Summary: Large spherical double-layered structures which function in AUTOPHAGY to engulf intracellular components such as ORGANELLES or pathogens. Their outer membrane then fuses with the LYSOSOME and the inner membrane and contents are digested by lysosomal HYDROLASES.

Top Publications

  1. Laggner M, Pollreisz A, Schmidinger G, Schmidt Erfurth U, Chen Y. Autophagy mediates cell cycle response by regulating nucleocytoplasmic transport of PAX6 in limbal stem cells under ultraviolet-A stress. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180868 pubmed publisher
    ..The coupling of autophagic machinery and PAX6 in cell cycle regulation represents an attractive therapeutic target for hyperproliferative ocular surface disorders associated with solar radiation. ..
  2. Sáenz de Santa María I, Bernardo Castiñeira C, Enciso E, Garcia Moreno I, Chiara J, Suarez C, et al. Control of long-distance cell-to-cell communication and autophagosome transfer in squamous cell carcinoma via tunneling nanotubes. Oncotarget. 2017;8:20939-20960 pubmed publisher
    ..or mesenchymal phenotypes and allow the trafficking of endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, mitochondria, and autophagosomes between both types of cells...
  3. Zhao Y, Chen Y, Miao G, Zhao H, Qu W, Li D, et al. The ER-Localized Transmembrane Protein EPG-3/VMP1 Regulates SERCA Activity to Control ER-Isolation Membrane Contacts for Autophagosome Formation. Mol Cell. 2017;67:974-989.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides mechanistic insights into the establishment and disassociation of ER-IM contacts and reveals that VMP1 modulates SERCA activity to control ER contacts. ..
  4. Ko S, Jeon J, Myung H, Kim Y, Kim J. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Induces Formation of Autophagosomes in Endothelial Cells but Interferes with Fusion with Lysosomes for Complete Autophagic Flux through a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-, AP-1-, and C/EBP Homologous Protein-Dependen. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BFT induced accumulation of autophagosomes in ECs, but activation of a signaling pathway involving JNK, AP-1, and CHOP may interfere with complete ..
  5. Nishimura T, Tamura N, Kono N, Shimanaka Y, Arai H, Yamamoto H, et al. Autophagosome formation is initiated at phosphatidylinositol synthase-enriched ER subdomains. EMBO J. 2017;36:1719-1735 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the autophagy-initiation complex, the PIS-enriched ER subdomain, and ATG9A vesicles together initiate autophagosome formation. ..
  6. Zappavigna S, Lombardi A, Misso G, Grimaldi A, Caraglia M. Measurement of Autophagy by Flow Cytometry. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1553:209-216 pubmed publisher
    Autophagy activation is characterized by the accumulation of double-membrane autophagic vesicles (autophagosomes) in the cytoplasm...
  7. Hirata E, Ohya Y, Suzuki K. Atg4 plays an important role in efficient expansion of autophagic isolation membranes by cleaving lipidated Atg8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181047 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, it is likely that Atg2 is involved in localization of biological membranes to the VICS, where Atg4 is responsible for IM expansion. ..
  8. Frost L, Dhingra A, Reyes Reveles J, Boesze Battaglia K. The Use of DQ-BSA to Monitor the Turnover of Autophagy-Associated Cargo. Methods Enzymol. 2017;587:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Such noncanonical pathways include LC3-associated phagocytosis, better known as LAP. Both autophagosomes and LAPosomes (LC3-associated phagosomes) deliver cargo for degradation...
  9. Maiti K, Sultana Z, Aitken R, Morris J, Park F, Andrew B, et al. Evidence that fetal death is associated with placental aging. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:441.e1-441.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..aldehyde oxidase 1 expression, oxidation of DNA/RNA and lipid, perinuclear location of lysosomes, and larger autophagosomes compared to placentas from women delivered at 37-39 weeks...

More Information


  1. Alghamdi T, Majumder S, Thieme K, Batchu S, White K, Liu Y, et al. Janus Kinase 2 Regulates Transcription Factor EB Expression and Autophagy Completion in Glomerular Podocytes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;28:2641-2653 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also raise the possibility that therapeutically modulating TFEB activity may improve podocyte health in glomerular disease. ..
