Summary: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Top Publications

  1. de Paula W, Agip A, Missirlis F, Ashworth R, Vizcay Barrena G, Lucas C, et al. Female and male gamete mitochondria are distinct and complementary in transcription, structure, and genome function. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:1969-77 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory electron transport in mitochondria is coupled to ATP synthesis while generating mutagenic oxygen free radicals...
  2. Laker R, Xu P, Ryall K, Sujkowski A, Kenwood B, Chain K, et al. A novel MitoTimer reporter gene for mitochondrial content, structure, stress, and damage in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:12005-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we engineered a MitoTimer reporter gene from the existing Timer reporter gene. MitoTimer encodes a mitochondria-targeted green fluorescent protein when newly synthesized, which shifts irreversibly to red fluorescence when ..
  3. Liang J, Yu Y, Wang B, Lu B, Zhang J, Zhang H, et al. Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells via protection of mitochondria and inhibition of AIF and cytochrome c release. Molecules. 2013;18:12777-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the role of mitochondria in the protective effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on cellular apoptosis caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation, in this study, MTT assay, TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and western ..
  4. Hong G, Liu J, Zhao G, Wang L, Liang G, Wu B, et al. The reversal of paraquat-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by cycloartenyl ferulate, the important role of Nrf2 pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2845-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ-induced apoptosis, as revealed by the activation of ..
  5. Schumacker P, Gillespie M, Nakahira K, Choi A, Crouser E, Piantadosi C, et al. Mitochondria in lung biology and pathology: more than just a powerhouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L962-74 pubmed publisher
    An explosion of new information about mitochondria reveals that their importance extends well beyond their time-honored function as the "powerhouse of the cell...
  6. Iyer S, He Q, Janczy J, Elliott E, Zhong Z, Olivier A, et al. Mitochondrial cardiolipin is required for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation. Immunity. 2013;39:311-323 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data suggest that mitochondria play a critical role in the activation of the Nlrp3 inflammasome through the direct binding of Nlrp3 to ..
  7. Ryan S, Dolatabadi N, Chan S, Zhang X, Akhtar M, Parker J, et al. Isogenic human iPSC Parkinson's model shows nitrosative stress-induced dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1? transcription. Cell. 2013;155:1351-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, using small-molecule high-throughput screening, we identify the MEF2C-PGC1? pathway as a therapeutic target to combat PD. ..
  8. Tatsuta T, Hosono M, Sugawara S, Kariya Y, Ogawa Y, Hakomori S, et al. Sialic acid-binding lectin (leczyme) induces caspase-dependent apoptosis-mediated mitochondrial perturbation in Jurkat cells. Int J Oncol. 2013;43:1402-12 pubmed publisher
    ..SBL selectively kills tumor cells, is able to exhibit cytotoxicity regardless of P-glycoprotein expression and has potential as an alternative to conventional DNA-damaging anticancer drugs. ..
  9. Marchi S, Patergnani S, Pinton P. The endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria connection: one touch, multiple functions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1837:461-9 pubmed publisher
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are tubular organelles with a characteristic "network structure" that facilitates the formation of interorganellar connections...

More Information


  1. Manzanillo P, Ayres J, Watson R, Collins A, Souza G, Rae C, et al. The ubiquitin ligase parkin mediates resistance to intracellular pathogens. Nature. 2013;501:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our work reveals an unexpected functional link between mitophagy and infectious disease. ..
  2. Monzote L, García M, Pastor J, Gil L, Scull R, Maes L, et al. Essential oil from Chenopodium ambrosioides and main components: activity against Leishmania, their mitochondria and other microorganisms. Exp Parasitol. 2014;136:20-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the potentialities of EO in cellular and molecular system, which could be consider in future studies to develop new antileishmanial drugs with a wide anti-parasitic spectrum. ..
  3. McLelland G, Soubannier V, Chen C, McBride H, Fon E. Parkin and PINK1 function in a vesicular trafficking pathway regulating mitochondrial quality control. EMBO J. 2014;33:282-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Parkin and PINK1, two genes associated with familial PD, have been implicated in the degradation of depolarized mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy)...
  4. Mao P, Manczak M, Shirendeb U, Reddy P. MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, delays disease progression and alleviates pathogenesis in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..MitoQ is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant that has a neuroprotective role in several mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases, ..
  5. Ross J, Stewart J, Hagström E, Brene S, Mourier A, Coppotelli G, et al. Germline mitochondrial DNA mutations aggravate ageing and can impair brain development. Nature. 2013;501:412-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that maternally transmitted mtDNA mutations may have a similar role in aggravating aspects of normal human ageing. ..
