Summary: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.

Top Publications

  1. Isbister G, Shahmy S, Mohamed F, Abeysinghe C, Karunathilake H, Ariaratnam A. A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38739 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions...
  2. Gutierrez J, Solano G, Pla D, Herrera M, Segura A, Villalta M, et al. Assessing the preclinical efficacy of antivenoms: from the lethality neutralization assay to antivenomics. Toxicon. 2013;69:168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..International projects involving participants of manufacturing, quality control and academic research groups should be promoted in order to gain a deeper understanding on the preclinical neutralizing spectrum of antivenoms. ..
  3. Brown N, Landon J. Antivenom: the most cost-effective treatment in the world?. Toxicon. 2010;55:1405-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances may lead to antivenom becoming one of the most cost-effective treatments available to modern medicine, and provides strong justification for its inclusion in international health funding initiatives...
  4. Aung H, Nikai T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Rosmarinic acid in Argusia argentea inhibits snake venom-induced hemorrhage. J Nat Med. 2010;64:482-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the antihemorrhage activity of RA (1), and RA (1) greatly contributes to the antihemorrhagic efficiency of A. argentea against crude snake venoms and hemorrhagic toxins...
  5. Alirol E, Sharma S, Bawaskar H, Kuch U, Chappuis F. Snake bite in South Asia: a review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e603 pubmed publisher
    ..The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. ..
  6. Janes D, Bush S, Kolluru G. Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern california. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010;21:120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate rattlesnake size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation...
  7. Weant K, Johnson P, Bowers R, Armitstead J. Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient...
  8. Spiller H, Bosse G, Ryan M. Use of antivenom for snakebites reported to United States poison centers. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This has been most noticeable in snake bite categories that were less frequently treated with antivenin in the past. ..
  9. Natu V, Kamerkar S, Geeta K, Vidya K, Natu V, Sane S, et al. Efficacy of anti-scorpion venom serum over prazosin in the management of severe scorpion envenomation. J Postgrad Med. 2010;56:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Scorpion venoms cause a massive release of neurotransmitters. Either anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVS) or prazosin has been used in the management of severe scorpion envenomation...

More Information


  1. Calvete J, Sanz L, Perez A, Borges A, Vargas A, Lomonte B, et al. Snake population venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox: Paedomorphism along its transamazonian dispersal and implications of geographic venom variability on snakebite management. J Proteomics. 2011;74:510-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of immunodepletion achieved suggests that each of these antivenoms may be effective against envenomations by paedomorphic, and some ontogenetic, B. atrox venoms...
  2. Warrell D. Snake bite. Lancet. 2010;375:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming...
  3. Williams D, Gutierrez J, Calvete J, Wüster W, Ratanabanangkoon K, Paiva O, et al. Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1735-67 pubmed publisher
  4. Araújo A, Lobato Z, Chavez Olortegui C, Velarde D. Brazilian IgY-Bothrops antivenom: Studies on the development of a process in chicken egg yolk. Toxicon. 2010;55:739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mL of IgY antivenom neutralized 0.154 mg of venom...
  5. Correa Netto C, Teixeira Araujo R, Aguiar A, Melgarejo A, De Simone S, Soares M, et al. Immunome and venome of Bothrops jararacussu: a proteomic approach to study the molecular immunology of snake toxins. Toxicon. 2010;55:1222-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also reinforce the importance of neutralizing the highly toxic proteins inclusive those with low immunogenicity in commercial antivenom production to obtain a highly protective serum against snake venoms. ..
  6. Gutierrez J, Williams D, Fan H, Warrell D. Snakebite envenoming from a global perspective: Towards an integrated approach. Toxicon. 2010;56:1223-35 pubmed publisher
  7. Patrão Neto F, Tomaz M, Strauch M, Monteiro Machado M, Rocha J, Borges P, et al. Dexamethasone antagonizes the in vivo myotoxic and inflammatory effects of Bothrops venoms. Toxicon. 2013;69:55-64 pubmed publisher
  8. Calvete J, Sanz L, Cid P, De La Torre P, Flores Díaz M, Dos Santos M, et al. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:528-44 pubmed publisher
    ..simus envenomations. The identification of evolutionary trends among tropical Crotalus, as reported here, may have an impact in defining the mixture of venoms for immunization to produce an effective pan-American anti-Crotalus antivenom...
  9. Chippaux J, Stock R, Massougbodji A. Methodology of clinical studies dealing with the treatment of envenomation. Toxicon. 2010;55:1195-212 pubmed publisher
  10. Kulawickrama S, O Leary M, Hodgson W, Brown S, Jacoby T, Davern K, et al. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for measuring taipan venom in serum. Toxicon. 2010;55:1510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of biotinylation and the antivenom difference method in venom EIA produces a highly sensitive assay that will be useful for determining antivenom dose, forensic and clinical diagnosis...
