melanosomes

Summary

Summary: Melanin-containing organelles found in melanocytes and melanophores.

Top Publications

  1. Vachtenheim J, Borovansky J. "Transcription physiology" of pigment formation in melanocytes: central role of MITF. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..polymeric compound melanin is synthesized within melanocytes in the specialized subcellular organelles, termed melanosomes, which are then transferred to surrounding keratinocytes...
  2. Zhang F, Kearns S, Orr P, Benton M, Zhou Z, Johnson D, et al. Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds. Nature. 2010;463:1075-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that melanosomes (colour-bearing organelles) are not only preserved in the pennaceous feathers of early birds, but also in an ..
  3. Eliason C, Bitton P, Shawkey M. How hollow melanosomes affect iridescent colour production in birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131505 pubmed publisher
    ..Iridescent colours in birds are commonly produced by melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes) organized into nanostructured arrays within feather barbules. Variation in array type (e.g...
  4. Steingrimsson E, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Mouse coat color mutations: from fancy mice to functional genomics. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2401-11 pubmed
    ..The usefulness of coat color mutations has just begun to emerge...
  5. Theos A, Truschel S, Tenza D, Hurbain I, Harper D, Berson J, et al. A lumenal domain-dependent pathway for sorting to intralumenal vesicles of multivesicular endosomes involved in organelle morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2006;10:343-54 pubmed
    ..processes as receptor downregulation, viral budding, and biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. We show that the melanosomal protein Pmel17 is sorted into ILVs by a mechanism that is dependent upon lumenal ..
  6. Wogelius R, Manning P, Barden H, Edwards N, Webb S, Sellers W, et al. Trace metals as biomarkers for eumelanin pigment in the fossil record. Science. 2011;333:1622-6 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have reconstructed color on the basis of melanosome structure; however, the chemistry of these proposed melanosomes has remained unknown...
  7. Setty S, Tenza D, Truschel S, Chou E, Sviderskaya E, Theos A, et al. BLOC-1 is required for cargo-specific sorting from vacuolar early endosomes toward lysosome-related organelles. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:768-80 pubmed
    ..genetic disorder characterized by defects in the formation and function of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS in humans or mice is caused by mutations in any of 15 genes, five of which encode subunits of biogenesis ..
  8. Delevoye C, Hurbain I, Tenza D, Sibarita J, Uzan Gafsou S, Ohno H, et al. AP-1 and KIF13A coordinate endosomal sorting and positioning during melanosome biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:247-64 pubmed publisher
    ..create peripheral recycling endosomal subdomains in melanocytes required for cargo delivery to maturing melanosomes. In cells depleted of AP-1 or KIF13A, a subpopulation of recycling endosomes redistributes to pericentriolar ..
  9. Van Gele M, Dynoodt P, Lambert J. Griscelli syndrome: a model system to study vesicular trafficking. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:268-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss how the gathered knowledge about the RAB27A-MLPH-MYO5A tripartite complex can be translated into a possible therapeutic application to reduce (hyper)pigmentation of the skin...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Li Q, Gao K, Meng Q, Clarke J, Shawkey M, D Alba L, et al. Reconstruction of Microraptor and the evolution of iridescent plumage. Science. 2012;335:1215-9 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in displays of many extant birds are produced by nanoscale arrays of melanin-containing organelles (melanosomes)...
  2. Sitaram A, Piccirillo R, Palmisano I, Harper D, Dell Angelica E, Schiaffino M, et al. Localization to mature melanosomes by virtue of cytoplasmic dileucine motifs is required for human OCA2 function. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1464-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, exogenously expressed OCA2 localizes within melanocytes to melanosomes, and, like other melanosomal proteins, localizes to lysosomes when expressed in nonpigment cells...
  3. Klomp A, Teofilo K, Legacki E, Williams D. Analysis of the linkage of MYRIP and MYO7A to melanosomes by RAB27A in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2007;64:474-87 pubmed
    The apical region of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) typically contains melanosomes. Their apical distribution is dependent on RAB27A and the unconventional myosin, MYO7A...