  2. Ma T, Zhang Y, Zhang C, Luo J, Kong L. Downregulation of TIGAR sensitizes the antitumor effect of physapubenolide through increasing intracellular ROS levels to trigger apoptosis and autophagosome formation in human breast carcinoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;143:90-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that downregulation of TIGAR increased PB-induced apoptosis and autophagosomes associated cell death through promoting ROS generation in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.
  3. González A, Muñoz V, Cavieres V, Bustamante H, Cornejo V, Januário Y, et al. Autophagosomes cooperate in the degradation of intracellular C-terminal fragments of the amyloid precursor protein via the MVB/lysosomal pathway. FASEB J. 2017;31:2446-2459 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that pharmacologic treatments that either inhibit autophagosome formation or block the fusion of autophagosomes to endolysosomal compartments caused an increase in C99 levels...
  4. Wu D, Xie F, Xiao L, Feng F, Huang S, He L, et al. Caveolin-1-Autophagy Pathway Mediated Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Apelin-13. DNA Cell Biol. 2017;36:611-618 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that caveolin-1-autophagy pathway mediated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by apelin-13/APJ system, which might provide a novel therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy disease. ..
  5. Nicolao M, Loos J, Rodríguez Rodrígues C, Beas V, Cumino A. Bortezomib initiates endoplasmic reticulum stress, elicits autophagy and death in Echinococcus granulosus larval stage. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181528 pubmed publisher
  6. Qiao Z, Lai W, Lin Y, Li D, Nan X, Wang Y, et al. Polymer-KLAK Peptide Conjugates Induce Cancer Cell Death through Synergistic Effects of Mitochondria Damage and Autophagy Blockage. Bioconjug Chem. 2017;28:1709-1721 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional experiments suggest that upon endocytosis, P-KLAK causes lysosome impairment and results in autophagosomes accumulation...
  7. Nascimbeni A, Giordano F, Dupont N, Grasso D, Vaccaro M, Codogno P, et al. ER-plasma membrane contact sites contribute to autophagosome biogenesis by regulation of local PI3P synthesis. EMBO J. 2017;36:2018-2033 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the contribution of ER-plasma membrane tethers to autophagosome biogenesis regulation and support the importance of membrane contact sites in autophagy. ..
  8. Roy S, Leidal A, Ye J, Ronen S, Debnath J. Autophagy-Dependent Shuttling of TBC1D5 Controls Plasma Membrane Translocation of GLUT1 and Glucose Uptake. Mol Cell. 2017;67:84-95.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, TBC1D5 shuttling to autophagosomes during metabolic stress facilitates retromer-dependent GLUT1 trafficking...
  9. Kakuta S, Yamaguchi J, Suzuki C, Sasaki M, Kazuno S, Uchiyama Y. Small GTPase Rab1B is associated with ATG9A vesicles and regulates autophagosome formation. FASEB J. 2017;31:3757-3773 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Rab1B is involved in regulating the proper development of autophagosomes.-Kakuta, S., Yamaguchi, J., Suzuki, C., Sasaki, M., Kazuno, S., Uchiyama, Y...
  10. Wei J, Xu H, Meng W. Noncentrosomal microtubules regulate autophagosome transport through CAMSAP2-EB1 cross-talk. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:2379-2393 pubmed publisher
    ..protein 2 (CAMSAP2), a noncentrosomal MT minus-end stabilizing protein, regulates retrograde transport of autophagosomes through MT dynamics...
  11. Lim S, Jin L, Luo K, Jin J, Yang C. Ginseng extract reduces tacrolimus-induced oxidative stress by modulating autophagy in pancreatic beta cells. Lab Invest. 2017;97:1271-1281 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagosomes, to KRGE further improved cell viability and insulin secretion, and bafilomycin A (BA), an inhibitor of ..
