lipid droplets


Summary: Dynamic cytoplasmic organelles found in almost all cells. They consist of a central core of LIPIDS surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer studded with surface proteins, and are involved in LIPID METABOLISM and storage.

Top Publications

  1. Tuohetahuntila M, Molenaar M, Spee B, Brouwers J, Wubbolts R, Houweling M, et al. Lysosome-mediated degradation of a distinct pool of lipid droplets during hepatic stellate cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12436-12448 pubmed publisher
    ..During activation, HSCs lose their lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesteryl esters, and retinyl esters (REs)...
  2. Wallstab C, Eleftheriadou D, Schulz T, Damm G, Seehofer D, Borlak J, et al. A unifying mathematical model of lipid droplet metabolism reveals key molecular players in the development of hepatic steatosis. FEBS J. 2017;284:3245-3261 pubmed publisher
    ..In hepatocytes, the poor water-soluble TAG is packed in specialized organelles: Lipid droplets (LDs) serving as transient cellular deposit and lipoproteins (LPs) transporting TAG and cholesterol esters to ..
  3. Natori Y, Nasui M, Kihara Negishi F. Neu1 sialidase interacts with perilipin 1 on lipid droplets and inhibits lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Genes Cells. 2017;22:485-492 pubmed publisher
    Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis...
  4. McGowan S, McCoy D. Glucocorticoids Retain Bipotent Fibroblast Progenitors during Alveolar Septation in Mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;57:111-120 pubmed publisher
    ..postnatal week and evaluated their effects on cellular proliferation and adoption of ?-smooth muscle actin and lipid droplets (markers of the myofibroblast and lipofibroblast phenotypes, respectively)...
  5. Roux A, Loewith R. Tensing Up for Lipid Droplet Formation. Dev Cell. 2017;41:571-572 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid droplets are fat storage organelles in cells that physically resemble stable oil-water emulsion droplets. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ben M'barek et al...
  6. Sadh K, Rai P, Mallik R. Feeding-fasting dependent recruitment of membrane microdomain proteins to lipid droplets purified from the liver. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183022 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular stores of neutral fat that facilitate lipid and protein trafficking in response to metabolic cues. Unlike other vesicles, the phospholipid membrane on the LD is a monolayer...
  7. Liu M, Ge R, Liu W, Liu Q, Xia X, Lai M, et al. Differential proteomics profiling identifies LDPs and biological functions in high-fat diet-induced fatty livers. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:681-694 pubmed publisher
    Eukaryotic cells store neutral lipids in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) enclosed in a monolayer of phospholipids and associated proteins [LD proteins (LDPs)]...
  8. Park S, Kim S, Kim M, Hong Y, Lee A, Lee H, et al. GOLGA2 loss causes fibrosis with autophagy in the mouse lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:594-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of autophagy leads to fibrosis along with the reduction of subcellular lipid storage (lipid droplets and lamellar bodies) by autophagy in the lung and liver...
  9. Dubiel D, Bintig W, Kahne T, Dubiel W, Naumann M. Cul3 neddylation is crucial for gradual lipid droplet formation during adipogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1405-1412 pubmed publisher
    ..Downregulation of Cul3 and inhibition of neddylation by MLN4924 blocks the formation of lipid droplets (LDs), the lipid storage organelles and markers of adipogenesis...

More Information


  1. Barbosa A, Siniossoglou S. Function of lipid droplet-organelle interactions in lipid homeostasis. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1459-1468 pubmed publisher
    Storage of non-polar lipids in ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles, lipid droplets (LDs), prevents the toxic consequences of unesterified fatty acids and provides a lipid reservoir that can be promptly used to satisfy cellular needs under ..
  2. Zhao Y, Yang R, Xiao M, Guan M, Zhao N, Zeng T. Kupffer cells activation promoted binge drinking-induced fatty liver by activating lipolysis in white adipose tissues. Toxicology. 2017;390:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that KCs activation may promote binge drinking-induced fatty liver by TNF-? mediated activation of lipolysis in white adipose tissues. ..
