spindle apparatus


Summary: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.

Top Publications

  1. Faramarzi A, Khalili M, Agha Rahimi A, Omidi M. Is there any correlation between oocyte polarization microscopy findings with embryo time lapse monitoring in ICSI program?. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2017;295:1515-1522 pubmed publisher
    ..So, combining the information from both oocyte polarization microscopy imaging and embryo TLM can be a useful tool for single embryo transfer (SET) program. ..
  2. Sawin K, Mitchison T, Wordeman L. Evidence for kinesin-related proteins in the mitotic apparatus using peptide antibodies. J Cell Sci. 1992;101 ( Pt 2):303-13 pubmed
  3. Janczyk P, Skorupka K, Tooley J, Matson D, Kestner C, WEST T, et al. Mechanism of Ska Recruitment by Ndc80 Complexes to Kinetochores. Dev Cell. 2017;41:438-449.e4 pubmed publisher
  4. Tipton A, Wren J, Daum J, Siefert J, Gorbsky G. GTSE1 regulates spindle microtubule dynamics to control Aurora B kinase and Kif4A chromokinesin on chromosome arms. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3117-3132 pubmed publisher
    ..A consequence of this reduced microtubule turnover is diminished recruitment and activity of Aurora B kinase on chromosome arms. This decrease in Aurora B results in diminished binding of the chromokinesin Kif4A to chromosome arms. ..
  5. Beaven R, Bastos R, Spanos C, Romé P, Cullen C, Rappsilber J, et al. 14-3-3 regulation of Ncd reveals a new mechanism for targeting proteins to the spindle in oocytes. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3029-3039 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, 14-3-3 translates a spatial cue provided by Aurora B to target Ncd selectively to the spindle within the large volume of oocytes. ..
  6. Mullen T, Wignall S. Interplay between microtubule bundling and sorting factors ensures acentriolar spindle stability during C. elegans oocyte meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006986 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our studies have revealed an interplay between distinct mechanisms that together promote spindle formation and chromosome segregation in the absence of structural cues such as centrioles. ..
  7. Wang H, Choe M, Lee I, Namgoong S, Kim J, Kim N, et al. CIP2A acts as a scaffold for CEP192-mediated microtubule organizing center assembly by recruiting Plk1 and aurora A during meiotic maturation. Development. 2017;144:3829-3839 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CIP2A acts as a scaffold for CEP192-mediated MTOC assembly by recruiting Plk1 and aurora A during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. ..
  8. Thakur H, Singh M, Nagel Steger L, Prumbaum D, Fansa E, Gremer L, et al. Role of centrosomal adaptor proteins of the TACC family in the regulation of microtubule dynamics during mitotic cell division. Biol Chem. 2013;394:1411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cells pass through an extensive microtubule rearrangement process where microtubules forming the mitotic spindle apparatus are dynamically instable...
  9. Moir R, Yoon M, Khuon S, Goldman R. Nuclear lamins A and B1: different pathways of assembly during nuclear envelope formation in living cells. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:1155-68 pubmed
    ..In later stages of G1, FRAP analyses suggest that both green fluorescent protein lamins A and B1 form higher order polymers throughout interphase nuclei. ..

More Information


  1. Velmurugan S, Yang X, Chan C, Dobson M, Jayaram M. Partitioning of the 2-microm circle plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional coordination with chromosome segregation and plasmid-encoded rep protein distribution. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:553-66 pubmed
    ..They further indicate that the plasmid partitioning mechanism may exploit at least some of the components of the cellular machinery required for chromosomal segregation. ..
  2. Komaki S, Schnittger A. The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint in Arabidopsis Is Rapidly Shut Off during Severe Stress. Dev Cell. 2017;43:172-185.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..This resetting opens the possibility for genome duplications and raises the hypothesis that a rapid termination of a SAC-induced mitotic arrest provides an adaptive advantage for plants impacting plant genome evolution...
  3. Khodjakov A, Pines J. Centromere tension: a divisive issue. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:919-23 pubmed publisher
  4. Maiato H, Logarinho E. Mitotic spindle multipolarity without centrosome amplification. Nat Cell Biol. 2014;16:386-94 pubmed
    ..We also present the distinct and common features between these pathways and discuss their therapeutic implications. ..
  5. Agircan F, Schiebel E, Mardin B. Separate to operate: control of centrosome positioning and separation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014;369: pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of centrosome positioning and separation, and describe their functions and mechanisms in the light of recent findings. ..