  6. Esteves A, Gozes I, Cardoso S. The rescue of microtubule-dependent traffic recovers mitochondrial function in Parkinson's disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1842:7-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Compromised axonal transport will then lead to a disorganized distribution of mitochondria and other organelles in the cell, as well as, the accumulation of aggregated proteins like alpha-synuclein...
  7. Jin S, Youle R. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix is sensed by PINK1 to induce PARK2/Parkin-mediated mitophagy of polarized mitochondria. Autophagy. 2013;9:1750-7 pubmed publisher
    Defective mitochondria exert deleterious effects on host cells...
  8. Catherman A, Durbin K, Ahlf D, Early B, Fellers R, Tran J, et al. Large-scale top-down proteomics of the human proteome: membrane proteins, mitochondria, and senescence. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:3465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple separation strategies were utilized, including the focused isolation of mitochondria, resulting in significantly improved proteome coverage relative to previous work...
  9. Qin R, Shen H, Cao Y, Fang Y, Li H, Chen Q, et al. Tetrandrine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76486 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we concluded that tetrandrine significantly inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer BGC-823 cells through mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may play a promising role in gastric cancer therapy.
  10. Tufi R, Gandhi S, de Castro I, Lehmann S, Angelova P, Dinsdale D, et al. Enhancing nucleotide metabolism protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:157-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that targeting strategies enhancing nucleotide synthesis pathways may reverse mitochondrial dysfunction and rescue neurodegeneration in PD and, potentially, other diseases linked to mitochondrial impairment. ..
  11. Lawlor K, Vince J. Ambiguities in NLRP3 inflammasome regulation: is there a role for mitochondria?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Several recent studies have posited that the mitochondria are a central regulator of NLRP3 function.
  12. Doenst T, Nguyen T, Abel E. Cardiac metabolism in heart failure: implications beyond ATP production. Circ Res. 2013;113:709-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, modulating cardiac metabolism in HF may have significant therapeutic relevance that goes beyond the energetic aspect. ..
  13. Lee H, Yoon Y. Transient contraction of mitochondria induces depolarization through the inner membrane dynamin OPA1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:11862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we found that this transient morphological contraction of mitochondria is accompanied by a reversible loss or decrease of inner membrane potential...
  14. Vance J. MAM (mitochondria-associated membranes) in mammalian cells: lipids and beyond. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1841:595-609 pubmed publisher
    One mechanism by which communication between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is achieved is by close juxtaposition between these organelles via mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM)...
  15. Quintanilla R, Jin Y, von Bernhardi R, Johnson G. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore induces mitochondria injury in Huntington disease. Mol Neurodegener. 2013;8:45 pubmed publisher
  16. Ceh Pavia E, Spiller M, Lu H. Folding and biogenesis of mitochondrial small Tim proteins. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:16685-705 pubmed publisher crucial for protein function in the IMS, but oxidized (disulfide bonded) proteins cannot be imported into mitochondria. How the redox-sensitive small Tim precursor proteins are maintained in a reduced, import-competent form in the ..
  17. Garcia Gomez S, Reyes A, Martinez Jimenez M, Chocron E, Mouron S, Terrados G, et al. PrimPol, an archaic primase/polymerase operating in human cells. Mol Cell. 2013;52:541-53 pubmed publisher
    ..PrimPol activity is detectable in mitochondrial lysates from human and mouse cells but is absent from mitochondria derived from PRIMPOL knockout mice...
  18. Mocan L, Ilie I, Tabaran F, Dana B, Zaharie F, Zdrehus C, et al. Surface plasmon resonance-induced photoactivation of gold nanoparticles as mitochondria-targeted therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013;17:1383-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon is frequently termed as surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
  19. Posse V, Hoberg E, Dierckx A, Shahzad S, Koolmeister C, Larsson N, et al. The amino terminal extension of mammalian mitochondrial RNA polymerase ensures promoter specific transcription initiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:3638-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In the second step, Tfb2m is recruited into the complex and transcription is initiated. ..
  20. Rahman M, Mofarrahi M, Kristof A, Nkengfac B, Harel S, Hussain S. Reactive oxygen species regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscles. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;20:443-59 pubmed publisher
  21. Morlino G, Barreiro O, Baixauli F, Robles Valero J, Gonzalez Granado J, Villa Bellosta R, et al. Miro-1 links mitochondria and microtubule Dynein motors to control lymphocyte migration and polarity. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1412-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, we explored the role of mitochondria in lymphocyte adhesion, polarity, and migration...
