microtubule organizing center

Summary

Summary: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.

Top Publications

  1. Sawin K, Lourenco P, Snaith H. Microtubule nucleation at non-spindle pole body microtubule-organizing centers requires fission yeast centrosomin-related protein mod20p. Curr Biol. 2004;14:763-75 pubmed
    ..These are the equatorial MTOC, which nucleates microtubules from the cell division site at the end of mitosis, and interphase MTOCs, which nucleate microtubules from multiple sites near the cell nucleus during interphase...
  2. Lüders J, Stearns T. Microtubule-organizing centres: a re-evaluation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007;8:161-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the spatio-temporal control of microtubule nucleation is more complex than previously thought, leading us to a re-evaluation of the concept of the microtubule-organizing center...
  3. Oakley B, Akkari Y. Gamma-tubulin at ten: progress and prospects. Cell Struct Funct. 1999;24:365-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, there is evidence that gamma-tubulin has important functions in addition to microtubule nucleation, and these functions are just beginning to be investigated...
  4. Martín Cófreces N, Robles Valero J, Cabrero J, Mittelbrunn M, Gordón Alonso M, Sung C, et al. MTOC translocation modulates IS formation and controls sustained T cell signaling. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:951-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal MTOC translocation as an important mechanism underlying IS formation and sustained T cell signaling...
  5. Bailey C, Crystal R, Leopold P. Association of adenovirus with the microtubule organizing center. J Virol. 2003;77:13275-87 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that in cells lacking a nucleus, the capsid moves to and associates with the microtubule organizing center (MTOC)...
  6. Doxsey S, McCollum D, Theurkauf W. Centrosomes in cellular regulation. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2005;21:411-34 pubmed
    ..These new liaisons between MTOCs and cellular regulation are the focus of this review. Elucidation of these and other previously unappreciated centrosome functions promises to yield exciting scientific discovery for some time to come...
  7. Grieshaber S, Grieshaber N, Hackstadt T. Chlamydia trachomatis uses host cell dynein to traffic to the microtubule-organizing center in a p50 dynamitin-independent process. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:3793-802 pubmed
  8. Mayer C, Filopei J, Batac J, Alford L, Paluh J. An extended anaphase signaling pathway for Mad2p includes microtubule organizing center proteins and multiple motor-dependent transitions. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:1456-63 pubmed
    ..We determined that Mad2p associates with the microtubule organizing center complex through direct binding to Alp4p and that microtubule motor proteins Kinesin-14 Pkl1 and Dynein ..
  9. Blanchard N, Di Bartolo V, Hivroz C. In the immune synapse, ZAP-70 controls T cell polarization and recruitment of signaling proteins but not formation of the synaptic pattern. Immunity. 2002;17:389-99 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ZAP-70 is not required for clustering of zeta-GFP and CD2 or exclusion of CD45 and CD43 from the synapse. These data show that ZAP-70-dependent signaling is required for formation of a functional immune synapse...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Egana A, Boyle J, Ernst S. Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis oocytes maintain a microtubule organizing center throughout oogenesis: implications for the establishment of egg polarity in sea urchins. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:76-87 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that in echinoderms the polarity of the PGCs in the germinal epithelium influences the final polarity of the mature egg...
  2. Chen X, Allan D, Krzewski K, Ge B, Kopcow H, Strominger J. CD28-stimulated ERK2 phosphorylation is required for polarization of the microtubule organizing center and granules in YTS NK cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10346-10351 pubmed publisher
    ..a conjugate with a susceptible target cell, followed by actin polymerization, and polarization of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and cytolytic granules to the NK cell immune synapse...
  3. Rodriguez A, Batac J, Killilea A, Filopei J, Simeonov D, Lin I, et al. Protein complexes at the microtubule organizing center regulate bipolar spindle assembly. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:1246-53 pubmed
    ..To investigate the contribution of spindle pole microtubule organizing center (MTOC) proteins in bipolarity, we applied genetic, structural and molecular biochemical analysis along ..