  4. Giordano F, Bonetti C, Surace E, Marigo V, Raposo G. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) G-protein-coupled receptor functions with MART-1 at early stages of melanogenesis to control melanosome identity and composition. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4530-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of the ocular albinism type 1 gene, encodes a pigment-cell-specific GPCR that localizes intracellularly to melanosomes. OA1 mutations result in ocular albinism due to alterations in melanosome formation, suggesting that OA1 is a ..
  5. Rozanowski B, Cuenco J, Davies S, Shamsi F, Zadło A, Dayhaw Barker P, et al. The phototoxicity of aged human retinal melanosomes. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:650-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an age-related increase in photoreactivity of human retinal melanosomes (MS) can cause phototoxicity to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells...
  6. Burke J, Zareba M. Sublethal photic stress and the motility of RPE phagosomes and melanosomes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1940-7 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether sublethal oxidative stress to the retinal pigment epithelium by visible light treatment affects the translocation of organelles, notably phagosomes and melanosomes.
  7. Bruno L, Echarte M, Levi V. Exchange of microtubule molecular motors during melanosome transport in Xenopus laevis melanophores is triggered by collisions with intracellular obstacles. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2008;52:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we analyzed the switch of microtubule motors during the transport of melanosomes in Xenopus melanophores by registering trajectories of these organelles moving along microtubules using a fast ..
  8. Vinther J, Briggs D, Prum R, Saranathan V. The colour of fossil feathers. Biol Lett. 2008;4:522-5 pubmed publisher
    ..bodies with the structure of black feathers from a living bird indicates that they are the eumelanin-containing melanosomes. We conclude that most fossil feathers are preserved as melanosomes, and that the distribution of these ..
  9. Sitaram A, Dennis M, Chaudhuri R, De Jesus Rojas W, Tenza D, Setty S, et al. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3178-92 pubmed
    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes...
  10. Ito Y, Kanamaru A, Tada A. Effects of methylophiopogonanone B on melanosome transfer and dendrite retraction. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;42:68-70 pubmed
  11. Schiaffino M, Tacchetti C. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) protein and the evidence for an intracellular signal transduction system involved in melanosome biogenesis. Pigment Cell Res. 2005;18:227-33 pubmed
    ..of visual acuity, retinal hypopigmentation, foveal hypoplasia, optic misrouting and the presence of giant melanosomes (macromelanosomes) in skin melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium...
  12. Theos A, Truschel S, Raposo G, Marks M. The Silver locus product Pmel17/gp100/Silv/ME20: controversial in name and in function. Pigment Cell Res. 2005;18:322-36 pubmed
    ..As such, we will refer to the protein in this review simply as pre-melanosomal protein (Pmel). This review will summarize the structural and functional aspects of Pmel and its role in melanosome biogenesis...
  13. Leonhardt R, Vigneron N, Rahner C, Cresswell P. Proprotein convertases process Pmel17 during secretion. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9321-37 pubmed publisher
    Pmel17 is a melanocyte/melanoma-specific protein that traffics to melanosomes where it forms a fibrillar matrix on which melanin gets deposited...
  14. Liu Y, Hong L, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Adhyaru B, Cheng C, et al. Comparisons of the structural and chemical properties of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium, iris and choroid of newborn and mature bovine eyes. Photochem Photobiol. 2005;81:510-6 pubmed
    b>Melanosomes were isolated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), iris and choroid of mature (age >2 years) and newborn (age <1 week) bovine eyes...
  15. Dell Angelica E. The building BLOC(k)s of lysosomes and related organelles. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2004;16:458-64 pubmed
    ..of genetic disorders characterized by defects in organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, most notably melanosomes and platelet-dense granules...
  16. Harper D, Theos A, Herman K, Tenza D, Raposo G, Marks M. Premelanosome amyloid-like fibrils are composed of only golgi-processed forms of Pmel17 that have been proteolytically processed in endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2307-22 pubmed
    Melanin pigments are synthesized within specialized organelles called melanosomes and polymerize on intraluminal fibrils that form within melanosome precursors...
