muscle mitochondria

Summary

Summary: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.

Top Publications

  1. Treberg J, Quinlan C, Brand M. Hydrogen peroxide efflux from muscle mitochondria underestimates matrix superoxide production--a correction using glutathione depletion. FEBS J. 2010;277:2766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess this underestimate, we depleted matrix glutathione in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria by more than 90% as a consequence of pretreatment with 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB)...
  2. Seifert E, Estey C, Xuan J, Harper M. Electron transport chain-dependent and -independent mechanisms of mitochondrial H2O2 emission during long-chain fatty acid oxidation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we utilized several complementary approaches to probe the underlying mechanism(s). Using skeletal muscle mitochondria, our findings indicate that even a low supply of LCFA is associated with ROS formation in excess of that ..
  3. Lombardi A, Lanni A, de Lange P, Silvestri E, Grasso P, Senese R, et al. Acute administration of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine to hypothyroid rats affects bioenergetic parameters in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5911-6 pubmed
    ..As a whole, these results may provide a mechanism by which T2 rapidly affects energy metabolism in hypothyroid rats...
  4. Feng J, Xie H, Meany D, Thompson L, Arriaga E, Griffin T. Quantitative proteomic profiling of muscle type-dependent and age-dependent protein carbonylation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:1137-52 pubmed
    Carbonylation is a highly prevalent protein modification in skeletal muscle mitochondria, possibly contributing to its functional decline with age...
  5. Abdul Ghani M, Jani R, Chavez A, Molina Carrion M, Tripathy D, DeFronzo R. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation in obese non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic participants. Diabetologia. 2009;52:574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to measure mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production directly from skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from obese insulin-resistant non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic participants...
  6. Millay D, Sargent M, Osinska H, Baines C, Barton E, Vuagniaux G, et al. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of mitochondrial-dependent necrosis attenuates muscular dystrophy. Nat Med. 2008;14:442-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mitochondrial-dependent necrosis represents a prominent disease mechanism in muscular dystrophy, suggesting that inhibition of cyclophilin D could provide a new pharmacologic treatment strategy for these diseases...
  7. Parker N, Affourtit C, Vidal Puig A, Brand M. Energization-dependent endogenous activation of proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Biochem J. 2008;412:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and bongkrekate (considered specific for the adenine nucleotide translocase) was examined in skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild-type and Ucp3-knockout mice...
  8. Benton C, Holloway G, Campbell S, Yoshida Y, Tandon N, Glatz J, et al. Rosiglitazone increases fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) but not carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in rat muscle mitochondria. J Physiol. 2008;586:1755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these studies identify for the first time a mechanism by which rosiglitazone stimulates fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, namely the chronic, subcellular relocation of FAT/CD36 to mitochondria...
  9. Kuznetsov A, Veksler V, Gellerich F, Saks V, Margreiter R, Kunz W. Analysis of mitochondrial function in situ in permeabilized muscle fibers, tissues and cells. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:965-76 pubmed publisher
    ..As only a small amount of tissue is required for analysis, the protocol can be used in diagnostic settings in clinical studies. The permeabilization procedure and specific titration analysis can be completed in 2 h...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Phielix E, Schrauwen Hinderling V, Mensink M, Lenaers E, Meex R, Hoeks J, et al. Lower intrinsic ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration underlies in vivo mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle of male type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2008;57:2943-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of this reduction is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a lower intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity may underlie lower in vivo mitochondrial function observed in diabetic patients...
  2. Choi C, Befroy D, Codella R, Kim S, Reznick R, Hwang Y, et al. Paradoxical effects of increased expression of PGC-1alpha on muscle mitochondrial function and insulin-stimulated muscle glucose metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19926-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, caused activation of PKC, decreased insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation, and skeletal muscle insulin resistance...