  3. De Chirico S, di Bari V, Foster T, Gray D. Enhancing the recovery of oilseed rape seed oil bodies (oleosomes) using bicarbonate-based soaking and grinding media. Food Chem. 2018;241:419-426 pubmed publisher
    ..The resultant emulsion had improved physical stability over a storage period of one month. ..
  4. Swift L, Love J, Harris C, CHANG B, Jerome W. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein contributes to lipid droplet maturation in adipocytes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181046 pubmed publisher
    ..into adipocytes concurrent with the movement of MTP from the juxtanuclear region of the cell to the surface of lipid droplets. This suggested a role for MTP in lipid droplet biogenesis and/or maturation...
  5. Gupta P, Martin R, Knölker H, Nihalani D, Kumar Sinha D. Myosin-1 inhibition by PClP affects membrane shape, cortical actin distribution and lipid droplet dynamics in early Zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180301 pubmed publisher
    ..division and furrow formation, inhibition of Myo1 has a drastic effect on the dynamics and distribution of lipid droplets (LDs) in the blastodisc near the cleavage furrow...
  6. Omar I, Rom O, Aviram M, Cohen Daniel L, Gebre A, Parks J, et al. Slfn2 mutation-induced loss of T-cell quiescence leads to elevated de novo sterol synthesis. Immunology. 2017;152:484-493 pubmed publisher disrupted in T cells and monocytes from Slfn2-mutant, elektra, mice with higher levels of lipid rafts and lipid droplets found in these cells...
  7. Bechor S, Nachmias D, Elia N, Haim Y, Vatarescu M, Leikin Frenkel A, et al. Adipose tissue conditioned media support macrophage lipid-droplet biogenesis by interfering with autophagic flux. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1001-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we propose that secreted products from AT interrupt late autophagosome maturation in macrophages, supporting enhanced LDs biogenesis and AT-FC formation, thereby contributing to AT dysfunction in obesity. ..
  8. Xu G, Duan S, Hou J, Wei Z, Zhao G. GosB Inhibits Triacylglycerol Synthesis and Promotes Cell Survival in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7394869 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GosB reduced cellular triglyceride content and the accumulation of lipid droplets; in particular, GosB enhanced saturated fatty acid concentration (C16:0 and C18:0)...
  9. Li M, Liu Z, Zhang Z, Liu G, Sun S, Sun C. miR-103 promotes 3T3-L1 cell adipogenesis through AKT/mTOR signal pathway with its target being MEF2D. Biol Chem. 2015;396:235-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we found that miR-103 can promote 3T3-L1 cells differentiation by targeting MEF2D and activating AKT/mTOR signal pathway. These results will shed a light on further study of microRNAs. ..
  10. Morioka S, Nigorikawa K, Hazeki K, Ohmura M, Sakamoto H, Matsumura T, et al. Phosphoinositide phosphatase Sac3 regulates the cell surface expression of scavenger receptor A and formation of lipid droplets in macrophages. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:252-259 pubmed publisher
    ..The knockdown of PIKfyve had no effect on SR-A protein levels. These results suggest that the ArPIKfyve-Sac3 complex regulates SR-A protein levels independently of its effect on PIKfyve activity. ..
  11. Tatsumi T, Takayama K, Ishii S, Yamamoto A, Hara T, Minami N, et al. Forced lipophagy reveals that lipid droplets are required for early embryonic development in mouse. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by inducing forced lipophagy, expression of the p62 fusion protein generated LD-depleted cells, revealing an unexpected role of LD during preimplantation development. ..
  12. Gbelcová H, Svéda M, Laubertova L, Varga I, Vitek L, Kolar M, et al. The effect of simvastatin on lipid droplets accumulation in human embryonic kidney cells and pancreatic cancer cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2013;12:126 pubmed publisher
    ..was to assess in non-malignant as well as cancer cells the impact of simvastatin on the amount of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) implicated in many biological processes including proliferation, inflammation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis,..