  17. Levi V, Serpinskaya A, Gratton E, Gelfand V. Organelle transport along microtubules in Xenopus melanophores: evidence for cooperation between multiple motors. Biophys J. 2006;90:318-27 pubmed
    Xenopus melanophores have pigment organelles or melanosomes which, in response to hormones, disperse in the cytoplasm or aggregate in the perinuclear region...
  18. Bush W, Simon J. Quantification of Ca(2+) binding to melanin supports the hypothesis that melanosomes serve a functional role in regulating calcium homeostasis. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:134-9 pubmed
    ..proteins that serve to buffer calcium concentrations, lending further support to the hypothesis that melanosomes serve as intracellular mediators of calcium homeostasis in melanocytes...
  19. Peles D, Hong L, Hu D, Ito S, Nemanich R, Simon J. Human iridal stroma melanosomes of varying pheomelanin contents possess a common eumelanic outer surface. J Phys Chem B. 2009;113:11346-51 pubmed publisher
    Uveal melanosomes originating in the iridal stroma contain both black (eumelanin) and red (pheomelanin) pigment...
  20. Burke J, Kaczara P, Skumatz C, Zareba M, Raciti M, Sarna T. Dynamic analyses reveal cytoprotection by RPE melanosomes against non-photic stress. Mol Vis. 2011;17:2864-77 pubmed
    Isolated melanosomes are known to have antioxidant properties but whether the granules perform an antioxidant function within cells is unclear...
  21. Eibl O, Schultheiss S, Blitgen Heinecke P, Schraermeyer U. Quantitative chemical analysis of ocular melanosomes in the TEM. Micron. 2006;37:262-76 pubmed
    b>Melanosomes in retinal tissues of a human, monkey and rat were analyzed by EDX in the TEM. Samples were prepared by ultramicrotomy at different thicknesses...
  22. De Schepper S, Boucneau J, Westbroek W, Mommaas M, Onderwater J, Messiaen L, et al. Neurofibromatosis type 1 protein and amyloid precursor protein interact in normal human melanocytes and colocalize with melanosomes. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:653-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, we observed a colocalization of amyloid precursor protein and neurofibromin with melanosomes. Amyloid precursor protein has been proposed to function as a vesicle cargo receptor for the motor protein ..
  23. Hume A, Tarafder A, Ramalho J, Sviderskaya E, Seabra M. A coiled-coil domain of melanophilin is essential for Myosin Va recruitment and melanosome transport in melanocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4720-35 pubmed
    Melanophilin (Mlph) regulates retention of melanosomes at the peripheral actin cytoskeleton of melanocytes, a process essential for normal mammalian pigmentation...
  24. van Niel G, Charrin S, Simoes S, Romao M, Rochin L, Saftig P, et al. The tetraspanin CD63 regulates ESCRT-independent and -dependent endosomal sorting during melanogenesis. Dev Cell. 2011;21:708-21 pubmed publisher
    ..PMEL-a component of melanocyte LROs (melanosomes)-is sorted to ILVs in an ESCRT-independent manner, where it is proteolytically processed and assembled into ..
  25. Hirobe T. How are proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes regulated?. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:462-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Melanin is synthesized in melanocytes and accumulates in special organelles, melanosomes, which upon maturation are transferred to keratinocytes...
  26. Franzen A, Cunha M, Miranda K, Hentschel J, Plattner H, da Silva M, et al. Ultrastructural characterization of melanosomes of the human pathogenic fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi. J Struct Biol. 2008;162:75-84 pubmed
    ..pedrosoi, the major etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis, melanin is stored in intracellular vesicles, named melanosomes. This paper details the ultrastructural aspects of melanin formation, its storage and transportation to the ..
  27. Haywood R, Lee M, Andrady C. Comparable photoreactivity of hair melanosomes, eu- and pheomelanins at low concentrations: low melanin a risk factor for UVA damage and melanoma?. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Data is lacking of the effects of UVA irradiation on human skin melanosomes of different pigmentation, which have not been extensively degraded by isolation procedures...
  28. Chabrillat M, Wilhelm C, Wasmeier C, Sviderskaya E, Louvard D, Coudrier E. Rab8 regulates the actin-based movement of melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1640-50 pubmed
    ..We devised an in vitro motility assay reconstituting the movement of melanosomes on actin bundles in the presence of ATP to investigate the role of Rab proteins in the actin-dependent movement ..