  3. Pagel Langenickel I, Schwartz D, Arena R, Minerbi D, Johnson D, Waclawiw M, et al. A discordance in rosiglitazone mediated insulin sensitization and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content/activity in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2659-66 pubmed
    ..To test this, we evaluated skeletal muscle mitochondria and exercise capacity in Type 2 diabetic subjects with otherwise normal cardiopulmonary function in ..
  4. Malinska D, Kudin A, Debska Vielhaber G, Vielhaber S, Kunz W. Chapter 23 Quantification of superoxide production by mouse brain and skeletal muscle mitochondria. Methods Enzymol. 2009;456:419-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We substantiated previous evidence that most mitochondrial ROS are produced at complexes I and III of the respiratory chain and that the contribution of individual complexes to ROS production is tissue dependent...
  5. Goncalves R, Machado A, Paiva Silva G, Sorgine M, Momoli M, Oliveira J, et al. Blood-feeding induces reversible functional changes in flight muscle mitochondria of Aedes aegypti mosquito. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7854 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of blood-feeding on flight muscle (FM) mitochondria from the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fever...
  6. Bevilacqua L, Seifert E, Estey C, Gerrits M, Harper M. Absence of uncoupling protein-3 leads to greater activation of an adenine nucleotide translocase-mediated proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from calorie restricted mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1797:1389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..of 40% CR demonstrated a rapid and sustained decrease in maximal leak-dependent respiration in skeletal muscle mitochondria. This was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and increased ..
  7. Azad M, Kikusato M, Sudo S, Amo T, Toyomizu M. Time course of ROS production in skeletal muscle mitochondria from chronic heat-exposed broiler chicken. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010;157:266-71 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to elucidate physiological changes of skeletal muscle mitochondria from broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) during chronic heat exposure...
  8. Adhihetty P, O Leary M, Hood D. Mitochondria in skeletal muscle: adaptable rheostats of apoptotic susceptibility. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2008;36:116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Exercise may attenuate some of the proapoptotic adaptations that occur during these conditions. This review will focus on the factors influencing mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in skeletal muscle...
  9. Lanza I, Nair K. Functional assessment of isolated mitochondria in vitro. Methods Enzymol. 2009;457:349-72 pubmed publisher
  10. Puente Maestu L, Pérez Parra J, Godoy R, Moreno N, Tejedor A, Torres A, et al. Abnormal transition pore kinetics and cytochrome C release in muscle mitochondria of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;40:746-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to study MPTP kinetics and cyto-c release in skeletal muscle mitochondria of patients with COPD...
  11. Karakelides H, Irving B, Short K, O BRIEN P, Nair K. Age, obesity, and sex effects on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Diabetes. 2010;59:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to determine whether insulin resistance and mitochondrial dysfunction are directly related to chronological age or are related to age-related changes in body composition...
  12. Hancock C, Han D, Chen M, Terada S, Yasuda T, Wright D, et al. High-fat diets cause insulin resistance despite an increase in muscle mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7815-20 pubmed publisher
    ..this hypothesis, high-fat diets that cause insulin resistance have been reported to result in a decrease in muscle mitochondria. In contrast, we found that feeding rats high-fat diets that cause muscle insulin resistance results in a ..
  13. Ljubicic V, Hood D. Kinase-specific responsiveness to incremental contractile activity in skeletal muscle with low and high mitochondrial content. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E195-204 pubmed publisher
  14. Rector R, Uptergrove G, Borengasser S, Mikus C, Morris E, Naples S, et al. Changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to the development of type 2 diabetes or prevention by daily wheel running in hyperphagic OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria were observed during the transition from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes in the hyperphagic OLETF rat...
  15. Feng J, Arriaga E. Quantification of carbonylated proteins in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria using capillary sieving electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis. 2008;29:475-82 pubmed
    ..1 +/- 0.1 (average +/- SD; n = 3) nmol carbonyl/mg protein. The methodology described here should be compatible with the analysis of single cells and needle biopsies taken from oxidative stress animal models...