  6. Brieño Enríquez M, Moak S, Holloway J, Cohen P. NIMA-related kinase 1 (NEK1) regulates meiosis I spindle assembly by altering the balance between ?-Adducin and Myosin X. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185780 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a novel regulatory role for NEK1 in the regulation of spindle architecture and function during meiosis. ..
  7. Wang H, Guo J, Lin Z, Namgoong S, Oh J, Kim N. Filamin A is required for spindle migration and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes. FASEB J. 2017;31:3677-3688 pubmed publisher
    ..Wang, H., Guo J., Lin, Z., Namgoong, S., Oh, J. S., Kim, N.-H. Filamin A is required for spindle migration and asymmetric division in mouse oocytes. ..
  8. Burri O, Wolf B, Seitz A, GONCZY P. TRACMIT: An effective pipeline for tracking and analyzing cells on micropatterns through mitosis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179752 pubmed publisher
  9. Barbosa D, Duro J, Prevo B, Cheerambathur D, Carvalho A, Gassmann R. Dynactin binding to tyrosinated microtubules promotes centrosome centration in C. elegans by enhancing dynein-mediated organelle transport. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006941 pubmed publisher
  10. Tao Y, Yang G, Yang H, Song D, Hu L, Xie B, et al. TRIP13 impairs mitotic checkpoint surveillance and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:26718-26731 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that TRIP13 may serve as a biomarker for MM disease development and prognosis, making it a potential target for future therapies. ..
  11. Chen D, Ito S, Hyodo T, Asano Inami E, Yuan H, Senga T. Phosphorylation of DEPDC1 at Ser110 is required to maintain centrosome organization during mitosis. Exp Cell Res. 2017;358:101-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show a novel role for DEPDC1 in maintaining centrosome integrity during mitosis for the accurate distribution of chromosomes. ..
  12. Cullati S, Kabeche L, Kettenbach A, Gerber S. A bifurcated signaling cascade of NIMA-related kinases controls distinct kinesins in anaphase. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2339-2354 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover an anaphase-specific function for these effector kinesins that is controlled by specific Nek kinase signaling modules to properly coordinate cytokinesis. ..
  13. Forth S, Kapoor T. The mechanics of microtubule networks in cell division. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1525-1531 pubmed publisher
    ..New findings, such as length-dependent force generation, protein clustering by asymmetric friction, and entropic expansion forces will help advance models of force generation needed for spindle function and maintaining integrity. ..
  14. Gulluni F, Martini M, De Santis M, Campa C, Ghigo A, Margaria J, et al. Mitotic Spindle Assembly and Genomic Stability in Breast Cancer Require PI3K-C2? Scaffolding Function. Cancer Cell. 2017;32:444-459.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence of altered spindle, loss of PI3K-C2? increases sensitivity to taxane-based therapy in pre-clinical models and in neoadjuvant settings. ..
  15. Buđa R, Vukusic K, Tolić I. Dissection and characterization of microtubule bundles in the mitotic spindle using femtosecond laser ablation. Methods Cell Biol. 2017;139:81-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the method described here can be easily combined with other quantitative techniques to address the complexity of the spindle. ..
  16. Petridou N, Spiro Z, Heisenberg C. Multiscale force sensing in development. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:581-588 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Review, we will discuss how the interplay and feedback between mechanical and biochemical signals control tissue morphogenesis and cell fate specification in embryonic development. ..
  17. Kyogoku H, Kitajima T. Large Cytoplasm Is Linked to the Error-Prone Nature of Oocytes. Dev Cell. 2017;41:287-298.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study defines a large cytoplasmic volume as a cell-intrinsic feature linked to the error-prone nature of oocytes. This may represent a trade-off between meiotic fidelity and post-fertilization developmental competence. ..
  18. Jevtic P, Levy D. More Cytoplasm, More Problems. Dev Cell. 2017;41:221-223 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors find that large cytoplasmic volume affects spindle pole morphology, chromosome alignment, and stringency of checkpoint signaling, resulting in error-prone chromosome segregation. ..
  19. Combes G, Alharbi I, Braga L, Elowe S. Playing polo during mitosis: PLK1 takes the lead. Oncogene. 2017;36:4819-4827 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the recent work describing the regulation of these kinases by PLK1. We highlight common themes throughout and argue that a major mitotic function of PLK1 is as a master regulator of these key kinases. ..
  20. Holmfeldt P, Larsson N, Segerman B, Howell B, Morabito J, Cassimeris L, et al. The catastrophe-promoting activity of ectopic Op18/stathmin is required for disruption of mitotic spindles but not interphase microtubules. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:73-83 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that specific Op18 derivatives with defined activity-profiles can be used as probes to distinguish interphase and mitotic MTs. ..