  29. Lopes V, Wasmeier C, Seabra M, Futter C. Melanosome maturation defect in Rab38-deficient retinal pigment epithelium results in instability of immature melanosomes during transient melanogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3914-27 pubmed
    ..synthesis in RPE cells occurs embryonically, it is not clear whether adult RPE cells continue to produce melanosomes. Here, we show that progression from pmel17-positive premelanosomes to tyrosinase-positive mature melanosomes ..
  30. Lopes V, Ramalho J, Owen D, Karl M, Strauss O, Futter C, et al. The ternary Rab27a-Myrip-Myosin VIIa complex regulates melanosome motility in the retinal pigment epithelium. Traffic. 2007;8:486-99 pubmed
    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contains melanosomes similar to those found in the skin melanocytes, which undergo dramatic light-dependent movements in fish and amphibians...
  31. Azarian S, McLeod I, Lillo C, Gibbs D, Yates J, Williams D. Proteomic analysis of mature melanosomes from the retinal pigmented epithelium. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:521-9 pubmed
    The protein content of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. More than 100 proteins were found to be common to two out of three variations of sample preparation...
  32. Theos A, Berson J, Theos S, Herman K, Harper D, Tenza D, et al. Dual loss of ER export and endocytic signals with altered melanosome morphology in the silver mutation of Pmel17. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3598-612 pubmed
    ..protein that participates in the formation of the intralumenal fibrils upon which melanins are deposited in melanosomes. The Pmel17 cytoplasmic domain is truncated by the mouse silver mutation, which is associated with coat ..
  33. Jordens I, Westbroek W, Marsman M, Rocha N, Mommaas M, Huizing M, et al. Rab7 and Rab27a control two motor protein activities involved in melanosomal transport. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:412-23 pubmed
    b>Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles that synthesize, store and transport melanin. In epidermal melanocytes, melanosomes mature and are transferred to surrounding keratinocytes, which is essential for skin and coat colour...
  34. Hong L, Simon J, Sarna T. Melanin structure and the potential functions of uveal melanosomes. Pigment Cell Res. 2006;19:465-6 pubmed
  35. Marks M. Darkness descends with two Rabs. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:199-200 pubmed
    ..Wasmeier et al. (this issue, p. 271) reveal a redundant role for two tissue-specific Rab proteins in regulating transport to a tissue-specific lysosome-related organelle, the melanosome...
  36. Gibbs D, Azarian S, Lillo C, Kitamoto J, Klomp A, Steel K, et al. Role of myosin VIIa and Rab27a in the motility and localization of RPE melanosomes. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:6473-83 pubmed
    ..In mice with mutant Myo7a, melanosomes in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) are distributed abnormally...
  37. Theos A, Tenza D, Martina J, Hurbain I, Peden A, Sviderskaya E, et al. Functions of adaptor protein (AP)-3 and AP-1 in tyrosinase sorting from endosomes to melanosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5356-72 pubmed
    ..AP-3 and AP-1 localize in melanocytes primarily to clathrin-coated buds on tubular early endosomes near melanosomes. Both adaptors recognize the tyrosinase dileucine-based melanosome sorting signal, and tyrosinase largely ..
  38. Lepage S, Lapointe R. Melanosomal targeting sequences from gp100 are essential for MHC class II-restricted endogenous epitope presentation and mobilization to endosomal compartments. Cancer Res. 2006;66:2423-32 pubmed
  39. WATT B, Tenza D, Lemmon M, Kerje S, Raposo G, Andersson L, et al. Mutations in or near the transmembrane domain alter PMEL amyloid formation from functional to pathogenic. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002286 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that PMEL mutations can model the conversion between physiological and pathological amyloid...
  40. Ebanks J, Koshoffer A, Wickett R, Schwemberger S, Babcock G, Hakozaki T, et al. Epidermal keratinocytes from light vs. dark skin exhibit differential degradation of melanosomes. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Post-transfer modification of pigmented melanosomes provides an attractive and distinct avenue of modulating skin pigmentation...
