dynamics of thylakoid membranes in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;69:289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the presence of PsbS leads to an increase in the fluidity of the membrane, accelerating the re-organization of the photosystem II macrostructure that is necessary for induction of non-photochemical quenching...
  23. Romanowska E, Wasilewska W, Fristedt R, Vener A, Zienkiewicz M. Phosphorylation of PSII proteins in maize thylakoids in the presence of Pb ions. J Plant Physiol. 2012;169:345-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The PSII activity was not affected by Pb ions in mesophyll thylakoids, whereas in bundle sheath it was reduced...
  24. Sznee K, Dekker J, Dame R, van Roon H, Wuite G, Frese R. Jumping mode atomic force microscopy on grana membranes from spinach. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations illustrate the possibility for diffusion of proteins and smaller molecules within these densely packed membranes...
  25. Alte F, Stengel A, Benz J, Petersen E, Soll J, Groll M, et al. Ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase is recruited to thylakoids by binding to a polyproline type II helix in a pH-dependent manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruiting of FNR to the thylakoids could therefore represent a regulatory mechanism to adapt FNR availability/activity to photosynthetic electron ..
  26. Pesaresi P, Pribil M, Wunder T, Leister D. Dynamics of reversible protein phosphorylation in thylakoids of flowering plants: the roles of STN7, STN8 and TAP38. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the enzymes involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles in thylakoids, the protein kinases STN7 and STN8 and the phosphatase TAP38/PPH1, have been characterised in the model species ..
  27. Ruiz Pavón L, Karlsson P, Carlsson J, Samyn D, Persson B, Persson B, et al. Functionally important amino acids in the Arabidopsis thylakoid phosphate transporter: homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 2010;49:6430-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional characterization of ANTR1 should provide useful insights into the function of other plant and mammalian SLC17 homologous transporters...
  28. Gauthier A, Joly D, Boisvert S, Carpentier R. Period-four modulation of photosystem II primary quinone acceptor (Q(A)) reduction/oxidation kinetics in thylakoid membranes. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:1064-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, fluorescence induction kinetics was measured in isolated thylakoids with various initial S-state populations settled by preflashes...
  29. Gigolashvili T, Geier M, Ashykhmina N, Frerigmann H, Wulfert S, Krueger S, et al. The Arabidopsis thylakoid ADP/ATP carrier TAAC has an additional role in supplying plastidic phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to the cytosol. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4187-204 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein could be detected both in the plastid envelope membrane and in thylakoids, and it is present in plastids of autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues...
  30. Ma X, Cline K. Multiple precursor proteins bind individual Tat receptor complexes and are collectively transported. EMBO J. 2010;29:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply a novel aspect of Tat systems, whereby multiple precursor-binding sites can act in concert to transport an interlinked oligo-precursor protein...
  31. Beebo A, Mathai J, Schoefs B, Spetea C. Assessment of the requirement for aquaporins in the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts to sustain photosynthetic water oxidation. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:2083-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, arguments for their presence in the plant thylakoid membrane and beneficial action are presented...
  32. Busch A, Nield J, Hippler M. The composition and structure of photosystem I-associated antenna from Cyanidioschyzon merolae. Plant J. 2010;62:886-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the PSI antennae system of red algae represents an evolutionary intermediate between the prokaryotic cyanobacteria and other eukaryotes, such as green algae and vascular plants...
  33. Galka P, Santabarbara S, Khuong T, Degand H, Morsomme P, Jennings R, et al. Functional analyses of the plant photosystem I-light-harvesting complex II supercomplex reveal that light-harvesting complex II loosely bound to photosystem II is a very efficient antenna for photosystem I in state II. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2963-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast with the common opinion, we suggest that the mobile pool of LHCII may be considered an intimate part of the PSI antenna system that is displaced to PSII in State I...
  34. Feng W, Wang L, Lu Y, Wang X. A protein oxidase catalysing disulfide bond formation is localized to the chloroplast thylakoids. FEBS J. 2011;278:3419-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies may help to resolve some of the issues surrounding the structure and function of AtVKOR-DsbA in Arabidopsis chloroplasts...
  35. Lambrev P, Schmitt F, Kussin S, Schoengen M, Várkonyi Z, Eichler H, et al. Functional domain size in aggregates of light-harvesting complex II and thylakoid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1807:1022-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore our results imply that the physical size of an antenna system beyond the numbers of a functional domain size has little or no effect on improving the light-harvesting efficiency...
  36. de Bianchi S, Betterle N, Kouril R, Cazzaniga S, Boekema E, Bassi R, et al. Arabidopsis mutants deleted in the light-harvesting protein Lhcb4 have a disrupted photosystem II macrostructure and are defective in photoprotection. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2659-79 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that Lhcb4 is unique among photosystem II antenna proteins and determinant for photosystem II macro-organization and photoprotection...