  12. Abreu S, Kriegenburg F, Gómez Sánchez R, Mari M, Sánchez Wandelmer J, Skytte Rasmussen M, et al. Conserved Atg8 recognition sites mediate Atg4 association with autophagosomal membranes and Atg8 deconjugation. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:765-780 pubmed publisher
  13. Wang L, Kim J, Liu H, Lai M, Ou J. HCV-induced autophagosomes are generated via homotypic fusion of phagophores that mediate HCV RNA replication. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006609 pubmed publisher
    ..its replication, including its RNA replication, which can take place on double-membrane vesicles known as autophagosomes. However, how HCV induces the biogenesis of autophagosomes and how HCV RNA replication complex may be ..
  14. Bahrami A, Lin M, Ren X, Hurley J, Hummer G. Scaffolding the cup-shaped double membrane in autophagy. PLoS Comput Biol. 2017;13:e1005817 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion of a small number of vesicles followed by Atg17-guided membrane shape-remodeling thus emerges as a viable route to phagophore formation. ..
  15. Ebner P, Poetsch I, Deszcz L, Hoffmann T, Zuber J, Ikeda F. The IAP family member BRUCE regulates autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Nat Commun. 2018;9:599 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of BRUCE leads to defective fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes...
  16. Giricz Z, Varga Z, Koncsos G, Nagy C, Gorbe A, Mentzer R, et al. Autophagosome formation is required for cardioprotection by chloramphenicol. Life Sci. 2017;186:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Inducing autophagy sequestration might yield novel therapeutic options against acute ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..
  17. Girault V, Gilard V, Marguet F, Lesueur C, Hauchecorne M, Ramdani Y, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure impairs autophagy in neonatal brain cortical microvessels. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2610 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the progression from autophagosomes to autolysosomes, which was monitored using autophagic flux inhibitors and mRFP-EGFP vector, showed a decrease ..
  18. Morandi E, Jagessar S, t Hart B, Gran B. EBV Infection Empowers Human B Cells for Autoimmunity: Role of Autophagy and Relevance to Multiple Sclerosis. J Immunol. 2017;199:435-448 pubmed publisher
    ..Internalized MOG colocalized with autophagosomes, which can protect from destructive processing...
  19. Padman B, Nguyen T, Lazarou M. Autophagosome formation and cargo sequestration in the absence of LC3/GABARAPs. Autophagy. 2017;13:772-774 pubmed publisher
    It has been widely assumed that Atg8 family LC3/GABARAP proteins are essential for the formation of autophagosomes during macroautophagy/autophagy, and the sequestration of cargo during selective autophagy...
  20. Wang J, Davis S, Zhu M, Miller E, Ferro Novick S. Autophagosome formation: Where the secretory and autophagy pathways meet. Autophagy. 2017;13:973-974 pubmed publisher
    ..facilitates the interaction of Sec24 with the Atg machinery (specifically, Atg9) to regulate the abundance of autophagosomes during starvation...
  21. Zhang M, Wang S, Cheng Z, Xiong Z, Lv J, Yang Z, et al. Polydatin ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy via Sirt3 activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1280-1287 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that Polydatin (PD) alleviates cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) injury. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which PD regulates diabetic cardiomyopathy has not been reported...
  22. Zhou F, Zou S, Chen Y, Lipatova Z, Sun D, Zhu X, et al. A Rab5 GTPase module is important for autophagosome closure. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1007020 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results delineate three successive steps in the autophagy pathway regulated by Rabs, Ypt1, Vps21 and Ypt7, and provide the first insight into the upstream regulation of AP closure...
  23. Green D, Young H, Valencia J. Current prospects of type II interferon ? signaling and autoimmunity. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13925-13933 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will provide an introduction into IFN? signaling biology and the functional roles of IFN? in the autoimmune response. ..
  24. Murray J, Yin D, Wolkoff A. Reduction of organelle motility by removal of potassium and other solutes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184898 pubmed publisher
    ..confirmed in 5 independent cell lines and for organelles of the endocytic pathway (FL-EGF and Lysotracker), autophagosomes (LC3-GFP), and mitochondria (TMRE)...
