Summary: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.

Top Publications

  1. Rosell R, Wei J, Taron M. Circulating MicroRNA Signatures of Tumor-Derived Exosomes for Early Diagnosis of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer. Clin Lung Cancer. 2009;10:8-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Tual Chalot S, Leonetti D, Andriantsitohaina R, Martinez M. Microvesicles: intercellular vectors of biological messages. Mol Interv. 2011;11:88-94 pubmed publisher
  3. Qin X, Yu S, Zhou L, Shi M, Hu Y, Xu X, et al. Cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cell-derived exosomes increase cisplatin resistance of recipient cells in exosomal miR-100-5p-dependent manner. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:3721-3733 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes derived from lung cancer cells confer cisplatin (DDP) resistance to other cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. A549 resistance to DDP (A549/DDP) was established...
  4. Nabet B, Qiu Y, Shabason J, Wu T, Yoon T, Kim B, et al. Exosome RNA Unshielding Couples Stromal Activation to Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling in Cancer. Cell. 2017;170:352-366.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..This increase in RN7SL1 alters its stoichiometry with SRP9/14 and generates unshielded RN7SL1 in stromal exosomes. After exosome transfer to immune cells, unshielded RN7SL1 drives an inflammatory response...
  5. Chi K. The tumour trail left in blood. Nature. 2016;532:269-71 pubmed publisher
  6. Goetzl E, Schwartz J, Mustapic M, Lobach I, Daneman R, Abner E, et al. Altered cargo proteins of human plasma endothelial cell-derived exosomes in atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease. FASEB J. 2017;31:3689-3694 pubmed publisher
    Plasma endothelial cell-derived exosomes (EDEs) and platelet-derived exosomes (PDEs) were precipitated and enriched separately by immunospecific absorption procedures for analyses of cargo proteins relevant to atherosclerosis...
  7. Cao Y, Zhuang T, Xing B, Li N, Li Q. Exosomal DNMT1 mediates cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer. Cell Biochem Funct. 2017;35:296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..DNMT1 transcripts were highly enriched in exosomes from conditioned medium of ovarian cells...
  8. Cardozo C, Graham Z. Muscle-bone interactions: movement in the field of mechano-humoral coupling of muscle and bone. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;1402:10-17 pubmed publisher
    ..mass by the skeletal muscle secretome, with an emphasis on the roles of myostatin, irisin, interleukin-6, and exosomes. The interplay between muscle, bone, and other modulators of bone mass, including circadian rhythm and ..
  9. Twu O, Johnson P. Parasite extracellular vesicles: mediators of intercellular communication. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004289 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Yang Y, Qin M, Bao P, Xu W, Xu J. Secretory carrier membrane protein 5 is an autophagy inhibitor that promotes the secretion of ?-synuclein via exosome. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180892 pubmed publisher
    ..we have identified SCAMP5 as a novel coordinator of autophagy and exosome secretion, which is induced upon protein stress to channel the efficient clearance of toxic proteins via the exosomes rather than autophagy-lysosomal pathway.
  2. Ong S, Wu J. Exosomes as potential alternatives to stem cell therapy in mediating cardiac regeneration. Circ Res. 2015;117:7-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Hirsch E, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Balligand J, Tarone G, de Windt L, Bauersachs J, et al. Interaction of the heart and its close and distant neighbours: report of the Meeting of the ESC Working Groups Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:595-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Dorronsoro A, Robbins P. Regenerating the injured kidney with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013;4:39 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent reports have identified a class of microvesicles, termed exosomes, released by stem cells that are able to confer therapeutic effects on injured renal and cardiac tissue...
  5. Martens B, Hou L, Amman F, Wolfinger M, Evguenieva Hackenberg E, Blasi U. The SmAP1/2 proteins of the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus interact with the exosome and stimulate A-rich tailing of transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7938-7949 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the observation that the Sso SmAPs impact on the activity of the exosome revealed a hitherto unrecognized function of SmAPs in archaea. ..
  6. Todorova D, Simoncini S, Lacroix R, Sabatier F, Dignat George F. Extracellular Vesicles in Angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2017;120:1658-1673 pubmed publisher
    During the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, have emerged as important players in cell-to-cell communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions...
  7. Yuyama K, Igarashi Y. Physiological and pathological roles of exosomes in the nervous system. Biomol Concepts. 2016;7:53-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes represent a subtype of extracellular nanovesicles that are generated from the luminal budding of limiting endosomal membranes and subsequent exocytosis...
  8. Seo N. [Exosomes and Immune Cells]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2017;44:373-377 pubmed
    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade...