  4. Cottam D, Tucker J, Rogers Bald M, Mackie J, Macintyre J, Scarborough J, et al. Non-centrosomal microtubule-organising centres in cold-treated cultured Drosophila cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2006;63:88-100 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the cold-induced MT clusters represent acentrosomal MTOCs, allowing rapid reassembly of MT arrays following exposure to cold...
  5. Combs J, Kim S, Tan S, Ligon L, Holzbaur E, Kuhn J, et al. Recruitment of dynein to the Jurkat immunological synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14883-8 pubmed
  6. Wiese C, Zheng Y. Microtubule nucleation: gamma-tubulin and beyond. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4143-53 pubmed
  7. Banerjee P, Pandey R, Zheng R, Suhoski M, Monaco Shawver L, Orange J. Cdc42-interacting protein-4 functionally links actin and microtubule networks at the cytolytic NK cell immunological synapse. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2305-20 pubmed
    ..protein-4 (CIP4), which constitutively interacts with tubulin and microtubules but focuses to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) after NK cell activation, when it is able to associate with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (..
  8. Serrador J, Cabrero J, Sancho D, Mittelbrunn M, Urzainqui A, Sanchez Madrid F. HDAC6 deacetylase activity links the tubulin cytoskeleton with immune synapse organization. Immunity. 2004;20:417-28 pubmed
    ..The antigen-specific translocation of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and IL-2 production were also severely impaired by overexpression of HDAC6...
  9. Ma W, Koch J, Viveiros M. Protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta) interacts with microtubule organizing center (MTOC)-associated proteins and participates in meiotic spindle organization. Dev Biol. 2008;320:414-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, pPKCdelta(Thr505) co-localized with two key microtubule organizing center (MTOC)-associated proteins, pericentrin and gamma-tubulin...
  10. Sawin K, Tran P. Cytoplasmic microtubule organization in fission yeast. Yeast. 2006;23:1001-14 pubmed
    ..Advances in these areas provide a solid framework for a more detailed understanding of cytoplasmic microtubule organization...
  11. Strunze S, Trotman L, Boucke K, Greber U. Nuclear targeting of adenovirus type 2 requires CRM1-mediated nuclear export. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2999-3009 pubmed
  12. Badano J, Teslovich T, Katsanis N. The centrosome in human genetic disease. Nat Rev Genet. 2005;6:194-205 pubmed
    ..Here, we review the mechanistic relationship between human disease phenotypes and the function of the centrosome, and describe some of the newly-appreciated functions of this organelle in animal cells...
  13. Rusan N, Peifer M. A role for a novel centrosome cycle in asymmetric cell division. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:13-20 pubmed
    ..quot; This centrosome acts as a microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and remains stationary, forming one pole of the future spindle...
  14. Chen X, Trivedi P, Ge B, Krzewski K, Strominger J. Many NK cell receptors activate ERK2 and JNK1 to trigger microtubule organizing center and granule polarization and cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6329-34 pubmed
    ..activating receptors, many of which are expressed on a single NK cell, signal the polarization of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) together with cytolytic granules to the synapse with target cells...
  15. Venkatram S, Tasto J, Feoktistova A, Jennings J, Link A, Gould K. Identification and characterization of two novel proteins affecting fission yeast gamma-tubulin complex function. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2287-301 pubmed
    ..This study expands the known roles of gamma-tubulin complex components in organizing different types of microtubule structures in S. pombe...
  16. Palazzo A, Joseph H, Chen Y, Dujardin D, Alberts A, Pfister K, et al. Cdc42, dynein, and dynactin regulate MTOC reorientation independent of Rho-regulated microtubule stabilization. Curr Biol. 2001;11:1536-41 pubmed
    ..MTOC reorientation and MT stabilization both act to polarize the MT array in migrating cells, yet these processes act independently and are regulated by separate Rho family GTPase-signaling pathways...