  41. Hoashi T, Sato S, Yamaguchi Y, Passeron T, Tamaki K, Hearing V. Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein b, a melanocytic cell marker, is a melanosome-specific and proteolytically released protein. FASEB J. 2010;24:1616-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanosomes are organelles specialized for the production of melanin pigment and are specifically produced by melanocytic cells...
  42. Zareba M, Szewczyk G, Sarna T, Hong L, Simon J, Henry M, et al. Effects of photodegradation on the physical and antioxidant properties of melanosomes isolated from retinal pigment epithelium. Photochem Photobiol. 2006;82:1024-9 pubmed
    b>Melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are relatively long-lived organelles that are theoretically susceptible to changes induced by exposure to visible light...
  43. Choi H, Ahn S, Chang H, Cho N, Joo K, Lee B, et al. Influence of N-glycan processing disruption on tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in HM3KO melanoma cells. Exp Dermatol. 2007;16:110-7 pubmed
    ..The enzyme is subsequently transported to melanosomes where it participates in melanogenesis...
  44. Kural C, Serpinskaya A, Chou Y, Goldman R, Gelfand V, Selvin P. Tracking melanosomes inside a cell to study molecular motors and their interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5378-82 pubmed
    Cells known as melanophores contain melanosomes, which are membrane organelles filled with melanin, a dark, nonfluorescent pigment...
  45. Ramalho J, Lopes V, Tarafder A, Seabra M, Hume A. Myrip uses distinct domains in the cellular activation of myosin VA and myosin VIIA in melanosome transport. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:461-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Myrip recruits and activates MyoVa on skin melanosomes with similar efficiency to the established MyoVa activator Melanophilin (Mlph)...
  46. Kawasaki A, Kumasaka M, Satoh A, Suzuki M, Tamura K, Goto T, et al. Mitf contributes to melanosome distribution and melanophore dendricity. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2008;21:56-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, lower levels of Mitf activity induced less dendritic melanophores with aggregated melanosomes, whereas melanophores overexpressing Mitf had an extensive dendritic morphology with dispersed melanosomes...
  47. Yamaguchi Y, Hearing V. Physiological factors that regulate skin pigmentation. Biofactors. 2009;35:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Enzymatic components of melanosomes include tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and dopachrome tautomerase, which depend on the functions of ..
  48. Hume A, Seabra M. Melanosomes on the move: a model to understand organelle dynamics. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Over recent years, pigment granules, or melanosomes, within pigment cells have provided an excellent model for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which ..
  49. Park H, Kosmadaki M, Yaar M, Gilchrest B. Cellular mechanisms regulating human melanogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:1493-506 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis of melanin, a pigmented heteropolymer that is synthesized in specialized cellular organelles termed melanosomes. Mature melanosomes are transferred to neighboring keratinocytes and are arranged in a supranuclear cap, ..
  50. Fowler D, Koulov A, Alory Jost C, Marks M, Balch W, Kelly J. Functional amyloid formation within mammalian tissue. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e6 pubmed
  51. Singh S, Nizard C, Kurfurst R, Bonte F, Schnebert S, Tobin D. The silver locus product (Silv/gp100/Pmel17) as a new tool for the analysis of melanosome transfer in human melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:418-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Melanosomes are melanocyte-specific lysosome-related organelles that are transferred to keratinocytes of the epidermis and anagen hair bulb...
  52. Booth A, Seabra M, Hume A. Rab27a and melanosomes: a model to investigate the membrane targeting of Rabs. Biochem Soc Trans. 2012;40:1383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper, we review the evidence supporting the proposed mechanisms of Rab targeting and highlight insights into this process provided by studies of Rab27a...
  53. Setty S, Tenza D, Sviderskaya E, Bennett D, Raposo G, Marks M. Cell-specific ATP7A transport sustains copper-dependent tyrosinase activity in melanosomes. Nature. 2008;454:1142-6 pubmed publisher
    ..melanin synthesis, tyrosinase is subsequently reloaded with copper within specialized organelles called melanosomes. Copper is supplied to melanosomes by ATP7A, a cohort of which localizes to melanosomes in a biogenesis of ..