  9. Matei I, Kim H, Lyden D. Unshielding Exosomal RNA Unleashes Tumor Growth And Metastasis. Cell. 2017;170:223-225 pubmed publisher
    ..dynamic feedback between tumor and stroma subverts normal inflammatory responses by triggering the release of exosomes containing unshielded RNAs that activate pattern recognition receptors, thereby promoting tumor growth and ..
  10. Zhang H, Huang E, Kahwaji J, Nast C, Li P, Mirocha J, et al. Plasma Exosomes From HLA-Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients Contain mRNA Transcripts Which Predict Development of Antibody-Mediated Rejection. Transplantation. 2017;101:2419-2428 pubmed publisher
    ..the possibility of predicting the risk for AMR by measuring mRNA transcripts of AMR-associated genes in plasma exosomes from kidney transplant patients...
  11. Phinney D, Pittenger M. Concise Review: MSC-Derived Exosomes for Cell-Free Therapy. Stem Cells. 2017;35:851-858 pubmed publisher
    ..More recently, MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include exosomes and microvesicles (MV), are being examined for their role in MSC-based cellular therapy...
  12. Shao L, Zhang Y, Lan B, Wang J, Zhang Z, Zhang L, et al. MiRNA-Sequence Indicates That Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Exosomes Have Similar Mechanism to Enhance Cardiac Repair. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4150705 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in repairing infarcted hearts and to identify how MSC-Exo mediated cardiac repair is regulated...
  13. Lobb R, van Amerongen R, Wiegmans A, Ham S, Larsen J, Möller A. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal non-small cell lung cancer cells promote chemoresistance. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:614-620 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that small extracellular vesicles, exosomes, secreted by mesenchymal NSCLC cells could potentially transfer the chemoresistance phenotype to surrounding ..
  14. Martinez M, Andriantsitohaina R. Extracellular Vesicles in Metabolic Syndrome. Circ Res. 2017;120:1674-1686 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology ..
  15. Juzenas S, Venkatesh G, Hübenthal M, Hoeppner M, Du Z, Paulsen M, et al. A comprehensive, cell specific microRNA catalogue of human peripheral blood. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9290-9301 pubmed publisher
    ..cells, B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, T helper cells, monocytes, neutrophils and erythrocytes), serum, exosomes and whole blood. The peripheral blood cells from buffy coats were typed and sorted using FACS/MACS...
  16. Kim Y, Yoo S, Park H, Lim H, Kim Y, Lee S, et al. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1102-1108 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth...
  17. Nicolas F, Torres Martinez S, Ruiz Vázquez R. Loss and retention of RNA interference in fungi and parasites. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003089 pubmed publisher
  18. Sinha A, Yadav A, Chakraborty S, Kabra S, Lodha R, Kumar M, et al. Exosome-enclosed microRNAs in exhaled breath hold potential for biomarker discovery in patients with pulmonary diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:219-22 pubmed publisher
  19. Creţoiu S, Popescu L. Telocytes revisited. Biomol Concepts. 2014;5:353-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Tps release three types of extracellular vesicles: exosomes, ectosomes, and multivesicular cargos, which are involved in paracrine signaling...
  20. McBride J, Rodriguez Menocal L, Badiavas E. Extracellular Vesicles as Biomarkers and Therapeutics in Dermatology: A Focus on Exosomes. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:1622-1629 pubmed publisher
    Extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) are ubiquitous in human tissues, circulation, and body fluids...
  21. Nishida Aoki N, Ochiya T. [Multilateral Strategies Utilizing Exosomes for Cancer Therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2017;44:367-372 pubmed
    b>Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles which transfer their components such as RNA, DNA, and proteins from one cell to another cell...
  22. Wang B, Jia H, Zhang B, Wang J, Ji C, Zhu X, et al. Pre-incubation with hucMSC-exosomes prevents cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by activating autophagy. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:75 pubmed publisher
    ..Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes have been implicated as a novel therapeutic approach for tissue injury...
  23. Ngolab J, Trinh I, Rockenstein E, Mante M, Florio J, Trejo M, et al. Brain-derived exosomes from dementia with Lewy bodies propagate α-synuclein pathology. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2017;5:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have been identified in bodily fluids encased in extracellular vesicles called exosomes. Whether exosomes found in DLB patients can transmit pathology is not clear...
  24. Chen Y, Zeng C, Zhan Y, Wang H, Jiang X, Li W. Aberrant low expression of p85α in stromal fibroblasts promotes breast cancer cell metastasis through exosome-mediated paracrine Wnt10b. Oncogene. 2017;36:4692-4705 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, exosomes have a key role in paracrine Wnt10b transport from fibroblasts to breast cancer epithelial cells...