  11. Cook D, Owen T, Wagstaff S, Kinne J, Wernery U, Harrison R. Analysis of camelid IgG for antivenom development: Serological responses of venom-immunised camels to prepare either monospecific or polyspecific antivenoms for West Africa. Toxicon. 2010;56:363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These attributes suggest, from an immunological perspective, that camel IgG antivenoms should be as efficacious as current equine and ovine antivenoms. ..
  12. Cook D, Owen T, Wagstaff S, Kinne J, Wernery U, Harrison R. Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology. Toxicon. 2010;56:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans and N. nigricollis venoms. No direct correlation was evident between either camel IgG relative avidity or titre and the effectiveness of venom neutralisation in preclinical assays. ..
  13. Calvete J, Cid P, Sanz L, Segura A, Villalta M, Herrera M, et al. Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;82:1194-201 pubmed publisher
  14. Abubakar I, Abubakar S, Habib A, Nasidi A, Durfa N, Yusuf P, et al. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e767 pubmed publisher
    ..In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358)...
  15. Gutierrez J, León G, Burnouf T. Antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenomings: the road ahead. Biologicals. 2011;39:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These tasks demand cooperative efforts at all main stages of antivenom development and production, and need concerted international partnerships between key stakeholders. ..
  16. de Silva H, Pathmeswaran A, Ranasinha C, Jayamanne S, Samarakoon S, Hittharage A, et al. Low-dose adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone in the prevention of acute adverse reactions to antivenom following snakebite: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000435 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether adrenaline, promethazine, and hydrocortisone prevent such reactions in secondary referral hospitals in Sri Lanka by conducting a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
  17. Isbister G, White J, Currie B, O Leary M, Brown S. Clinical effects and treatment of envenoming by Hoplocephalus spp. snakes in Australia: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-12). Toxicon. 2011;58:634-40 pubmed publisher
    ..envenoming. Based on in vitro studies reported here, patients may be treated with one vial of TSAV, although one vial of brown snake antivenom may also be sufficient...
  18. Pla D, Gutierrez J, Calvete J. Second generation snake antivenomics: comparing immunoaffinity and immunodepletion protocols. Toxicon. 2012;60:688-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These features contribute to the generalization, economy and reproducibility of the method...
  19. Gutierrez J. Improving antivenom availability and accessibility: science, technology, and beyond. Toxicon. 2012;60:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These tasks should be envisaged in terms of synergistic, interprogrammatic and intersectorial interventions, with the participation of many players...
  20. Segura A, Villalta M, Herrera M, León G, Harrison R, Durfa N, et al. Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of a new antivenom (EchiTAb-Plus-ICP) for the treatment of viper envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. Toxicon. 2010;55:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It therefore constitutes a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in this region...
  21. Galvão Nascimento N, Sampaio M, Amaral Olivo R, Teixeira C. Contribution of mast cells to the oedema induced by Bothrops moojeni snake venom and a pharmacological assessment of the inflammatory mediators involved. Toxicon. 2010;55:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial neutralization of oedema was observed even when polyspecific bothropic antivenom was injected immediately after venom. ..
  22. Cook D, Samarasekara C, Wagstaff S, Kinne J, Wernery U, Harrison R. Analysis of camelid IgG for antivenom development: Immunoreactivity and preclinical neutralisation of venom-induced pathology by IgG subclasses, and the effect of heat treatment. Toxicon. 2010;56:596-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunoreactivity of the heavy and light chain, IgG1 subclass, was markedly more vulnerable to extreme heat treatment than the heavy chain-only IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses...
  23. Calvete J. Proteomic tools against the neglected pathology of snake bite envenoming. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2011;8:739-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Antivenomics and venom phenotyping may also contribute to expand the clinical range of currently existing antidotes...
  24. Gutierrez J, León G, Lomonte B, Angulo Y. Antivenoms for snakebite envenomings. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011;10:369-80 pubmed
  25. Khattabi A, Soulaymani Bencheikh R, Achour S, Salmi L. Classification of clinical consequences of scorpion stings: consensus development. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These consensus-based tools should facilitate development of international clinical studies...
  26. Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, Mishra R, Mukherjee S, Bhattacharya S, et al. Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010;48:865-78 pubmed
    ..The present review has been focussed on the varied folk and traditional herbs and their antisnake venom compounds, which might be a stepping stone in establishing the future therapy against snake bite treatment and management...
  27. Bawaskar H, Bawaskar P. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial. BMJ. 2011;342:c7136 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting...
  28. Churchman A, O Leary M, Buckley N, Page C, Tankel A, Gavaghan C, et al. Clinical effects of red-bellied black snake (Pseudechis porphyriacus) envenoming and correlation with venom concentrations: Australian Snakebite Project (ASP-11). Med J Aust. 2010;193:696-700 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings in patients with definite red-bellied black snake (RBBS; Pseudechis porphyriacus) bites, including correlation with results of venom assays...