  25. Kim J, Wang L, Lee J, Ou J. Hepatitis C Virus Induces the Localization of Lipid Rafts to Autophagosomes for Its RNA Replication. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..It uses double- or multiple-membrane vesicles termed autophagosomes to remove protein aggregates and damaged organelles from the cytoplasm for recycling...
  26. Wu D, Adamopoulos I. Loss of WDFY3 ameliorates severity of serum transfer-induced arthritis independently of autophagy. Cell Immunol. 2017;316:61-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that loss of WDFY3 in myeloid cells leads to reduced severity of inflammatory arthritis independently of WDFY3 function in starvation-induced autophagy. ..
  27. Roscioli E, Tran H, Jersmann H, Nguyen P, Hopkins E, Lester S, et al. The uncoupling of autophagy and zinc homeostasis in airway epithelial cells as a fundamental contributor to COPD. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L453-L465 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the uncoupling of Zn trafficking and autophagy in AECs constitutes a fundamental disease-related mechanism for COPD pathogenesis and could provide a new therapeutic target. ..
  28. Lamb C, Joachim J, Tooze S. Quantifying Autophagic Structures in Mammalian Cells Using Confocal Microscopy. Methods Enzymol. 2017;587:21-42 pubmed publisher
    Autophagy relies on the sequential, hierarchical association of proteins with phagophores, and forming autophagosomes to allow completion of the process...
  29. Biazik J, Vihinen H, Jokitalo E, Eskelinen E. Ultrastructural Characterization of Phagophores Using Electron Tomography on Cryoimmobilized and Freeze Substituted Samples. Methods Enzymol. 2017;587:331-349 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we describe our protocol for cryoimmobilization using high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution, and report our first findings on phagophore morphology using this approach. ..
  30. Lőrincz P, Tóth S, Benkő P, Lakatos Z, Boda A, Glatz G, et al. Rab2 promotes autophagic and endocytic lysosomal degradation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1937-1947 pubmed publisher
    Rab7 promotes fusion of autophagosomes and late endosomes with lysosomes in yeast and metazoan cells, acting together with its effector, the tethering complex HOPS...
  31. Lu K, den Brave F, Jentsch S. Receptor oligomerization guides pathway choice between proteasomal and autophagic degradation. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:732-739 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work thus suggests that proteasomal degradation and selective autophagy are two branches of an adaptive protein quality control pathway, which uses substrate ubiquitylation as a shared degradation signal. ..
  32. Saito S, Zhuang Y, Shan B, Danchuk S, Luo F, Korfei M, et al. Tubastatin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by targeting the TGFβ-PI3K-Akt pathway. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186615 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Tubastatin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis, by targeting the TGFβ-PI3K-Akt pathway, likely via an HDAC6-independent mechanism. ..
  33. Sin J, McIntyre L, Stotland A, Feuer R, Gottlieb R. Coxsackievirus B Escapes the Infected Cell in Ejected Mitophagosomes. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we have previously reported that these viral EMVs have LC3, suggesting that they originated from autophagosomes. We now report that CVB-infected cells trigger DRP1-mediated fragmentation of mitochondria, which is a ..
  34. Guo L, Zhou L, Gao Q, Zhang A, Wei J, Hong D, et al. MicroRNA-144-3p inhibits autophagy activation and enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection by targeting ATG4a in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179772 pubmed publisher
    ..of miR-144-3p significantly decreased both mRNA and protein levels of ATG4a, inhibited the formation of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells and increased intracellular survival of BCG...
  35. Chen J, Zhao D, Zhu M, Zhang M, Hou X, Ding W, et al. Paeoniflorin ameliorates AGEs-induced mesangial cell injury through inhibiting RAGE/mTOR/autophagy pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;89:1362-1369 pubmed publisher
    ..While PF could decrease the expression of LC3II/LC3I and reduce the number of autophagosomes. Knockdown of Atg5 promoted the protective effect of PF on AGEs-induced HBZY-1 injury...