  17. Tzima E, Kiosses W, Del Pozo M, Schwartz M. Localized cdc42 activation, detected using a novel assay, mediates microtubule organizing center positioning in endothelial cells in response to fluid shear stress. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31020-3 pubmed
    ..in several systems including migrating cells and early embryos, which involve reorientation of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and Golgi apparatus toward the direction of movement...
  18. Heitz M, Petersen J, Valovin S, Hagan I. MTOC formation during mitotic exit in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:4521-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the network governing EMTOC formation shared many of the regulatory elements that control cytokinesis but was more complex and revealed an additional function for Plo1 during mitotic exit...
  19. Gundersen G. Evolutionary conservation of microtubule-capture mechanisms. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:296-304 pubmed
    ..Recent data indicate that the signalling pathways that are involved in regulating the different microtubule cortical interactions are not only conserved between species, but also that they function in diverse processes...
  20. Konzack S, Rischitor P, Enke C, Fischer R. The role of the kinesin motor KipA in microtubule organization and polarized growth of Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:497-506 pubmed
    ..Using KipA as an MT plus-end marker, we found bidirectional organization of MTs and determined the locations of microtubule organizing centers at nuclei, in the cytoplasm, and at septa...
  21. Beal A, Anikeeva N, Varma R, Cameron T, Vasiliver Shamis G, Norris P, et al. Kinetics of early T cell receptor signaling regulate the pathway of lytic granule delivery to the secretory domain. Immunity. 2009;31:632-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The short pathway is associated with faster granule release and more efficient killing than the long pathway. Thus, the kinetics of early signaling regulates the quality of the T cell cytolytic response...
  22. Sancho D, Vicente Manzanares M, Mittelbrunn M, Montoya M, Gordón Alonso M, Serrador J, et al. Regulation of microtubule-organizing center orientation and actomyosin cytoskeleton rearrangement during immune interactions. Immunol Rev. 2002;189:84-97 pubmed
    ..We focus on the mechanisms that control the early MTOC reorientation during T cell-APC interaction and the relevance of this process to T cell activation...
  23. Schnorrer F, Luschnig S, Koch I, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C. Gamma-tubulin37C and gamma-tubulin ring complex protein 75 are essential for bicoid RNA localization during drosophila oogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:685-96 pubmed
    ..At stage 10b, we find gammaTub37C and Dgrip75 anteriorly concentrated and propose the formation of a microtubule-organizing center at the anterior pole of the oocyte...
  24. Xu K, Shen X, Li H, Pacheco Rodriguez G, Moss J, Vaughan M. Interaction of BIG2, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein, with exocyst protein Exo70. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2784-9 pubmed
  25. Chan K, Goldmark J, Roth M. Suspended animation extends survival limits of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at low temperature. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2161-71 pubmed publisher
  26. Xiong Y, Oakley B. In vivo analysis of the functions of gamma-tubulin-complex proteins. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:4218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..All GCPs localize normally in a GCPE deletion. We propose a model for the structure of the gamma-tubulin complex and its attachment to polar microtubule organizing centers...
  27. Shimohata T, Sato A, Burke J, Strittmatter W, Tsuji S, Onodera O. Expanded polyglutamine stretches form an 'aggresome'. Neurosci Lett. 2002;323:215-8 pubmed
    ..These aggregates move on MTs to the MTOC, where they remain as distinct 'aggresomes''...
  28. Yemets A, Stelmakh O, Blume Y. Effects of the herbicide isopropyl-N-phenyl carbamate on microtubules and MTOCs in lines of Nicotiana sylvestris resistant and sensitive to its action. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also found that IPC-resistance of mutant N. sylvestris line correlates not with tubulin resistance to IPC action but possibly with resistance of one of the proteins involved in MTOC composition...
  29. Igakura T, Stinchcombe J, Goon P, Taylor G, Weber J, Griffiths G, et al. Spread of HTLV-I between lymphocytes by virus-induced polarization of the cytoskeleton. Science. 2003;299:1713-6 pubmed
    ..Other lymphotropic viruses, such as HIV-1, may similarly subvert normal T cell physiology to allow efficient propagation between cells...