  21. Joglekar A, Aravamudhan P. How the kinetochore switches off the spindle assembly checkpoint. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:7-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Marzesco A, Mora Bermúdez F, Huttner W. Neurogenesis in G minor. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:669-71 pubmed publisher
  23. Sampson J, O Regan L, Dyer M, Bayliss R, Fry A. Hsp72 and Nek6 Cooperate to Cluster Amplified Centrosomes in Cancer Cells. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4785-4796 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the Nek6-Hsp72 module represents a novel actionable pathway for selective targeting of cancer cells with amplified centrosomes. Cancer Res; 77(18); 4785-96. ©2017 AACR. ..
  24. Panzica M, Marin H, Reymann A, McNally F. F-actin prevents interaction between sperm DNA and the oocyte meiotic spindle in C. elegans. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2273-2282 pubmed publisher
    ..However, increasing yolk granule size did not slow their velocity, and the F-actin moved with the yolk granules. Instead, sperm contents connect to the cortical F-actin to prevent interaction with the meiotic spindle. ..
  25. Shafer M, Nguyen A, Tremblay M, Viala S, Béland M, Bertos N, et al. Lineage Specification from Prostate Progenitor Cells Requires Gata3-Dependent Mitotic Spindle Orientation. Stem Cell Reports. 2017;8:1018-1031 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results identify a critical role for GATA3 in prostate lineage specification, and further highlight the importance of regulating spindle orientation for hierarchical cell lineage organization. ..
  26. Li T, Mary H, Grosjean M, Fouchard J, Cabello S, Reyes C, et al. MAARS: a novel high-content acquisition software for the analysis of mitotic defects in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:1601-1611 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study illustrates that such an expert system of mitotic progression is able to highlight the complexity of the mechanisms required to prevent chromosome loss during cell division. ..
  27. Renicke C, Allmann A, Lutz A, Heimerl T, Taxis C. The Mitotic Exit Network Regulates Spindle Pole Body Selection During Sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2017;206:919-937 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the improved system for a developmental-specific tool to induce protein depletion will be useful in other biological contexts. ..
  28. Mooberry S, Tien G, Hernandez A, Plubrukarn A, Davidson B. Laulimalide and isolaulimalide, new paclitaxel-like microtubule-stabilizing agents. Cancer Res. 1999;59:653-60 pubmed
    ..Laulimalide and isolaulimalide represent a new class of microtubule-stabilizing agents with activities that may provide therapeutic utility. ..
  29. McHugh T, Welburn J. Dynein at kinetochores: Making the connection. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:855-857 pubmed publisher
    ..2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201611060) reveal the molecular basis for how dynein and its adaptor protein Spindly are recruited to the ROD-Zw10-Zwilch complex in the fibrous corona of unattached kinetochores. ..
  30. Ohkura H. Meiosis: an overview of key differences from mitosis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Although a great degree of diversity can be found among organisms, meiosis-specific processes, and regulation are generally conserved. ..
  31. Morgan D. Cell division: Mitotic regulation comes into focus. Nature. 2016;536:407-8 pubmed
  32. Estrem C, Fees C, Moore J. Dynein is regulated by the stability of its microtubule track. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2047-2058 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that interplay among dynein, dynactin, and the stability of the microtubule substrate creates a mechanism that regulates accurate spindle positioning. ..
  33. Dix C, Matthews H, Uroz M, McLaren S, Wolf L, Heatley N, et al. The Role of Mitotic Cell-Substrate Adhesion Re-modeling in Animal Cell Division. Dev Cell. 2018;45:132-145.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..In this way, regulated re-modeling of cell-substrate adhesions during mitotic rounding aids division in animal cells. ..
  34. Shamsuzzaman M, Bommakanti A, Zapinsky A, Rahman N, Pascual C, Lindahl L. Analysis of cell cycle parameters during the transition from unhindered growth to ribosomal and translational stress conditions. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186494 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential implications for the mechanisms of diseases caused by mutations in ribosomal genes (ribosomopathies) are discussed...
  35. Kuhn J, Dumont S. Spindle assembly checkpoint satisfaction occurs via end-on but not lateral attachments under tension. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1533-1542 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, Mad1 loss begins after several end-on microtubules attach. Thus, end-on attachment provides geometry-specific molecular cues or force on specific kinetochore linkages that other attachment geometries cannot provide. ..
  36. Adames N, Cooper J. Microtubule interactions with the cell cortex causing nuclear movements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:863-74 pubmed
    ..Conversely, microtubule sliding can move the nucleus into the neck even when capture/shrinkage is impaired. ..