  16. Toledo F, Menshikova E, Azuma K, Radikova Z, Kelley C, Ritov V, et al. Mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle is not stimulated by weight loss despite increases in insulin action and decreases in intramyocellular lipid content. Diabetes. 2008;57:987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Both are known to improve insulin resistance, and we tested the hypothesis that physical activity, rather than improved insulin resistance, is required to increase mitochondrial capacity of muscle...
  17. Chabi B, Ljubicic V, Menzies K, Huang J, Saleem A, Hood D. Mitochondrial function and apoptotic susceptibility in aging skeletal muscle. Aging Cell. 2008;7:2-12 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the age-related sarcopenia and muscle fatigability are associated with enhanced ROS production, increased mitochondrial apoptotic susceptibility and reduced transcriptional drive for mitochondrial biogenesis...
  18. Mitsuishi M, Miyashita K, Itoh H. cGMP rescues mitochondrial dysfunction induced by glucose and insulin in myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;367:840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that augmented cGMP-dependent cascades in the skeletal muscle may attenuate insulin resistance observed in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome...
  19. Skalska J, Piwońska M, Wyroba E, Surmacz L, Wieczorek R, Koszela Piotrowska I, et al. A novel potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1777:651-9 pubmed publisher
    In this work we provide evidence for the potential presence of a potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria. In isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, Ca(2+) was able to depolarize the mitochondrial inner membrane and ..
  20. King K, Stanley W, Rosca M, Kerner J, Hoppel C, Febbraio M. Fatty acid oxidation in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria is unaffected by deletion of CD36. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;467:234-8 pubmed
    ..We isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild type and CD36 knock-out mice...
  21. Holloway G, Jain S, Bezaire V, Han X, Glatz J, Luiken J, et al. FAT/CD36-null mice reveal that mitochondrial FAT/CD36 is required to upregulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in contracting muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R960-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the KO animals reveal that FAT/CD36 contributes to the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which is especially important for meeting the increased metabolic demands during muscle contraction...
  22. Benton C, Nickerson J, Lally J, Han X, Holloway G, Glatz J, et al. Modest PGC-1alpha overexpression in muscle in vivo is sufficient to increase insulin sensitivity and palmitate oxidation in subsarcolemmal, not intermyofibrillar, mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4228-40 pubmed
  23. Bruce C, Hoy A, Turner N, Watt M, Allen T, Carpenter K, et al. Overexpression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in skeletal muscle is sufficient to enhance fatty acid oxidation and improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009;58:550-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Nabben M, Hoeks J, Briedé J, Glatz J, Moonen Kornips E, Hesselink M, et al. The effect of UCP3 overexpression on mitochondrial ROS production in skeletal muscle of young versus aged mice. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:4147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..State 4o respiration was higher in UCP3Tg animals. To conclude, UCP3 overexpression leads to increased state 4o respiration and, in presence of 4-HNE, blunts the age-induced increase in ROS production...
  25. Bhattacharya A, Muller F, Liu Y, Sabia M, Liang H, Song W, et al. Denervation induces cytosolic phospholipase A2-mediated fatty acid hydroperoxide generation by muscle mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Red dependent fluorescence (thought to be highly specific for hydrogen peroxide) compared with control muscle mitochondria. We now demonstrate that catalase only partially inhibits the Amplex Red signal in mitochondria from ..
  26. Lanza I, Short D, Short K, Raghavakaimal S, Basu R, Joyner M, et al. Endurance exercise as a countermeasure for aging. Diabetes. 2008;57:2933-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined whether reduced insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other age-related dysfunctions are inevitable consequences of aging or secondary to physical inactivity...
  27. D Agostino B, Polverino M, Cirino G, Lombardi A, Grassi B, Sullo N, et al. Exercise capacity and cytochrome oxidase activity in muscle mitochondria of COPD patients. Respir Med. 2010;104:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, further studies are required and a better understanding of the mechanism(s) underlying LABA effects might allow us to identify or unmask new therapeutic target(s) in such patients...