  13. Chen B, Yang H, Chou H, Chen G, Yang W. Staining of Lipid Droplets with Monodansylpentane. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1560:231-236 pubmed publisher
    Monodansylpentane (MDH) is a fluorophore that displays selective labeling of lipid droplets (LDs)...
  14. Gatticchi L, Cerra B, Scarpelli P, Macchioni L, Sebastiani B, Gioiello A, et al. Selected cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors produce accumulation of the intermediate FF-MAS that targets nucleus and activates LXR? in HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:842-852 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a fluorescent ester derivative of FF-MAS localized in nuclear lipid droplets, suggesting a role for these organelles in the storage of signaling lipids interacting with nuclear partners.
  15. BasuRay S, Smagris E, Cohen J, Hobbs H. The PNPLA3 variant associated with fatty liver disease (I148M) accumulates on lipid droplets by evading ubiquitylation. Hepatology. 2017;66:1111-1124 pubmed publisher examine the mechanism responsible for accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and PNPLA3 in hepatic lipid droplets (LDs)...
  16. Kuramoto K, Sakai F, Yoshinori N, Nakamura T, Wakabayashi S, Kojidani T, et al. Deficiency of a lipid droplet protein, perilipin 5, suppresses myocardial lipid accumulation, thereby preventing type 1 diabetes-induced heart malfunction. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:2721-31 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that diabetic Plin5-KO mice are resistant to type 1 diabetes-induced heart malfunction due to the suppression of the diacylglycerol/ceramide-protein kinase C pathway and of excessive ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. ..
  17. Rajan A, Housden B, Wirtz Peitz F, Holderbaum L, Perrimon N. A Mechanism Coupling Systemic Energy Sensing to Adipokine Secretion. Dev Cell. 2017;43:83-98.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..In nutrient-rich fat cells, GRASP clusters in close proximity to the apical side of lipid droplets (LDs)...
  18. Gao Q, Binns D, Kinch L, Grishin N, Ortiz N, Chen X, et al. Pet10p is a yeast perilipin that stabilizes lipid droplets and promotes their assembly. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3199-3217 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the core functions of Pet10p and other perilipins extend beyond protection from lipases and include the preservation of droplet integrity as well as collaboration with seipin and Fit2 in droplet assembly and maintenance. ..
  19. Eisenberg Bord M, Schuldiner M. Mitochatting - If only we could be a fly on the cell wall. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2017;1864:1469-1480 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Contact Sites edited by Christian Ungermann and Benoit Kornmann. ..
  20. Jin S, An S, Lee S. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005687 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M...
  21. Nishimoto Y, Nakajima S, Tateya S, Saito M, Ogawa W, Tamori Y. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor A-like effector A and fat-specific protein 27? coordinately control lipid droplet size in brown adipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10824-10834 pubmed publisher
    ..Triacylglycerol is stored as unilocular large lipid droplets (LDs) in white adipocytes and as multilocular small LDs in brown adipocytes...
  22. Klecker T, Braun R, Westermann B. Lipid Droplets Guard Mitochondria during Autophagy. Dev Cell. 2017;42:1-2 pubmed publisher
    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Nguyen et al. (2017) show that lipid droplets serve a dual purpose during starvation. First, they act as an energy source by supplying fatty acids for mitochondrial ? oxidation...
  23. Carmona Gutierrez D, Zimmermann A, Madeo F. A molecular mechanism for lipophagy regulation in the liver. Hepatology. 2015;61:1781-3 pubmed publisher
  24. Deslandes F, Thiam A, Foret L. Lipid Droplets Can Spontaneously Bud Off from a Symmetric Bilayer. Biophys J. 2017;113:15-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid droplets (LDs) are cytosolic organelles that protrude from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane under energy-rich conditions. How an LD buds off from the endoplasmic reticulum bilayer is still elusive...