  30. Murphy T. Drosophila skpA, a component of SCF ubiquitin ligases, regulates centrosome duplication independently of cyclin E accumulation. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2321-32 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that additional SCF targets regulate the centrosome duplication pathway...
  31. Murakami R, Hashimoto H. Unusual nuclear division in Nannochloropsis oculata (Eustigmatophyceae, Heterokonta) which may ensure faithful transmission of secondary plastids. Protist. 2009;160:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such unusual nuclear division is discussed in relevance to transmission of the secondary plastid. The present study provides the first report for nuclear and plastid division in Eustigmatophyceae...
  32. Li R, Tang X, Miao S, Zong S, Wang L. Regulation of the G2/M phase of the cell cycle by sperm associated antigen 8 (SPAG8) protein. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009;27:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SPAG8 might be involved in the regulation of cell cycle by changing the phosphorylation level of Tyr15 on cdc2. These results suggest that SPAG8 might play a role in cell division during spermatogenesis...
  33. Tikhonenko I, Nag D, Robinson D, Koonce M. Microtubule-nucleus interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum mediated by central motor kinesins. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This function would be significant for the early steps of cell division and also may play a role in regulating centrosome replication...
  34. Furutani I, Watanabe Y, Prieto R, Masukawa M, Suzuki K, Naoi K, et al. The SPIRAL genes are required for directional control of cell elongation in Aarabidopsis thaliana. Development. 2000;127:4443-53 pubmed
    ..Our model may have implicit bearing on the circumnutation mechanism...
  35. Oriolo A, Wald F, Canessa G, Salas P. GCP6 binds to intermediate filaments: a novel function of keratins in the organization of microtubules in epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:781-94 pubmed
    ..We conclude that GCP6 participates in the attachment of MTOCs to IFs in epithelial cells and is among the factors that determine the peculiar architecture of microtubules in polarized epithelia. ..
  36. Kimble M, Kuzmiak C, McGovern K, de Hostos E. Microtubule organization and the effects of GFP-tubulin expression in dictyostelium discoideum. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2000;47:48-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that although GFP-alpha-tubulin can be used as a marker for microtubules in living cells, the use of this marker is not recommended for certain types of studies such as assembly dynamics...
  37. Chapman M, Dolan M, Margulis L. Centrioles and kinetosomes: form, function, and evolution. Q Rev Biol. 2000;75:409-29 pubmed
    ..We compare and contrast endogenous and exogenous (bacterial symbiont integration) models for the evolution of centriole-kinetosomes (c-ks), with illustrative examples from Kingdom Protoctista...
  38. Janulevicius A, van Pelt J, Van Ooyen A. Compartment volume influences microtubule dynamic instability: a model study. Biophys J. 2006;90:788-98 pubmed
    ..Volume and all other factors that influence these fluctuations can affect MT dynamic instability and, consequently, the processes that depend on it, such as neuronal growth cone behavior and cell motility in general...
  39. Pardo M, Nurse P. The nuclear rim protein Amo1 is required for proper microtubule cytoskeleton organisation in fission yeast. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1705-14 pubmed
    ..Lack of Amo1 also causes a polarity defect. Amo1 is not required for the microtubule loading of several factors affecting microtubule dynamics, and does not seem to be required for nuclear pore function...
  40. Lechler T, Fuchs E. Desmoplakin: an unexpected regulator of microtubule organization in the epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:147-54 pubmed
    ..Loss of DP prevents accumulation of cortical microtubules in vivo and in vitro. Our work uncovers a differentiation-specific rearrangement of the microtubule cytoskeleton in epidermis, and defines an essential role for DP in the process...
  41. Holappa K, Muñoz M, Egea G, Kellokumpu S. The AE2 anion exchanger is necessary for the structural integrity of the Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;564:97-103 pubmed
    ..These data implicate a clear structural role for the AE2 protein in the Golgi and in its cytological positioning around the MTOC...