  37. Tikkanen M, Aro E. Thylakoid protein phosphorylation in dynamic regulation of photosystem II in higher plants. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosystem II...
  38. Hamdani S, Yaakoubi H, Carpentier R. Polyamines interaction with thylakoid proteins during stress. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2011;104:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This could stabilize the conformation of proteins under various stresses. However, at high concentration of polyamines a strong inhibition of PSII activity is observed...
  39. Nickelsen J, Rengstl B, Stengel A, Schottkowski M, Soll J, Ankele E. Biogenesis of the cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane system--an update. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;315:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed model suggests that both biogenesis of protein complexes and insertion of chlorophyll molecules into the photosystems occur in this intermediate membrane system...
  40. Rowland J, Simon W, Nishiyama Y, Slabas A. Differential proteomic analysis using iTRAQ reveals changes in thylakoids associated with Photosystem II-acquired thermotolerance in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Proteomics. 2010;10:1917-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 we have established that thylakoids isolated from cells grown at 38 degrees C have a greater degree of thermotolerance than those isolated from ..
  41. Gabilly S, Dreyfuss B, Karamoko M, Corvest V, Kropat J, Page M, et al. CCS5, a thioredoxin-like protein involved in the assembly of plastid c-type cytochromes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29738-49 pubmed publisher
  42. Janik E, Bednarska J, Zubik M, Puzio M, Luchowski R, Grudzinski W, et al. Molecular architecture of plant thylakoids under physiological and light stress conditions: a study of lipid-light-harvesting complex II model membranes. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2155-70 pubmed publisher
  43. Nagy G, Kovacs L, Ünnep R, Zsiros O, Almásy L, Rosta L, et al. Kinetics of structural reorganizations in multilamellar photosynthetic membranes monitored by small-angle neutron scattering. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter. 2013;36:69 pubmed publisher
    ..We also present data from comparative measurements performed on thylakoid membranes isolated from tobacco. ..
  44. Goral T, Johnson M, Brain A, Kirchhoff H, Ruban A, Mullineaux C. Visualizing the mobility and distribution of chlorophyll proteins in higher plant thylakoid membranes: effects of photoinhibition and protein phosphorylation. Plant J. 2010;62:948-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that protein phosphorylation switches the membrane system to a more fluid state, thus facilitating the photosystem-II repair cycle...
  45. Herbstova M, Tietz S, Kinzel C, Turkina M, Kirchhoff H. Architectural switch in plant photosynthetic membranes induced by light stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The PSII repair cycle requires a brisk lateral protein traffic between stacked grana thylakoids and unstacked stroma lamellae that is challenged by the tight stacking and low protein mobility in grana...
  46. Daum B, Nicastro D, Austin J, McIntosh J, Kuhlbrandt W. Arrangement of photosystem II and ATP synthase in chloroplast membranes of spinach and pea. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1299-312 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that stroma and grana thylakoids are connected at the grana margins by staggered lamellar membrane protrusions...
  47. Wei L, Guo J, Ouyang M, Sun X, Ma J, Chi W, et al. LPA19, a Psb27 homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, facilitates D1 protein precursor processing during PSII biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these studies suggest that LPA19 is involved in facilitating the D1 precursor protein processing in Arabidopsis...
  48. Spetea C, Lundin B. Evidence for nucleotide-dependent processes in the thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts--an update. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:2946-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on recent findings, we provide here an updated view about the presence of nucleotides in the thylakoid lumen of plant chloroplasts, and their role in function and dynamics of photosynthetic complexes...
  49. Campos A, Carvajal Vallejos P, Villalobos E, Franco C, Almeida A, Coelho A, et al. Characterisation of Zea mays L. plastidial transglutaminase: interactions with thylakoid membrane proteins. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2010;12:708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in relation to the interaction between these proteins and the suggested role of the enzyme in thylakoid membrane organisation and photoprotection...
  50. Sinetova M, Kupriyanova E, Markelova A, Allakhverdiev S, Pronina N. Identification and functional role of the carbonic anhydrase Cah3 in thylakoid membranes of pyrenoid of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1817:1248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial...
  51. Rodrigues R, Silva Filho M, Cline K. FtsH2 and FtsH5: two homologous subunits use different integration mechanisms leading to the same thylakoid multimeric complex. Plant J. 2011;65:600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In chloroplast import assays, FtsH2 and FtsH5 were imported and subsequently integrated into thylakoids by a two-step processing mechanism that resulted in an amino-proximal lumenal domain, a single transmembrane ..
  52. Ioannidis N, Cruz J, Kotzabasis K, Kramer D. Evidence that putrescine modulates the higher plant photosynthetic proton circuit. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29864 pubmed publisher