  28. Bonnard C, Durand A, Peyrol S, Chanseaume E, Chauvin M, Morio B, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction results from oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle of diet-induced insulin-resistant mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the structure and function of muscle mitochondria during the development of insulin resistance and progression to diabetes in mice fed a high-fat, high-..
  29. Brooks G, Hashimoto T. Investigation of the lactate shuttle in skeletal muscle mitochondria. J Physiol. 2007;584:705-6;author reply 707-8 pubmed
  30. Patel S, Gamboa J, McMullen C, Rabchevsky A, Andrade F. Lower respiratory capacity in extraocular muscle mitochondria: evidence for intrinsic differences in mitochondrial composition and function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:180-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors tested the hypothesis that extraocular muscle mitochondria respire faster than do mitochondria from limb muscles because of the higher content of respiratory complexes...
  31. Muller F, Liu Y, Abdul Ghani M, Lustgarten M, Bhattacharya A, Jang Y, et al. High rates of superoxide production in skeletal-muscle mitochondria respiring on both complex I- and complex II-linked substrates. Biochem J. 2008;409:491-9 pubmed
  32. Holloway G, Bonen A, Spriet L. Regulation of skeletal muscle mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in lean and obese individuals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:455S-62S pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that obese individuals would benefit from interventions that increase the skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and the potential for oxidizing FAs...
  33. Gurd B, Yoshida Y, Lally J, Holloway G, Bonen A. The deacetylase enzyme SIRT1 is not associated with oxidative capacity in rat heart and skeletal muscle and its overexpression reduces mitochondrial biogenesis. J Physiol. 2009;587:1817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken altogether these experiments are not consistent with the notion that SIRT1 protein plays an obligatory regulatory role in the process of PGC-1alpha-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis in mammalian muscle...
  34. Honzik T, Wenchich L, Bohm M, Hansikova H, Pejznochova M, Zapadlo M, et al. Activities of respiratory chain complexes and pyruvate dehydrogenase in isolated muscle mitochondria in premature neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2008;84:269-76 pubmed
    ..Most diseases in premature neonates are secondary to immaturity of various organ systems. Also the inadequate capacity of mitochondrial energy production may play an important role in the neonatal morbidity...
  35. Holloway G, Perry C, Thrush A, Heigenhauser G, Dyck D, Bonen A, et al. PGC-1alpha's relationship with skeletal muscle palmitate oxidation is not present with obesity despite maintained PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta protein. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E1060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, it does not appear that alterations in the proteins associated with mitochondrial network formation and degradation can account for the observed decrease in mitochondrial content...
  36. Nair K, Bigelow M, Asmann Y, Chow L, Coenen Schimke J, Klaus K, et al. Asian Indians have enhanced skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity to produce ATP in association with severe insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2008;57:1166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether Indians had any metabolic differences compared with Northern European Americans that may render them more susceptible to diabetes...
  37. Finocchietto P, Barreyro F, Holod S, Peralta J, Franco M, Mendez C, et al. Control of muscle mitochondria by insulin entails activation of Akt2-mtNOS pathway: implications for the metabolic syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1749 pubmed publisher
    ..We wondered whether insulin-operated signaling pathways modulate mitochondrial respiration via NO, to alternatively release complete glucose oxidation to CO(2) and H(2)O or to drive glucose storage to glycogen...
  38. Bonen A, Holloway G, Tandon N, Han X, McFarlan J, Glatz J, et al. Cardiac and skeletal muscle fatty acid transport and transporters and triacylglycerol and fatty acid oxidation in lean and Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of fatty acid transport increased red muscle, but not cardiac, triacylglycerol accumulation. White muscle lipid metabolism dysregulation was not observed...
  39. Ljubicic V, Hood D. Diminished contraction-induced intracellular signaling towards mitochondrial biogenesis in aged skeletal muscle. Aging Cell. 2009;8:394-404 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply that the downstream consequences of kinase signaling are reduced in aging muscle...