  25. Prieto D, Sotelo N, Seija N, Sernbo S, Abreu C, Duran R, et al. S100-A9 protein in exosomes from chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells promotes NF-?B activity during disease progression. Blood. 2017;130:777-788 pubmed publisher
    ..of this dynamic interplay between tumoral cells and their microenvironment are the nano-sized vesicles called exosomes. Emerging evidence indicates that secretion, composition, and functional capacity of exosomes are altered as ..
  26. Hao Z, Lu J, Wang S, Wu H, Zhang Y, Xu S. Stem cell-derived exosomes: A promising strategy for fracture healing. Cell Prolif. 2017;50: pubmed publisher
    To describe the biological characteristics of exosomes and to summarize the current status of stem cell-derived exosomes on fracture healing. Meanwhile, future challenges, limitations and perspectives are also discussed...
  27. Chen G, Xu J, Yang Y. Exosomes: promising sacks for treating ischemic heart disease?. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H508-H523 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Exosomes are a subpopulation of vesicles that are universally recognized as major mediators in intercellular communication...
  28. Truong G, Guanzon D, Kinhal V, Elfeky O, Lai A, Longo S, et al. Oxygen tension regulates the miRNA profile and bioactivity of exosomes released from extravillous trophoblast cells - Liquid biopsies for monitoring complications of pregnancy. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174514 pubmed publisher
    ..understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift since the recent recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling...
  29. Li P, Kaslan M, Lee S, Yao J, Gao Z. Progress in Exosome Isolation Techniques. Theranostics. 2017;7:789-804 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes are one type of membrane vesicles secreted into extracellular space by most types of cells...
  30. Ho L. Exosomes in lungs of patients with sarcoidosis: a contributor to immune pathogenesis or just another by-product of heightened immune activity?. Thorax. 2010;65:947-8 pubmed publisher
  31. Chang T, Tsai W, Huang T, Su S, Chang C, Ma H, et al. Dysregulation of endothelial colony-forming cell function by a negative feedback loop of circulating miR-146a and -146b in cardiovascular disease patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181562 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that when ECFCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with conditioned medium or purified exosomes of cultured CAD ECFCs, the secretory factors from CAD ECFCs dysregulated migration and tube formation ability of ..
  32. Matsumoto A, Takahashi Y, Nishikawa M, Sano K, Morishita M, Charoenviriyakul C, et al. Accelerated growth of B16BL6 tumor in mice through efficient uptake of their own exosomes by B16BL6 cells. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1803-1810 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by various cell types and play roles in cell-cell communication. Several studies indicate that cancer cell-derived exosomes play important pathophysiological roles in tumor progression...
  33. Selmaj I, Cichalewska M, Namiecinska M, Galazka G, Horzelski W, Selmaj K, et al. Global exosome transcriptome profiling reveals biomarkers for multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2017;81:703-717 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence supports a role for exosomes in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the total circulating exosome transcriptome in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and healthy controls (HC)...
  34. Chen T, Xi Q, Sun J, Ye R, Cheng X, Sun R, et al. Revelation of mRNAs and proteins in porcine milk exosomes by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:101 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent reports demonstrated that milk is enriched in maternal-derived exosomes that are involved in fetal physiological and pathological conditions by transmission of exosomal mRNAs, miRNAs ..
  35. Cao X, Lu J, Zhao Z, Li M, Lu T, An X, et al. MicroRNA biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in serum exosome-like microvesicles. Neurosci Lett. 2017;644:94-99 pubmed publisher
    ..753, 0.908, and 0.697, respectively. Therefore, analysis of the expression levels of miR-19b, miR-24, and miR-195 in serum may be useful for the diagnosis of PD. ..
  36. van den Boorn J, Schlee M, Coch C, Hartmann G. SiRNA delivery with exosome nanoparticles. Nat Biotechnol. 2011;29:325-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Eichmüller S, Osen W, Mandelboim O, Seliger B. Immune Modulatory microRNAs Involved in Tumor Attack and Tumor Immune Escape. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017;109: pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the characterization of miRNAs involved in the regulation of immune surveillance or immune escape of tumors and their potential use as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers or as therapeutic targets. ..
  38. Santangelo L, Battistelli C, Montaldo C, Citarella F, Strippoli R, Cicchini C. Functional Roles and Therapeutic Applications of Exosomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2931813 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes are important in intercellular communication. They assure the horizontal transfer of specific functional contents (i.e., proteins, lipids, RNA molecules, and circulating DNA) from donor to recipient cells...