  22. Liu Y, Samuel B, Breen P, Ruvkun G. Caenorhabditis elegans pathways that surveil and defend mitochondria. Nature. 2014;508:406-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Other bacterial species inhibit C. elegans defence responses to a mitochondrial toxin, revealing bacterial countermeasures to animal defence. ..
  23. Koyano F, Okatsu K, Kosako H, Tamura Y, Go E, Kimura M, et al. Ubiquitin is phosphorylated by PINK1 to activate parkin. Nature. 2014;510:162-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PINK1 is a Ser/Thr kinase that specifically accumulates on depolarized mitochondria, whereas parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that catalyses ubiquitin transfer to mitochondrial substrates...
  24. Yee C, Yang W, Hekimi S. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway mediates the pro-longevity response to mitochondrial ROS in C. elegans. Cell. 2014;157:897-909 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the mtROS signal is relayed by the conserved, mitochondria-associated, intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway (CED-9/Bcl2, CED-4/Apaf1, and CED-3/Casp9) triggered by CED-..
  25. Manczak M, Sheiko T, Craigen W, Reddy P. Reduced VDAC1 protects against Alzheimer's disease, mitochondria, and synaptic deficiencies. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;37:679-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that reduced VDAC1 expression, such as that we found in the VDAC1+/- mice, may be beneficial to synaptic activity, may improve function, and may protect against toxicities of AD-related genes. ..
  26. Wang Y, Li X, Wang X, Lau W, Wang Y, Xing Y, et al. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via Akt/GSK-3? signaling and inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70956 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R-induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. ..
  27. Bose P, Thakur S, Thalappilly S, Ahn B, Satpathy S, Feng X, et al. ING1 induces apoptosis through direct effects at the mitochondria. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e788 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that ING1 translocates to the mitochondria of primary fibroblasts and established epithelial cell lines in response to apoptosis inducing stimuli, ..
  28. Yuan X, Li D, Zhao H, Jiang J, Wang P, Ma X, et al. Licochalcone A-induced human bladder cancer T24 cells apoptosis triggered by mitochondria dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:474272 pubmed publisher
    ..dysfunction, caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals...
  29. Perez Matute P, Pérez Martínez L, Blanco J, Oteo J. Role of mitochondria in HIV infection and associated metabolic disorders: focus on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and lipodystrophy syndrome. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:493413 pubmed publisher
    ..Several mechanisms explain these deleterious effects of HAART on mitochondria, and evidence points to other mechanisms beyond the "Pol- ? hypothesis...
  30. Garreau Balandier I, Lefebvre M, Jacquard S, Caillat S, Cruz Rodriguez L, Ishak L, et al. A comprehensive approach to determining BER capacities and their change with aging in Drosophila melanogaster mitochondria by oligonucleotide microarray. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:1673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..base excision repair (BER) processes, dedicated in part to oxidative DNA damage, are individually well known in mitochondria. However, no large view of these systems in differential physiological conditions is available yet...
  31. Wang Y, Yang F, Zhang H, Zi X, Pan X, Chen F, et al. Cuprous oxide nanoparticles inhibit the growth and metastasis of melanoma by targeting mitochondria. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e783 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we observed that CONPs targeted the mitochondria, which resulted in the release of cytochrome C from the mitochondria and the activation of caspase-3 and ..
  32. Jackson J, O Donnell J, Takano H, Coulter D, Robinson M. Neuronal activity and glutamate uptake decrease mitochondrial mobility in astrocytes and position mitochondria near glutamate transporters. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1613-24 pubmed publisher
    Within neurons, mitochondria are nonuniformly distributed and are retained at sites of high activity and metabolic demand...
  33. Sajic M, Mastrolia V, Lee C, Trigo D, Sadeghian M, Mosley A, et al. Impulse conduction increases mitochondrial transport in adult mammalian peripheral nerves in vivo. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001754 pubmed publisher
    ..Positioning mitochondria at areas with high energy requirements is an essential solution to this problem, but it is not known how this ..
  34. Spillane M, Ketschek A, Merianda T, Twiss J, Gallo G. Mitochondria coordinate sites of axon branching through localized intra-axonal protein synthesis. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1564-75 pubmed publisher
    ..branching of sensory axons in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) occurs at sites populated by stalled mitochondria. Translational machinery targets to presumptive branching sites, followed by recruitment of mitochondria to ..
  35. Liu Y, Liu J, Chai K, Tashiro S, Onodera S, Ikejima T. Inhibition of c-Met promoted apoptosis, autophagy and loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in oridonin-induced A549 lung cancer cells. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2013;65:1622-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The following experiments are to elucidate this anti-apoptotic mechanism, then the effect of c-Met on autophagy has also been discussed...