  25. Hu X, Binns D, Reese M. The coccidian parasites Toxoplasma and Neospora dysregulate mammalian lipid droplet biogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11009-11020 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that Toxoplasma infection results in increased biogenesis of host lipid droplets through rewiring of multiple components of host neutral lipid metabolism...
  26. Gluchowski N, Becuwe M, Walther T, Farese R. Lipid droplets and liver disease: from basic biology to clinical implications. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14:343-355 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess and serve as an energy reservoir during deprivation...
  27. Liu Q, Luo Q, HALIM A, Song G. Targeting lipid metabolism of cancer cells: A promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;401:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, accumulation of lipid droplets in cancer cells acts as a pivotal adaptive response to harmful conditions...
  28. Kwon Y, Kim J, Kim C, Tu T, Kim M, Suk K, et al. Hypothalamic lipid-laden astrocytes induce microglia migration and activation. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:1742-1751 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic astrocytes accumulate lipid droplets under saturated fatty acid-rich conditions, such as obese environment, and that the lipid-laden astrocytes ..
  29. Chen Y, Chen Y, Zhao L, Kong X, Yang Z, Hua Y. A two-chain aspartic protease present in seeds with high affinity for peanut oil bodies. Food Chem. 2018;241:443-451 pubmed publisher
    ..0 and 60°C. Interestingly, the aspartic protease not only hydrolyzed OB intrinsic proteins (oleosin, caleosin, and steroleosin), but also extrinsic proteins (especially Ara h 1 allergen and 26-30kDa arachin). ..
  30. Hu Z, Chen M, Zhou H, Tharakan A, Wang X, Qiu L, et al. Inactivation of TNF/LT locus alters mouse metabolic response to concentrated ambient PM2.5. Toxicology. 2017;390:100-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that TNF/LT deficiency influences PM2.5 exposure-induced response of energy metabolism through alterations in both food intake and energy expenditure. ..
  31. Ouimet M, Ediriweera H, Afonso M, Ramkhelawon B, Singaravelu R, Liao X, et al. microRNA-33 Regulates Macrophage Autophagy in Atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1058-1067 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which miR-33 regulates cellular cholesterol homeostasis and atherosclerosis. ..
  32. Yasumoto J, Kasai H, Yoshimura K, Otoguro T, Watashi K, Wakita T, et al. Hepatitis B virus prevents excessive viral production via reduction of cell death-inducing DFF45-like effectors. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:1762-1773 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that HBV regulates its own viral replication via CIDEB and CIDEC. ..
  33. Horn J, Ellena R, Tran J, Beck W, Narayanaswami V, Weers P. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2017;1859:1317-1325 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. ..
  34. Zappa F, Venditti R, De Matteis M. TRAPPing Rab18 in lipid droplets. EMBO J. 2017;36:394-396 pubmed publisher
  35. Joshi A, Zhang H, Prinz W. Organelle biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:876-882 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the role of the ER in the generation of peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and omegasomes, which are platforms for autophagosome production, and discuss how ER subdomains with specific ..
  36. Cairns R, Alvarez Guaita A, Martínez Saludes I, Wason S, Hanh J, Nagarajan S, et al. Role of hepatic Annexin A6 in fatty acid-induced lipid droplet formation. Exp Cell Res. 2017;358:397-410 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that cPLA2?-dependent pathways contribute to the novel regulatory role of hepatic AnxA6 in LD formation. ..
  37. Nguyen T, Louie S, Daniele J, Tran Q, Dillin A, Zoncu R, et al. DGAT1-Dependent Lipid Droplet Biogenesis Protects Mitochondrial Function during Starvation-Induced Autophagy. Dev Cell. 2017;42:9-21.e5 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipid droplets (LDs) provide an "on-demand" source of fatty acids (FAs) that can be mobilized in response to fluctuations in nutrient abundance. Surprisingly, the amount of LDs increases during prolonged periods of nutrient deprivation...