  40. Hwang H, Bowen B, Lefort N, Flynn C, De Filippis E, Roberts C, et al. Proteomics analysis of human skeletal muscle reveals novel abnormalities in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2010;59:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, changes in mRNA levels may not predict changes in protein abundance. An approach to identify global protein abundance changes involving the use of proteomics was used here...
  41. Turner N, Heilbronn L. Is mitochondrial dysfunction a cause of insulin resistance?. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2008;19:324-30 pubmed publisher
  42. Jaleel A, Short K, Asmann Y, Klaus K, Morse D, Ford G, et al. In vivo measurement of synthesis rate of individual skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1255-68 pubmed publisher
    ..5 +/- 0.42%/h). This method offers an opportunity to better define the translational regulation of proteins in skeletal muscle or other tissues...
  43. De Feyter H, Lenaers E, Houten S, Schrauwen P, Hesselink M, Wanders R, et al. Increased intramyocellular lipid content but normal skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity throughout the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. FASEB J. 2008;22:3947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we can conclude that in the ZDF rat model, type 2 diabetes develops in the absence of skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction...
  44. Holloway G, Benton C, Mullen K, Yoshida Y, Snook L, Han X, et al. In obese rat muscle transport of palmitate is increased and is channeled to triacylglycerol storage despite an increase in mitochondrial palmitate oxidation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E738-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The additional fatty acid taken up is channeled primarily to esterification, suggesting that upregulation in fatty acid transport as opposed to altered fatty acid oxidation is the major determinant of intramuscular lipid accumulation...
  45. Schrauwen Hinderling V, Roden M, Kooi M, Hesselink M, Schrauwen P. Muscular mitochondrial dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007;10:698-703 pubmed
    ..Here, we review human studies that investigated various aspects of mitochondrial function in relation to muscular insulin sensitivity and/or diabetes...
  46. Short K, Nygren J, Nair K. Effect of T(3)-induced hyperthyroidism on mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates in oxidative and glycolytic tissues in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E642-7 pubmed
  47. Holloway G, Lally J, Nickerson J, Alkhateeb H, Snook L, Heigenhauser G, et al. Fatty acid binding protein facilitates sarcolemmal fatty acid transport but not mitochondrial oxidation in rat and human skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007;582:393-405 pubmed
  48. Szendroedi J, Schmid A, Chmelik M, Toth C, Brehm A, Krssak M, et al. Muscle mitochondrial ATP synthesis and glucose transport/phosphorylation in type 2 diabetes. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e154 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that alterations in insulin action and mitochondrial function should be present even in nonobese patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  49. Civitarese A, Carling S, Heilbronn L, Hulver M, Ukropcova B, Deutsch W, et al. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e76 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood...
  50. Stephens F, Constantin Teodosiu D, Greenhaff P. New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007;581:431-44 pubmed
    ..The demonstration that its availability can be readily manipulated in humans, and impacts on physiological function, will result in renewed business and scientific interest in this compound...
  51. Cree M, Zwetsloot J, Herndon D, Qian T, Morio B, Fram R, et al. Insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function are improved in children with burn injury during a randomized controlled trial of fenofibrate. Ann Surg. 2007;245:214-21 pubmed
    ..To determine some of the mechanisms involved in insulin resistance immediately following burn trauma, and to determine the efficacy of PPAR-alpha agonism for alleviating insulin resistance in this population...
  52. Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhart Hines Z, Meziane H, Lerin C, Daussin F, et al. Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha. Cell. 2006;127:1109-22 pubmed
    ..These pharmacological effects of RSV combined with the association of three Sirt1 SNPs and energy homeostasis in Finnish subjects implicates SIRT1 as a key regulator of energy and metabolic homeostasis...
  53. Chow L, Greenlund L, Asmann Y, Short K, McCrady S, Levine J, et al. Impact of endurance training on murine spontaneous activity, muscle mitochondrial DNA abundance, gene transcripts, and function. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1078-89 pubmed