  39. Edlinger L, Berger Becvar A, Menzl I, Hoermann G, Greiner G, Grundschober E, et al. Expansion of BCR/ABL1+ cells requires PAK2 but not PAK1. Br J Haematol. 2017;179:229-241 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that leukaemic cells produce exosomes containing PAK2. Transfer of isolated exosomes supports endothelial cell proliferation...
  40. Sahoo S, Emanueli C. Exosomes in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: The Next-Generation Therapeutic Targets?. Diabetes. 2016;65:2829-31 pubmed publisher
  41. Pitt J, Kroemer G, Zitvogel L. Extracellular vesicles: masters of intercellular communication and potential clinical interventions. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:1139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of EV signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, highlighting how certain EVs, particularly exosomes, can promote or regulate infections, host immune responses, development, and various diseases - notably cancer...
  42. Dai G, Yao X, Zhang Y, Gu J, Geng Y, Xue F, et al. Colorectal cancer cell-derived exosomes containing miR-10b regulate fibroblast cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Bull Cancer. 2018;105:336-349 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism by which CAFs develop in the tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Exosomes may be involved in activating CAFs...
  43. Leitherer S, Clos J, Liebler Tenorio E, Schleicher U, Bogdan C, Soulat D. Characterization of the Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase LmPRL-1 Secreted by Leishmania major via the Exosome Pathway. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..major led to an increased number of parasites in macrophages. From these data, we conclude that the L. major phosphatase LmPRL-1 contributes to the intracellular survival of the parasites in macrophages. ..
  44. Cai Z, Zhang W, Yang F, Yu L, Yu Z, Pan J, et al. Immunosuppressive exosomes from TGF-?1 gene-modified dendritic cells attenuate Th17-mediated inflammatory autoimmune disease by inducing regulatory T cells. Cell Res. 2012;22:607-10 pubmed publisher
  45. Datta A, Kim H, Lal M, McGee L, Johnson A, Moustafa A, et al. Manumycin A suppresses exosome biogenesis and secretion via targeted inhibition of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and hnRNP H1 in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2017;408:73-81 pubmed publisher
    Emerging evidence links exosomes to cancer progression by the trafficking of oncogenic factors and neoplastic reprogramming of stem cells...
  46. Street J, Yuen P, Star R. Bioactive exosomes: possibilities for diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2014;192:297-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Kumar S, Sinha N, Gerth K, Rahman M, Yallapu M, Midde N. Specific packaging and circulation of cytochromes P450, especially 2E1 isozyme, in human plasma exosomes and their implications in cellular communications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:675-680 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their presence and functional role in exosomes, small extracellular vesicles that are secreted from various cells into extracellular fluids including plasma, is ..
  48. Li Y, Zheng Q, Bao C, Li S, Guo W, Zhao J, et al. Circular RNA is enriched and stable in exosomes: a promising biomarker for cancer diagnosis. Cell Res. 2015;25:981-4 pubmed publisher
  49. Creaney J, Dick I, Leon J, Robinson B. A Proteomic Analysis of the Malignant Mesothelioma Secretome Using iTRAQ. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2017;14:103-117 pubmed
    ..The MM cell secretome is enriched in proteins that are likely to enhance its growth and response to stress and help it inhibit an adaptive immune response. These are potential targets for therapeutic and biomarker discovery. ..
  50. Wang C, Li Y, Fang X. Research progress on liquid biopsy in oncology and its clinical applications. Yi Chuan. 2017;39:220-231 pubmed publisher
    ..in the blood or other body fluids including circulating tumour cells (CTCs), circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) and exosomes. Nowadays, with the expansion of liquid biopsy research contents and the development of capture and detection ..
  51. Channavajjhala S, Rossato M, Morandini F, Castagna A, Pizzolo F, Bazzoni F, et al. Optimizing the purification and analysis of miRNAs from urinary exosomes. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014;52:345-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Exosomes are cytoplasm containing vesicles released by many cells that can be found in several biological fluids including urine...
  52. Liu Q, Rojas Canales D, DiVito S, Shufesky W, Stolz D, Erdos G, et al. Donor dendritic cell-derived exosomes promote allograft-targeting immune response. J Clin Invest. 2016;126:2805-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These EVs shared characteristics with exosomes and were internalized or remained attached to the recipient cDCs...
  53. Siles Lucas M, Sánchez Ovejero C, González Sánchez M, Gonzalez E, Falcón Pérez J, Boufana B, et al. Isolation and characterization of exosomes derived from fertile sheep hydatid cysts. Vet Parasitol. 2017;236:22-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These may be modulated by a crosstalk between extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs including exosomes and microvesicles are able to carry developmental signaling proteins which coordinate growth and establishment of ..