  38. Demine S, Tejerina S, Bihin B, Thiry M, Reddy N, Renard P, et al. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling induces HSL/ATGL-independent lipolysis relying on a form of autophagy in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:1247-1265 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, enhanced lipolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling relies on a form of autophagy as lipid droplets are captured by endolysosomal vesicles...
  39. Peng L, Jia X, Zhao J, Cui R, Yan M. Substance P promotes hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation via the TGF-?1/Smad-3 signaling pathway. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;329:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and decreased the release of lipid droplets (LDs) (p<0.05), all of which are associated with HSC activation...
  40. Lee J, Homma T, Fujii J. Mice in the early stage of liver steatosis caused by a high fat diet are resistant to thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. Toxicol Lett. 2017;277:92-103 pubmed publisher
  41. Ben M barek K, Ajjaji D, Chorlay A, Vanni S, Foret L, Thiam A. ER Membrane Phospholipids and Surface Tension Control Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation. Dev Cell. 2017;41:591-604.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..The lipids are then packaged into spherical or budded lipid droplets (LDs) covered by a phospholipid monolayer containing proteins...
  42. Liu P, Huang G, Cao Z, Xie Q, Wei T, Huang C, et al. Haematopoietic TLR4 deletion attenuates perivascular brown adipose tissue inflammation in atherosclerotic mice. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:946-957 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect was associated with an increase in multilocular lipid droplets and mitochondria in perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
  43. Nolan S, Romano J, Coppens I. Host lipid droplets: An important source of lipids salvaged by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006362 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the exploitation of host lipid droplets (LD), ubiquitous fat storage organelles, by Toxoplasma...
  44. Zhao Y, Chen Y, Miao G, Zhao H, Qu W, Li D, et al. The ER-Localized Transmembrane Protein EPG-3/VMP1 Regulates SERCA Activity to Control ER-Isolation Membrane Contacts for Autophagosome Formation. Mol Cell. 2017;67:974-989.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..VMP1 also modulates ER contacts with lipid droplets, mitochondria, and endosomes. These ER contacts are greatly elevated by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin...
  45. Pène V, Lemasson M, Harper F, Pierron G, Rosenberg A. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0175810 pubmed publisher signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly ..
  46. Yan Y, Wang H, Hu M, Jiang L, Wang Y, Liu P, et al. HDAC6 Suppresses Age-Dependent Ectopic Fat Accumulation by Maintaining the Proteostasis of PLIN2 in Drosophila. Dev Cell. 2017;43:99-111.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that manipulation of proteostasis could be an alternative approach to the treatment of age-related metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes...
  47. Mesmin B, Bigay J, Polidori J, Jamecna D, Lacas Gervais S, Antonny B. Sterol transfer, PI4P consumption, and control of membrane lipid order by endogenous OSBP. EMBO J. 2017;36:3156-3174 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking OSBP causes accumulation of sterols at ER/lipid droplets at the expense of TGN, thereby reducing the gradient of lipid order along the secretory pathway...
  48. Siegler H, Valerius O, Ischebeck T, Popko J, Tourasse N, Vallon O, et al. Analysis of the lipid body proteome of the oleaginous alga Lobosphaera incisa. BMC Plant Biol. 2017;17:98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our dataset can serve as a valuable resource in the identification of additional LBPs, shedding more light on the intriguing roles of LBs in microalgae. ..
  49. Yu J, Yang X, Luo Y, Yang X, Yang M, Yang J, et al. Adverse effects of chronic exposure to nonylphenol on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180218 pubmed publisher
    ..examination of liver tissue from rats exposed to NP+HSHFD shown steatosis with marked accumulation of lipid droplets, hepatocellular ballooning degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration...
  50. Schott M, Rasineni K, Weller S, Schulze R, Sletten A, Casey C, et al. ?-Adrenergic induction of lipolysis in hepatocytes is inhibited by ethanol exposure. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11815-11828 pubmed publisher
    ..e. fatty liver), hepatocytes accumulate many large neutral lipid storage organelles known as lipid droplets (LDs)...