  37. Byrnes A, Slep K. TOG-tubulin binding specificity promotes microtubule dynamics and mitotic spindle formation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1641-1657 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a TOG5-specific role in mitotic fidelity and support our hypothesis that architecturally distinct TOGs arranged in a sequence-specific order underlie TOG array microtubule regulator activity. ..
  38. Eritano A, Altamirano A, Beyeler S, Gaytan N, Velasquez M, Riggs B. The endoplasmic reticulum is partitioned asymmetrically during mitosis before cell fate selection in proneuronal cells in the early Drosophila embryo. Mol Biol Cell. 2017;28:1530-1538 pubmed publisher
  39. Meadows J, Lancaster T, Buttrick G, Sochaj A, Messin L, Del Mar Mora Santos M, et al. Identification of a Sgo2-Dependent but Mad2-Independent Pathway Controlling Anaphase Onset in Fission Yeast. Cell Rep. 2017;18:1422-1433 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that interaction of CPC with Klp9 terminates a Sgo2-dependent, but Mad2-independent, APC/C-inhibitory pathway that is distinct from the canonical SAC. ..
  40. Elledge S. Cell cycle checkpoints: preventing an identity crisis. Science. 1996;274:1664-72 pubmed
    ..Checkpoint pathways have components shared among all eukaryotes, underscoring the conservation of cell cycle regulatory machinery. ..
  41. Li P, Jin H, Koch B, Abblett R, Han X, Yates J, et al. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006830 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery. ..
  42. Bettencourt Dias M. Q&A: Who needs a centrosome?. BMC Biol. 2013;11:28 pubmed publisher
  43. Nikalayevich E, Ohkura H. The NuRD nucleosome remodelling complex and NHK-1 kinase are required for chromosome condensation in oocytes. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:566-75 pubmed
    ..We further show that NHK-1 is important for chromosome condensation during mitosis as well as in oocytes. ..
  44. Casoni F, Croci L, Bosone C, D Ambrosio R, Badaloni A, Gaudesi D, et al. Zfp423/ZNF423 regulates cell cycle progression, the mode of cell division and the DNA-damage response in Purkinje neuron progenitors. Development. 2017;144:3686-3697 pubmed publisher
  45. Prosser S, Pelletier L. Mitotic spindle assembly in animal cells: a fine balancing act. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2017;18:187-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this research has increased our understanding of how cells coordinate hundreds of proteins to assemble the dynamic, precise and robust structure that is the mitotic spindle. ..
  46. Zhang J, Ma R, Li L, Wang L, Hou X, Han L, et al. Intersectin 2 controls actin cap formation and meiotic division in mouse oocytes through the Cdc42 pathway. FASEB J. 2017;31:4277-4285 pubmed publisher
    ..Zhang, J., Ma, R., Li, L., Wang, L., Hou, X., Han, L., Ge, J., Li, M., Wang, Q. Intersectin 2 controls actin cap formation and meiotic division in mouse oocytes through the Cdc42 pathway. ..
  47. Goldstein A, Siegler N, Goldman D, Judah H, Valk E, Kõivomägi M, et al. Three Cdk1 sites in the kinesin-5 Cin8 catalytic domain coordinate motor localization and activity during anaphase. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017;74:3395-3412 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that each phosphorylation site plays a unique role in regulating Cin8 functions and postulate a model in which the timing and extent of phosphorylation of the three sites orchestrates the anaphase function of Cin8. ..
  48. Scarfone I, Piatti S. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1. Small Gtpases. 2015;6:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning. ..
  49. Sundquist W, Ullman K. CELL BIOLOGY. An ESCRT to seal the envelope. Science. 2015;348:1314-5 pubmed publisher
  50. Schmidt R, Fielmich L, Grigoriev I, Katrukha E, Akhmanova A, van den Heuvel S. Two populations of cytoplasmic dynein contribute to spindle positioning in C. elegans embryos. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2777-2793 pubmed publisher
  51. Karg T, Elting M, Vicars H, Dumont S, Sullivan W. The chromokinesin Klp3a and microtubules facilitate acentric chromosome segregation. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1597-1608 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate an unsuspected role for interpolar microtubules in driving acentric segregation. ..
  52. Heath I. Variant mitoses in lower eukaryotes: indicators of the evolution of mitosis. Int Rev Cytol. 1980;64:1-80 pubmed
  53. Ali A, Veeranki S, Chinchole A, Tyagi S. MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis. Dev Cell. 2017;41:605-622.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised ..