diphtheria antitoxin


Summary: An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Winsnes R, Sesardic D, Daas A, Behr Gross M. Collaborative study for the validation of serological methods for potency testing of diphtheria toxoid vaccines-part 1. Pharmeuropa Bio. 2004;2003:35-68 pubmed
    ..All laboratories also performed the Vero cell assay and both ELISA for diphtheria antitoxin and ELISA for tetanus antitoxin. One laboratory also performed the tetanus ToBI assay...
  2. Simon J. The origin of the production of diphtheria antitoxin in France, between philanthropy and commerce. Dynamis. 2007;27:63-82 pubmed
  3. Kruszon Moran D, McQuillan G, Chu S. Tetanus and diphtheria immunity among females in the United States: are recommendations being followed?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1070-6 pubmed
  4. Wagner K, Stickings P, White J, Neal S, Crowcroft N, Sesardic D, et al. A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use. Vaccine. 2009;28:14-20 pubmed publisher
    Diphtheria treatment requires early administration of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), an immunoglobulin preparation that neutralises circulating diphtheria toxin...
  5. Hendriksen C, van der Gun J, Kreeftenberg J. Combined estimation of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin in human sera by the in vitro Toxin-Binding Inhibition (ToBI) test. J Biol Stand. 1989;17:191-200 pubmed
    ..plate as described in a previous paper for tetanus antitoxin titration, was adapted for the estimation of diphtheria antitoxin in human sera...
  6. de Melker H, Berbers G, Nagelkerke N, Conyn van Spaendonck M. Diphtheria antitoxin levels in the Netherlands: a population-based study. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:694-700 pubmed
    In a population-based study in the Netherlands, diphtheria antitoxin antibodies were measured with a toxin-binding inhibition assay in 9, 134 sera from the general population and religious communities refusing vaccination...
  7. Sonobe M, Trezena A, Guilhen F, Takano V, Fratelli F, Sakauchi D, et al. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:69-76 pubmed
    ..For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin...
  8. Watier H. [From the ancient serotherapy to naked antibodies: a century of successful targeted therapies]. Med Sci (Paris). 2009;25:999-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..This overview will finally offer the opportunity to introduce a new pharmacological classification of the entire class of unconjugated -therapeutic antibodies. ..
  9. Hüntelmann A. Diphtheria serum and serotherapy. Development, production and regulation in fin de siècle Germany. Dynamis. 2007;27:107-31 pubmed
    ..The case of diphtheria serum illustrates the indirect forms of government supervision and influence adopted in the German Empire and the cooperation and networking among science, state and industry. ..

More Information


  1. Mirchamsy H, Hamedi M, Fateh G, Sassani A. Oral immunization against diphtheria and tetanus infections by fluid diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Vaccine. 1994;12:1167-72 pubmed
    ..Adult volunteers receiving protease inhibitor before administration of oral toxoids have shown a significant rise in specific circulating antitoxins. ..
  2. Mochizuki Y, Saeki H, Iwaki M, Takagi H, Shibayama K, Amao H, et al. A novel experimental platform for toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans infection in mice. Pathog Dis. 2016;74: pubmed publisher
    ..This experimental infection system provides a platform for analyzing the virulence of C. ulcerans in future studies. ..
  3. Rieger J, Kuhlmann D. [Diphtheria immunity in the German population]. Gesundheitswesen. 1994;56:667-71 pubmed
    In the years 1991-1993 the diphtheria antitoxin titres of the blood serum of 2404 persons living in germany was determined by means of the ELISA test...
  4. Rappuoli R, Podda A, Giovannoni F, Nencioni L, Peragallo M, Francolini P. Absence of protective immunity against diphtheria in a large proportion of young adults. Vaccine. 1993;11:576-7 pubmed
    ..This vaccine is combined with tetanus toxoid and can be routinely used as a booster in adults. ..
  5. Stafford W. Boundary analysis in sedimentation transport experiments: a procedure for obtaining sedimentation coefficient distributions using the time derivative of the concentration profile. Anal Biochem. 1992;203:295-301 pubmed
    ..The use of (delta c/delta t)r to compute apparent sedimentation coefficient distributions for purposes of boundary analysis is exemplified with an antigen-antibody system. ..
  6. Olander R, Auranen K, Härkänen T, Leino T. High tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin concentrations in Finnish adults--time for new booster recommendations?. Vaccine. 2009;27:5295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..30 years of age, participating in a population survey in 2000-2001, were used to assess the tetanus and diphtheria antitoxin concentrations...
  7. Ballereau F, Schrive I, Fisch A, Speich M, Laurichesse H, Tournade S, et al. A multicentre serosurvey on diphtheria immunity in a French population of 1004 subjects. Eur J Epidemiol. 1998;14:499-503 pubmed
    ..An enzyme immunoassay was used to measure serum diphtheria antitoxin concentrations according to the following criteria: (a) antitoxin < 0.01 IU/ml: susceptibility, (b) 0...
  8. Yasuda S, Komiya T, Takahashi M, Kameyama S, Matuhashi T. [Granule-accumulation in VERO cells used for determination of antitoxin titration by micro cell culture method: I. Influence of mouse serum]. Rinsho Byori. 1993;41:289-92 pubmed
    When the titration of diphtheria antitoxin of mouse serum was carried out by micro cell culture method using VERO cells, a large number of granules were observed in the cells...
  9. Maple P, Jones C, Wall E, Vyseb A, Edmunds W, Andrews N, et al. Immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in England and Wales. Vaccine. 2000;19:167-73 pubmed
    ..Time-resolved fluorimetric immunoassay - DELFIA was used to measure diphtheria antitoxin levels and an in-house, indirect ELISA to measure tetanus antitoxin levels...
  10. Rønne T, Valentelis R, Tarum S, Griskevica A, Wachmann C, Aggerbeck H, et al. Immune response to diphtheria booster vaccine in the Baltic states. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S213-9 pubmed
    ..There was not a significantly different antibody response among persons receiving the three different doses. Age and the level of prevaccination immunity had a modifying effect on the response to vaccination; however, sex did not. ..
  11. Uchimura M, Takagi K, Kitayama A, Yazaki H, Horiuchi Y. [Microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diphtheria antitoxin in human sera--application of parallel line assay method]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1990;64:967-72 pubmed
    ..1 to 36.0%. The serum at low titer gave a higher CV level. A good correlation was observed between the Diphtheria antitoxin titer by the neutralizing test in cultured cells and that measured by ELISA by the parallel line assay ..
  12. Singh J, Ichhpujani R, Prabha S, Chandra R, Khare S, Panda R, et al. Immunity to diphtheria in women of childbearing age in Delhi in 1994: evidence of continued Corynebacterium diphtheriae circulation. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1996;27:274-8 pubmed
    ..The study highlights the need of increasing the immunization coverage with DPT among children to reduce the transmission of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ..
  13. Opitz B. [The problem history of the toxin-antitoxin theory in medical microbiology]. Z Gesamte Hyg. 1990;36:378-80 pubmed
    ..The differences between an experimental based theory and the speculative conceptions of that time are discussed. ..
  14. Ramsay M, Corbel M, Redhead K, Ashworth L, Begg N. Persistence of antibody after accelerated immunisation with diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis vaccine. BMJ. 1991;302:1489-91 pubmed
  15. Hess V. The administrative stabilization of vaccines: Regulating the diphtheria antitoxin in France and Germany, 1894-1900. Sci Context. 2008;21:201-27 pubmed
    ..In sum, I explore how an experimental object was transformed into an object of the public health system and stabilized by administrative means. ..
  16. Raju T. Emil Adolf von Behring and serum therapy for diphtheria. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:258-9 pubmed
  17. Jackson L, Falls S, Yu O, George J, Pietrobon P, Rubanowice D, et al. Diphtheria antitoxin levels among children primed with a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine lot with a subpotent diphtheria toxoid component. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1698-700 pubmed
    ..b>Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) levels were then prospectively assessed before and after dose 4 of (fully potent) DTaP vaccine...
  18. Bonnet J, Begg N. Control of diphtheria: guidance for consultants in communicable disease control. World Health Organization. Commun Dis Public Health. 1999;2:242-9 pubmed
  19. Maheshwari S, Sharma S, Kumar A, Sokhey J. Quantitation of tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins in mouse sera by indirect haemagglutination. J Commun Dis. 1998;30:23-8 pubmed
    ..of mice which were immunized with combined vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid were titrated for their diphtheria antitoxin content by IHA and by i.d. toxin neutralization test (TN) in guinea pigs...
  20. Melville Smith M, Balfour A. Estimation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae antitoxin in human sera: a comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the toxin neutralisation test. J Med Microbiol. 1988;25:279-83 pubmed
    ..01 IU/ml, often considered a protective level, is questionable. At higher levels ELISA was reproducible for the titration of diphtheria antitoxin in human sera and offers a useful alternative to both in-vivo assays and TC.
  21. Klouche M, Lühmann D, Kirchner H. Low prevalence of diphtheria antitoxin in children and adults in northern Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995;14:682-5 pubmed
    ..b>Diphtheria antitoxin was tested by enzyme immunoassay. The median antitoxin titre was 0.39 IU/ml...
  22. Pai Dhungat J, Parikh F. Medical philately (medical personalities on stamps). J Assoc Physicians India. 2004;52:839 pubmed
  23. Lee C, Lee P, Huang L, Chen J, Chang M. A simplified schedule to integrate the hepatitis B vaccine into an expanded program of immunization in endemic countries. J Pediatr. 1997;130:981-6 pubmed
    ..This schedule may improve vaccine compliance and be applied to DTP and hepatitis B combination vaccines now under investigation. ..
  24. Hardy A. [Paul Ehrlich and commercial serum production: on the control of diphtheria antitoxin in the laboratory and in industry]. Medizinhist J. 2006;41:51-84 pubmed
    ..Secondly the reciprocal influences between Ehrlich and the serum producers are analyzed. It is shown that practical problems inspired Ehrlich's theoretical work, which in return led to an improvement of measurement techniques. ..
  25. Khetsuriani N, Music S, Deforest A, Sutter R. Evaluation of a single dose of diphtheria toxoid among adults in the Republic of Georgia, 1995: immunogenicity and adverse reactions. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S208-12 pubmed
  26. Opinel A. The Pasteur Hospital as an element of Emile Roux's anti-diphtheria apparatus (1890-1914). Dynamis. 2007;27:83-106 pubmed
    ..By associating this therapeutic project with an architectural project, Roux established a coherent anti-diphtheria apparatus. ..
  27. Tiwari T, Golaz A, Yu D, Ehresmann K, Jones T, Hill H, et al. Investigations of 2 cases of diphtheria-like illness due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..in a 75-year-old male Washington resident who was treated with clindamycin but did not receive equine diphtheria antitoxin. A second, nonfatal case occurred in a 66-year-old female Tennessee resident who received erythromycin and ..
  28. Rodríguez Ocaña E. [The social production of novelty: the diphtheria serotherapy, "herald of the new medicine"]. Dynamis. 2007;27:21-44 pubmed
  29. Nicolay U, Girgsdies O, Banzhoff A, Hundt E, Kondler Budde R, Lober R, et al. [Diphtheria antitoxin level 2 years after booster vaccination]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2000;150:435-9 pubmed
    ..Both short-term and long-term immunogenicity was assessed by determining diphtheria antitoxin levels four weeks after vaccination and after one and two years...
  30. Kolibo D, Romaniuk S. [Mathematical model of the infection process in diphtheria for determining the therapeutic dose of antitoxic anti-diphtheria serum]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2001;73:144-51 pubmed
  31. Foo J, Rahmat K, Mumin N, Koh M, Gan C, Ramli N, et al. Diphtheric encephalitis and brain neuroimaging features. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;45:155-157 pubmed publisher
    ..Throat swab polymerase chain reaction for diphtheria toxin A and B were positive and diphtheria antitoxin was given...
  32. Aboul Enein B, Puddy W, Bowser J. The 1925 Diphtheria Antitoxin Run to Nome - Alaska: A Public Health Illustration of Human-Animal Collaboration. J Med Humanit. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..Developed in the late 19th century, the diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) played a pivotal role in the history of public health and vaccinology prior to the advent of the ..
  33. Gasparini R, Pozzi T, Fragapane E, Severini R, Cellesi C, Fabrizi P, et al. Immunity to diphtheria in Siena. Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119:203-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study, carried out in 1993, was to evaluate diphtheria immunity in Siena. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by means of the immunoenzymatic test (ELISA) in serum samples of 602 apparently healthy subjects (239 ..
  34. Isaka M, Yasuda Y, Kozuka S, Taniguchi T, Matano K, Maeyama J, et al. Induction of systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice immunized intranasally with aluminium-non-adsorbed diphtheria toxoid together with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit as an adjuvant. Vaccine. 1999;18:743-51 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, sufficiently high diphtheria antitoxin titres more than 0...
  35. Walory J, Grzesiowski P, Hryniewicz W. Comparison of four serological methods for the detection of diphtheria anti-toxin antibody. J Immunol Methods. 2000;245:55-65 pubmed
    ..For internal standardisation of IgG-DTAb titres, the WHO standard serum of human diphtheria antitoxin was used. The study revealed a poor correlation between the reference test and the PHA (r=0...
  36. Huang L, Xu E, Yang L. [Observation of immunity level of pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus in healthy people in Hangzhou City during 1995-2006]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:68-71 pubmed
    To study the pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus immunity level of healthy people in Hangzhou. Pertussis antibody, diphtheria antitoxin and tetanus antitoxin were tested...
  37. Shenoy S, Prashanth H, Wilson G. A case of cutaneous and pharyngeal diphtheria. Indian Pediatr. 2002;39:311-2 pubmed
  38. Klöppel U. Enacting cultural boundaries in French and German diphtheria serum research. Sci Context. 2008;21:161-80 pubmed
  39. Hüntelmann A. [The anti-diphtheria serum and the case of Langerhans]. Med Ges Gesch. 2005;24:71-104 pubmed
    ..The "official" cause of death, following the investigations into the case, was proclaimed to be an accident; a tragic piece of bad luck. ..
  40. Souliou E, Kyriazopoulou V, Diza E, Hatzistylianou M, Frantzidou F. Serological survey on the immunity to diphtheria of the northern Greek population. Eur J Epidemiol. 1997;13:535-9 pubmed
    ..of the former USSR and the immigration from these high risk areas to Greece prompted us to determine the diphtheria antitoxin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in 509 healthy individuals (307 males and 202 females) ..
  41. Gradmann C. Locating therapeutic vaccines in nineteenth-century history. Sci Context. 2008;21:145-60 pubmed
    This essay places some therapeutic vaccines, including particularly the diphtheria antitoxin, into their larger historical context of the late nineteenth century...
  42. Schuhegger R, Kugler R, Sing A. Pitfalls with diphtheria-like illness due to toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:288; author reply 289 pubmed publisher
  43. Gonçalves G, Santos M, Frade J, Cunha J. Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:109 pubmed
    ..The adult booster intervals could be wider, probably of 20 years. This also seems to apply to protection against diphtheria, but issues on the herd immunity and on the circulation of toxigenic strains need to be better understood. ..
  44. Iwaki M, Horiuchi Y, Komiya T, Fukuda T, Arakawa Y, Takahashi M. Toxoid flocculation assay by laser light-scattering. J Immunol Methods. 2007;318:138-46 pubmed
    ..The system was highly reproducible and more objective than the current method. Only three sets of duplicate data were sufficient for statistically significant determination of toxoid Lf by parabolic regression. ..
  45. Di Giovine P, Pinto A, Olander R, Sesardic D, Stickings P, Berbers G, et al. External quality assessment for the determination of diphtheria antitoxin in human serum. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratories using ELISA and PHA performed less well than those using DAE, dDA-DELFIA, or ToBI. EQA is important for both laboratories that use in vitro nonstandardized methods and those that use commercial ELISA kits. ..
  46. Mattos Guaraldi A, Damasco P, Gomes D, Melendez M, Santos L, Marinelli R, et al. Concurrent diphtheria and infectious mononucleosis: difficulties for management, investigation and control of diphtheria in developing countries. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:1685-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This case highlights the difficulties in the clinical diagnosis of diphtheria in partially immunized individuals, and for the management and control of diphtheria in developing countries. ..
  47. Stickings P, Rigsby P, Coombes L, von Hunolstein C, Ralli L, Pinto A, et al. Calibration and commutability assessment of the 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human. Biologicals. 2013;41:384-92 pubmed publisher
    The 1st International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin Human (coded 10/262) was established by the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 2012...
  48. Hasselhorn H, Hofmann F, Nübling M. Effect of a diphtheria booster vaccination in adults with a documented history of an incomplete primary series vaccination. Infection. 2004;32:282-6 pubmed
    ..None of the participants had prevaccinal full protective diphtheria antitoxin levels (AT) > or = 0.1 IU/ml and four (19%) had limited serological protection (AT 0.01 to 0.1 IU/ml)...
  49. Condran G. The elusive role of scientific medicine in mortality decline: diphtheria in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Philadelphia. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2008;63:484-522 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of the past depends on numbers that reflect not only changing treatments but also changing understandings of disease at the end of the nineteenth century. ..
  50. Kourouma K, Konde M, Diallo M, Conde M, Salomon H, Roussey M, et al. [Vaccination against measles at 6 months of age]. Ann Pediatr (Paris). 1992;39:566-71 pubmed
  51. Okada K, Ueda K, Morokuma K, Kino Y, Tokugawa K, Nishima S. Seroepidemiologic study on pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus in the Fukuoka area of southern Japan: seroprevalence among persons 0-80 years old and vaccination program. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:67-71 pubmed
    ..0 and 57.9%, respectively. The seropositive rate of each group for diphtheria antitoxin was 76.3 and 75.7%, respectively. The tetanus antitoxin seropositive rates were 91.7 and 10...
  52. Pournaras S, Tsakris A, Hadjichristodoulou C, Skoura L, Souliou E, Antoniadis A, et al. Diphtheria immunity of Albanian and other eastern European immigrants in Greece compared with the local population--the risk of reemergence in Greece. Infection. 1999;27:361-4 pubmed
    ..b>Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) in sera from 185 healthy individuals from northern Greece and 227 immigrants from Albania and the NIS ..
  53. Auerbach B, Wilson M, Lake A, Deforest A, Steinhoff M, Halsey N. Dose-response to acellular pertussis vaccine and comparison with whole cell pertussis vaccine at 15-24 months and 4-6 years of age. Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Study Team. Vaccine. 1992;10:14-20 pubmed
    ..The lower (12.5 micrograms) dose of acellular vaccine was as effective as the higher (25 micrograms) dose in inducing antibodies to FHA and PT in children 15-24 months and 4-6 years of age. ..
  54. Hart P, Lee P, MacAllan D, Wansbrough Jones M. Cutaneous and pharyngeal diphtheria imported from the Indian subcontinent. Postgrad Med J. 1996;72:619-20 pubmed
    ..She was treated successfully with penicillin and diphtheria antitoxin. This case emphasises the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for such rare but significant ..
  55. Yuan L, Lau W, Thipphawong J, Kasenda M, Xie F, Bevilacqua J. Diphtheria and tetanus immunity among blood donors in Toronto. CMAJ. 1997;156:985-90 pubmed
    ..A diphtheria antitoxin level lower than 0.01 lU/mL and a tetanus antitoxin level lower than 0...
  56. Masterton R, Tettmar R, Pile R, Jones J, Croft K. Immunity to diphtheria in young British adults. J Infect. 1987;15:27-32 pubmed
    ..5% were regarded as non-immune. A history of diphtheria immunisation in childhood was found to be a poor predictor of immunity. A protocol for selective diphtheria immunisation of adults is proposed. ..
  57. Bergamini M, Comodo N, Gasparini R, Gabutti G, Fabrizi P, Severini R, et al. Prevalence of diphtheria toxin antibodies in human sera from a cross-section of the Italian population. Vaccine. 1999;17:286-90 pubmed
    ..To determine diphtheria antitoxin, sera from 5187 apparently healthy subjects, divided according to sex and age groups, were titrated using ..
  58. Marlovits S, Stocker R, Efstratiou A, Broughton K, Kaider A, Vecsei V, et al. Seroprevalence of diphtheria immunity among injured adults in Austria. Vaccine. 2000;19:1061-7 pubmed
    ..49). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age (P<0.001) and gender (P=0.004) had a significant independent influence on diphtheria immunity level, whereas the country of original immunization was not significant (P=0.72). ..
  59. Pullan C, Hull D. Routine immunisation of preterm infants. Arch Dis Child. 1989;64:1438-41 pubmed
    ..Many infants were able to start immunisation at 3 months of age. Premature infants who are immunised as soon as possible after 3 months of age develop adequate antibody responses. ..
  60. Christenson B, Hellstrom L, Aust Kettis A. Diphtheria in Stockholm, with a theory concerning transmission. J Infect. 1989;19:177-83 pubmed
    ..This theory has not been proved but is discussed in order to facilitate future investigations of a similar outbreak. ..
  61. Wysokiñska T, Zakrzewska A. [Investigation of immunogenic properties of diphtheria antitoxin by intradermal active test of potency]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 1992;44:207-10 pubmed
    ..As orientating test, estimate determining AnaDi potency a single dose performed on six guinea pigs was selected. In the intradermal test the time of investigation, as compared with the classic test, may be shortened by one week. ..
  62. Loggen H, Kreeftenberg J. In vitro induction of a diphtheria toxoid specific antibody response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of diphtheria toxoid. J Biol Stand. 1989;17:311-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these results are promising for in vitro examination of the immunogenicity of diphtheria vaccines. The model will be validated for the routine control of diphtheria vaccine. ..
  63. Kameyama S, Nagaoka F, Matuhasi T. Comparison of immune responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids of various mouse strains. Jpn J Med Sci Biol. 1989;42:83-99 pubmed
    ..BR, B10.BR/SgSn, B10.A/SgSnJ and B10.AKM/O1a, were high responders to diphtheria toxoid but low responders to tetanus toxoid. [4] The strain with H-2h4, B10.A (4R), was a poor responder to both toxoids. ..
  64. Cellesi C, Michelangeli C, Rossolini G, Giovannoni F, Rossolini A. Immunity to diphtheria, six to 15 years after a basic three-dose immunization schedule. J Biol Stand. 1989;17:29-34 pubmed
    ..The rabbit skin test was used to determine the titre of serum diphtheria antitoxin. 55.8% of the subjects were found to be protected (titre greater than or equal to 0.1 IU/ml), 38...
  65. Prasad V, Biranjan J, Jalgaonkar S. Immunity against diphtheria in the age group 15 to 25 years. J Commun Dis. 1991;23:41-3 pubmed
    Levels of diphtheria antitoxin in 254 serum samples were estimated in subjects in the age group 15 to 25 years with no previous history of immunisation against diphtheria using indirect haemagglutination test...
  66. Kumar S, Kanwar S, Bansal V, Sehgal R. Standardization and validation of Vero cell assay for potency estimation of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Biologicals. 2009;37:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a Vero cell assay was standardized and validated for potency estimation of diphtheria antitoxin serum (DATS). The results obtained by Vero cell assay were compared with in-vivo biological assay...
  67. Faryal R, Noreen Z, Tahir F, Rehman Z. Report: seroprevalence of corynebacterium diphtheriae among vaccinated population of Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013;26:649-51 pubmed
    ..The studied sample showed 100% prevalence of diphtheria antitoxin, confirming prior vaccination; however 49.2% exhibited only minimal protection against diphtheria...
  68. Saxena S, Jais M, Dutta R, Dutta A. Serological immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in healthy adults in Delhi, India. Trop Doct. 2009;39:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, it is necessary to monitor the community for immunity to diphtheria using standard techniques in order to undertake epidemiological surveillances of, and prevention from, these dreadful diseases...
  69. Bannister B, Corbel M. The effect of Schick testing on diphtheria antitoxin status. J Infect. 1991;22:11-5 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Schick testing is not reliably immunogenic and that, contrary to expectation, it cannot be assumed to elicit a useful booster response in previously immunised persons. ..
  70. Kjeldsen K, Simonsen O, Heron I. Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in the age group 30-70 years. Scand J Infect Dis. 1988;20:177-85 pubmed
    ..b>Diphtheria antitoxin titres were determined by in vitro neutralization technique using VERO cells...
  71. Simon J. Monitoring the stable at the Pasteur Institute. Sci Context. 2008;21:181-200 pubmed
    ..Finally, we argue that this monitoring of the horses, seen as serum-producing units, also provided information on the diseases the sera were intended to treat. ..
  72. Gupta R, Higham S, Gupta C, Rost B, Siber G. Suitability of the Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States potency test for diphtheria toxoid. Biologicals. 1994;22:65-72 pubmed
    The in vitro Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in immunized guinea pig sera was standardized to obtain comparable results to the in vivo toxin neutralization (TN) test in guinea pigs used to test potency of adsorbed ..
  73. Sesardic D, Prior C, Daas A, Buchheit K. Collaborative study for establishment of the European Pharmacopoeia BRP batch 1 for diphtheria toxin. Pharmeuropa Bio. 2003;2003:5-21 pubmed
    ..The candidate BRP was adopted as the Ph. Eur. reference material for Diphtheria Toxin Batch 1 by the Ph. Eur. Commission at its session in March 2003. ..
  74. Dixon B. Venerating vaccines. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:349 pubmed publisher
  75. Lilienfeld D. The first pharmacoepidemiologic investigations: national drug safety policy in the United States, 1901-1902. Perspect Biol Med. 2008;51:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..19th century as a consequence of both scientific and commercial innovations, such as the development of diphtheria antitoxin and the commercialization of smallpox vaccine...
  76. Dular U. Comparative studies of the in vivo toxin neutralization and the in vitro Vero cell assay methods for use in potency testing of diphtheria component in combined vaccines/toxoids. 1: Standardization of a modified Vero cell assay for toxin-antitoxin tit. Biologicals. 1993;21:53-9 pubmed
    ..This test requires the use of guinea-pigs for estimating diphtheria antitoxin titre in immunized sera...
  77. Toma C, Sisavath L, Iwanaga M. Reversed passive latex agglutination assay for detection of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:3147-9 pubmed
    ..The lowest concentration of diphtheria toxin detectable by the RPLA assay was about 5 ng/ml. The RPLA assay can provide a convenient and reliable method for laboratories involved in the identification of toxinogenic corynebacteria. ..
  78. Zibners L. Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: evidence-based management of pediatric patients in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Med Pract. 2017;14:1-24 pubmed
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    ..b>Diphtheria antitoxin concentrations were determined in serum samples from 534 patients (199 women and 335 men, aged 18-70 years) ..
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    ..Although the United Kingdom and Sweden both have higher proportions of seronegative children than elsewhere the likelihood of a resurgence of diphtheria in these countries seems remote...
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    ..Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure ..
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    ..As laryngeal diphtheria was suspected 2000 IU/kg diphtheria antitoxin was administered together with 1 mega U penicillin G four times daily intravenously...
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    ..Adsorbed Diphtheria-Tetanus and Pertussis Vaccine and a standard diphtheria toxoid were assayed for their diphtheria antitoxin content by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and by toxin neutralization (TN) tests...
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    ..The results suggest that Elisadiscs are a reliable alternative to venepuncture for monitoring immunity to diphtheria and tetanus and would be useful for sample collection in remote areas and from children. ..
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    ..Serum diphtheria antitoxin was titrated using the Vero cell assay. The minimum protection level of antitoxin was set at 0.01 IU ml-1...
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    ..methods for diphtheria antibodies, Vero cell assay and diphtheria enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diphtheria antitoxin (D-ELISA), can detect neutralising antibodies by comparison with TNT in guinea pigs...