  36. Vent Schmidt R, Wen R, Zong Z, Chiu C, Tam B, May C, et al. Opposing Effects of Valproic Acid Treatment Mediated by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Activity in Four Transgenic X. laevis Models of Retinitis Pigmentosa. J Neurosci. 2017;37:1039-1054 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, electron microscopy showed increased autophagosomes in rod inner segments with HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) treatment, potentially linking the therapeutic effects in ..
  37. Zhang X, Wang L, Lak B, Li J, Jokitalo E, Wang Y. GRASP55 Senses Glucose Deprivation through O-GlcNAcylation to Promote Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion. Dev Cell. 2018;45:245-261.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..De-O-GlcNAcylated GRASP55 forms puncta outside of the Golgi area, which co-localize with autophagosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes...
  38. Arakawa S, Honda S, Yamaguchi H, Shimizu S. Molecular mechanisms and physiological roles of Atg5/Atg7-independent alternative autophagy. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2017;93:378-385 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found that cells lacking ATG5 or ATG7 can still form autophagosomes/autolysosomes and perform autophagic protein degradation when subjected to certain types of stress...
  39. Ding N, Zhao K, Lan Y, Li Z, Lv X, Su J, et al. Induction of Atypical Autophagy by Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus Contributes to Viral Replication. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2017;7:56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that PHEV infection induces atypical autophagy and causes the appearance of autophagosomes but blocks the fusion with lysosomes, which is necessary for the replication of PHEV in nerve cells.
  40. Tandon M, Othman A, Ashok V, Stein G, Pratap J. The role of Runx2 in facilitating autophagy in metastatic breast cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2018;233:559-571 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of autophagy via Runx2 and provide molecular insights into the role of autophagy in metastatic cancer cells. ..
  41. Pengo N, Agrotis A, Prak K, Jones J, Ketteler R. A reversible phospho-switch mediated by ULK1 regulates the activity of autophagy protease ATG4B. Nat Commun. 2017;8:294 pubmed publisher
    ..ubiquitin-like protein LC3 is conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the inner and outer membrane of autophagosomes to allow cargo selection and autophagosome formation...
  42. Button R, Roberts S, Willis T, Hanemann C, Luo S. Accumulation of autophagosomes confers cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13599-13614 pubmed publisher
    ..may be associated with decreased lysosomal activity, which may result in reduced processing of the excessive autophagosomes by the rate-limiting lysosomal activity...
  43. Bechor S, Nachmias D, Elia N, Haim Y, Vatarescu M, Leikin Frenkel A, et al. Adipose tissue conditioned media support macrophage lipid-droplet biogenesis by interfering with autophagic flux. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2017;1862:1001-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..3 Vs 0.3 LDs/cells/h, p<0.005). Autophagic flux was decreased by AT-CM, and fluorescently following autophagosomes over time revealed ~20% decline in new autophagic vesicles' formation rate, and 60-70% decrease in ..
  44. Liu F, Wang X, Zhou X, Liu Z, Song X, Wang Z, et al. Cadmium disrupts autophagic flux by inhibiting cytosolic Ca2+-dependent autophagosome-lysosome fusion in primary rat proximal tubular cells. Toxicology. 2017;383:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Resultantly, Cd-induced autophagosomes accumulation was obviously modulated by 2-APB, BAPTA-AM and TG, respectively...
  45. Liu T, Liu Y, Miller M, Cao L, Zhao J, Wu J, et al. Autophagy plays a role in FSTL1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition and airway remodeling in asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L27-L40 pubmed publisher
    ..With the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), double-membrane autophagosomes were detected in the airways of patients and mice...
  46. Cao Z, Huang S, Dou C, Xiang Q, Dong S. Cyanidin suppresses autophagic activity regulating chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that cyanidin was a potential therapeutic agent for keeping mature chondrocyte functions. ..
  47. Pal D, Suman S, Kolluru V, Sears S, Das T, Alatassi H, et al. Inhibition of autophagy prevents cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm that inhibition of autophagy by Pso plays an important role in the chemoprevention of cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis. ..
  48. Joshi A, Zhang H, Prinz W. Organelle biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:876-882 pubmed publisher