  42. Graves T, Patel S, Dannies P, Hinkle P. Misfolded growth hormone causes fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus and disrupts endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3685-94 pubmed
    ..The ability of some misfolded proteins to block endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic may explain their toxic effects on host cells and suggests possible strategies for therapeutic interventions...
  43. Haberman Y, Grimberg E, Fukuda M, Sagi Eisenberg R. Synaptotagmin IX, a possible linker between the perinuclear endocytic recycling compartment and the microtubules. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4307-18 pubmed
    ..These results therefore indicate that Syt IX is involved in regulating transport from the ERC to the cell surface, and suggest that it may play a role in linking vesicles that exit the ERC with the microtubules network...
  44. Li D, Molldrem J, Ma Q. LFA-1 regulates CD8+ T cell activation via T cell receptor-mediated and LFA-1-mediated Erk1/2 signal pathways. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that the function of LFA-1 is to enhance TCR signaling through the immunological synapse and deliver distinct signals in CD8+ T cell activation...
  45. Saskova A, Solc P, Baran V, Kubelka M, Schultz R, Motlik J. Aurora kinase A controls meiosis I progression in mouse oocytes. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2368-76 pubmed
    ..Results of these experiments indicate that AURKA is a critical MTOC-associated component involved in resumption of meiosis, MTOC multiplication, proper spindle formation and the metaphase I-metaphase II transition...
  46. Uzbekov R, Alieva I. [The centrosome--a riddle of the "cell processor"]. Tsitologiia. 2008;50:91-112 pubmed
  47. Fink G, Steinberg G. Dynein-dependent motility of microtubules and nucleation sites supports polarization of the tubulin array in the fungus Ustilago maydis. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3242-53 pubmed
    ..We propose that MT organization in U. maydis involves dynein-mediated motility of MTs and nucleation sites...
  48. Antón O, Batista A, Millan J, Andrés Delgado L, Puertollano R, Correas I, et al. An essential role for the MAL protein in targeting Lck to the plasma membrane of human T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 2008;205:3201-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that MAL is required for recruitment of Lck to specialized membranes and formation of specific transport carriers for Lck targeting. This novel transport pathway is crucial for TCR-mediated signaling and IS assembly...
  49. Van Tine B, Dao L, Wu S, Sonbuchner T, Lin B, Zou N, et al. Human papillomavirus (HPV) origin-binding protein associates with mitotic spindles to enable viral DNA partitioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:4030-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this E2 property enables these viruses to establish persistence. Its implication for HPV oncogenesis is presented...
  50. Rondaij M, Bierings R, Kragt A, Gijzen K, Sellink E, van Mourik J, et al. Dynein-dynactin complex mediates protein kinase A-dependent clustering of Weibel-Palade bodies in endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006;26:49-55 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated this phenomenon of WPB clustering in more detail...
  51. Meier I, Brkljacic J. Adding pieces to the puzzling plant nuclear envelope. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They deal with the refined ultrastructure of the NE and NPC, with the discovery of novel NE components, and, importantly, with novel roles and fates of NE-associated and NPC-associated proteins during plant mitosis and cytokinesis...
  52. Li C, Ge B, Nicotra M, Stern J, Kopcow H, Chen X, et al. JNK MAP kinase activation is required for MTOC and granule polarization in NKG2D-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3017-22 pubmed publisher
    ..reduced NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity toward target cells and furthermore, blocked the movement of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC), granzyme B (a component of cytotoxic granules), and paxillin (a scaffold protein) to the ..
  53. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Analysis of the function of cytoplasmic fibers formed by the rubella virus nonstructural replicase proteins. Virology. 2010;406:212-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we made the unexpected discovery that RUBV genomes can spread from cell-to-cell without virus particles, a process that we hypothesize utilizes RUBV-induced cytoplasmic projections containing fibers and replication complexes...