  36. Fujioka H, Tandler B, Consolo M, Karnik P. Division of mitochondria in cultured human fibroblasts. Microsc Res Tech. 2013;76:1213-6 pubmed publisher
    Ovate mitochondria in cultured human fibroblasts divide by pinching...
  37. Zhang Q, Raje V, Yakovlev V, Yacoub A, Szczepanek K, Meier J, et al. Mitochondrial localized Stat3 promotes breast cancer growth via phosphorylation of serine 727. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:31280-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent studies from this laboratory and others indicate that Stat3 has an independent function in the mitochondria (mitoStat3) where it controls the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and mediates Ras-induced ..
  38. Stojkovski V, Hadzi Petrushev N, Ilieski V, Sopi R, Gjorgoski I, Mitrov D, et al. Age and heat exposure-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat's liver and brain mitochondria: role of alpha-tocopherol. Physiol Res. 2013;62:503-10 pubmed
    ..After heat exposure, hepatic and brain mitochondria were isolated...
  39. Chu C, Ji J, Dagda R, Jiang J, Tyurina Y, Kapralov A, et al. Cardiolipin externalization to the outer mitochondrial membrane acts as an elimination signal for mitophagy in neuronal cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1197-1205 pubmed publisher
    Recognition of injured mitochondria for degradation by macroautophagy is essential for cellular health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cardiolipin is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid...
  40. Lettieri Barbato D, Aquilano K, Baldelli S, Cannata S, Bernardini S, Rotilio G, et al. Proline oxidase-adipose triglyceride lipase pathway restrains adipose cell death and tissue inflammation. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results identify ATGL as a stress resistance mediator in adipocytes, restraining visceral adipose tissue dysfunction typical of age-related metabolic disorders. ..
  41. Stefanova N, Muraleva N, Skulachev V, Kolosova N. Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats can be partially retarded with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;38:681-94 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (plastoquinonyl-decyltriphenylphosphonium) at nanomolar concentrations is capable of preventing and slowing down some cerebral dysfunctions in accelerated-senescence OXYS ..
  42. Damas J, Samuels D, Carneiro J, Amorim A, Pereira F. Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in health and disease--a comprehensive study. Hum Mutat. 2014;35:1-14 pubmed publisher
  43. Ohlsson L, Exley C, Darabi A, Sandén E, Siesjo P, Eriksson H. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells. J Inorg Biochem. 2013;128:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles...
  44. Lang B, Jakubkova M, Hegedusova E, Daoud R, Forget L, Brejova B, et al. Massive programmed translational jumping in mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5926-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report 81 translational bypassing elements (byps) in mitochondria of the yeast Magnusiomyces capitatus and demonstrate in three cases, by transcript analysis and proteomics, ..
  45. Gauthier L, Greenstein J, Cortassa S, O ROURKE B, Winslow R. A computational model of reactive oxygen species and redox balance in cardiac mitochondria. Biophys J. 2013;105:1045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondria represent the predominant cellular source of ROS, specifically the activity of complexes I and III...
  46. Sarosiek K, Chi X, Bachman J, Sims J, Montero J, Patel L, et al. BID preferentially activates BAK while BIM preferentially activates BAX, affecting chemotherapy response. Mol Cell. 2013;51:751-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, BID and BIM have nonoverlapping roles in the induction of apoptosis via BAK and BAX, affecting chemotherapy response...
  47. Qiu J, He Y, Wang Y, Xu R, Qin Y, Shen X, et al. Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway. Med Sci Monit Basic Res. 2013;19:228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells...
  48. Patil N, Parajuli N, Macmillan Crow L, Mayeux P. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F734-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI...
  49. Allen J, de Paula W. Mitochondrial genome function and maternal inheritance. Biochem Soc Trans. 2013;41:1298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that oocyte mitochondria escape the aging process by acting as quiescent genetic templates, transcriptionally and bioenergetically ..
  50. Felici R, Lapucci A, Ramazzotti M, Chiarugi A. Insight into molecular and functional properties of NMNAT3 reveals new hints of NAD homeostasis within human mitochondria. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76938 pubmed publisher
    ..Data of the present study modify the scenario of the origin of mitochondrial NAD by showing that, in human cells, NMNAT3 is absent in mitochondria, and, akin to plants and yeast, cytosolic NAD maintains the mitochondrial NAD pool.
  51. Hagberg H, Mallard C, Rousset C, Thornton C. Mitochondria: hub of injury responses in the developing brain. Lancet Neurol. 2014;13:217-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondria also affect brain susceptibility to injury, and mitochondria-directed interventions can make the immature brain ..
  52. Daum B, Walter A, Horst A, Osiewacz H, Kuhlbrandt W. Age-dependent dissociation of ATP synthase dimers and loss of inner-membrane cristae in mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15301-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondria are intimately involved in aging, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown...
  53. Kim S, Cheresh P, Williams D, Cheng Y, Ridge K, Schumacker P, et al. Mitochondria-targeted Ogg1 and aconitase-2 prevent oxidant-induced mitochondrial DNA damage in alveolar epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6165-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitochondria-targeted human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (mt-hOgg1) and aconitase-2 (Aco-2) each reduce oxidant-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, but it is unclear whether protection occurs by preventing AEC mitochondrial ..
  54. Pan T, Wang P, Hung Y, Huang C, Rau K. Proteomic analysis reveals tanshinone IIA enhances apoptosis of advanced cervix carcinoma CaSki cells through mitochondria intrinsic and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways. Proteomics. 2013;13:3411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic interventions targeting the mitochondrial-related apoptosis and ER stress responses might be promising strategies to conquer paclitaxel resistance. ..
  55. Gomes A, Price N, Ling A, Moslehi J, Montgomery M, Rajman L, et al. Declining NAD(+) induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear-mitochondrial communication during aging. Cell. 2013;155:1624-38 pubmed publisher
    Ever since eukaryotes subsumed the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have had to closely coordinate their activities, as each encode different subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ..
  56. Ferreira R, Rocha H, Almeida V, Padrão A, Santa C, Vilarinho L, et al. Mitochondria proteome profiling: a comparative analysis between gel- and gel-free approaches. Talanta. 2013;115:277-83 pubmed publisher
    Mitochondrial proteomics emerged aiming to disclose the dynamics of mitochondria under various pathophysiological conditions...
  57. Paradies G, Paradies V, De Benedictis V, Ruggiero F, Petrosillo G. Functional role of cardiolipin in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1837:408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Dynamic and ultrastructure of bioenergetic membranes and their components. ..
  58. Vasconsuelo A, Milanesi L, Boland R. Actions of 17?-estradiol and testosterone in the mitochondria and their implications in aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2013;12:907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of estrogen and androgen receptors and hormone-responsive elements in the mitochondria represents the starting point for the investigation of the effects of 17?-estradiol and testosterone on the ..
  59. Fung G, Ng C, Zhang J, Shi J, Wong J, Piesik P, et al. Production of a dominant-negative fragment due to G3BP1 cleavage contributes to the disruption of mitochondria-associated protective stress granules during CVB3 infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79546 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we conclude that CVB3 infection selectively targets G3BP1-SGs by cleaving G3BP1 to produce a dominant-negative fragment that further inhibits G3BP1-SG formation and facilitates viral replication. ..
  60. Ortiz M, Lores Arnaiz S, Albertoni Borghese M, Balonga S, Lavagna A, Filipuzzi A, et al. Mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cortex mitochondria of STZ-diabetic rats: effect of l-Arginine. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:2570-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well known that oxygen free radical species are produced endogenously by mitochondria, and also nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) associated to mitochondrial membranes, in ..
  61. Toews D, Mandic M, Richards J, Irwin D. Migration, mitochondria, and the yellow-rumped warbler. Evolution. 2014;68:241-55 pubmed publisher
    Discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA has been noted in many systems. Asymmetric introgression of mitochondria is a common cause of such discordances, although in most cases the drivers of introgression are unknown...
  62. Pearce E, Poffenberger M, Chang C, Jones R. Fueling immunity: insights into metabolism and lymphocyte function. Science. 2013;342:1242454 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we highlight emerging concepts regarding metabolic reprogramming in proliferating cells and discuss their potential impact on T cell fate and function. ..
  63. Lu M, Sun L, Zhou J, Yang J. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:5307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria were observed...
  64. Pham J, Brownlow B, Elbayoumi T. Mitochondria-specific pro-apoptotic activity of genistein lipidic nanocarriers. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:3789-800 pubmed publisher
    ..and nanoemulsions (NEs) incorporated Gen to serve as both therapeutic and targeting moieties, specific for mitochondria. Both Gen-NCs, showing superior physicochemical properties, produced significant cytotoxicity (5-10-fold lower ..
  65. Blake R, Trounce I. Mitochondrial dysfunction and complications associated with diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1840:1404-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Long term hyperglycaemia can lead to a number of serious health-threatening pathologies, or complications, especially in the kidney, heart, retina and peripheral nervous system...