  29. Lavonas E, Kokko J, Schaeffer T, Mlynarchek S, Bogdan G, Dart R. Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:128-137.e3 pubmed publisher
  30. Chippaux J. [Guidelines for the production, control and regulation of snake antivenom immunoglobulins]. Biol Aujourdhui. 2010;204:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These guidelines, which will published soon, should promote access to antivenoms, and their use by health services, leading in the short term to a significant decrease of snakebite morbidity and mortality...
  31. Ruha A, Curry S, Albrecht C, Riley B, Pizon A. Late hematologic toxicity following treatment of rattlesnake envenomation with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;57:53-9 pubmed publisher
  32. Crocker P, Zad O, Milling T, Maxson T, King B, Whorton E. Human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:871-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to characterize the human cytokine response to Texas crotaline envenomation before and after antivenom administration...
  33. Segura A, Castillo M, Nunez V, Yarleque A, Gonçalves L, Villalta M, et al. Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms. Toxicon. 2010;56:980-9 pubmed publisher
  34. Isbister G, Woods D, Alley S, O Leary M, Seldon M, Lincz L. Endogenous thrombin potential as a novel method for the characterization of procoagulant snake venoms and the efficacy of antivenom. Toxicon. 2010;56:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..ETP is a useful assay to investigate mechanisms of other procoagulant venoms and is a robust method of assessing antivenom efficacy...
  35. Isbister G, Brown S. Bites in Australian snake handlers--Australian snakebite project (ASP-15). QJM. 2012;105:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Venom anaphylaxis occured, despite previously being a poorly recognized problem in snake handlers. The incidence of SHSRs to antivenoms, including anaphylaxis, was not higher than that observed in non-snake handlers. ..
  36. Isbister G. Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience. Toxicology. 2010;268:148-54 pubmed publisher
  37. Weinstein S, Dart R, Staples A, White J. Envenomations: an overview of clinical toxinology for the primary care physician. Am Fam Physician. 2009;80:793-802 pubmed
    ..Cytotoxic fish stings, cnidarian stings, and traumatic penetrative envenomation by stingrays are typically managed symptomatically. Private collection of nonnative venomous animals in the United States is another source of medical risk. ..
  38. Abubakar S, Abubakar I, Habib A, Nasidi A, Durfa N, Yusuf P, et al. Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria. Toxicon. 2010;55:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..EgyVac antivenom did not fulfil efficacy or safety criteria in 12 patients. On the basis of these results, ET-G and ET-Plus were selected for comparison in a RCT. ..
  39. Calvete J. Antivenomics and venom phenotyping: A marriage of convenience to address the performance and range of clinical use of antivenoms. Toxicon. 2010;56:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work showing how the knowledge of evolutionary trends along with venom phenotyping may have an impact in designing a mixture of venoms for immunization aimed to produce a pan-American anti-crotalic antivenom is discussed...
  40. Agarwal R, Aggarwal A, Gupta D, Behera D, Jindal S. Low dose of snake antivenom is as effective as high dose in patients with severe neurotoxic snake envenoming. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:397-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is no difference between a protocol using lower doses of SAV and one with higher doses in the management of patients with severe neurotoxic snake envenoming. ..
  41. Sevcik C, D Suze G, Diaz P, Salazar V, Hidalgo C, Azpurua H, et al. Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. Toxicon. 2004;44:731-41 pubmed
    ..Only approximately 5% of the venom is eliminated in 10h; approximately 80% of the venom is in the tissues after 2h and remains there for >10h. ..
  42. Cannon R, Ruha A, Kashani J. Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51:407-11 pubmed publisher
    ..FabAV appears to be associated with a lower incidence of acute hypersensitivity than initially reported. Most reactions are mild and easily treated and do not preclude further dosing of antivenom. ..
  43. Ariaratnam C, Thuraisingam V, Kularatne S, Sheriff M, Theakston R, de Silva A, et al. Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In Sri Lanka and southwestern India where bites by these snakes are common, the only available antivenoms (raised against cobra, krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper venoms) are ineffective and carry a high risk of reactions...
  44. Natu V, Murthy R, Deodhar K. Efficacy of species specific anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVS) against severe, serious scorpion stings (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock)--an experience from rural hospital in western Maharashtra. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:283-7 pubmed
    ..No anaphylactic reaction with AScVS was observed. AScVS is effective and safe method of therapy in severe scorpion envenoming syndrome. ..
  45. Isbister G. Snake antivenom research: the importance of case definition. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:399-400 pubmed
  46. Gutierrez J, Lomonte B, León G, Alape Girón A, Flores Díaz M, Sanz L, et al. Snake venomics and antivenomics: Proteomic tools in the design and control of antivenoms for the treatment of snakebite envenoming. J Proteomics. 2009;72:165-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Snake venomics might be also helpful in designing alternative in vitro tests for the assessment of antivenom efficacy that would eventually substitute current in vivo tests. ..
  47. Yeung J, Little M, Murray L, Jelinek G, Daly F. Antivenom dosing in 35 patients with severe brown snake (Pseudonaja) envenoming in Western Australia over 10 years. Med J Aust. 2004;181:703-5 pubmed
    ..The authors now use 10 ampoules as an initial dose in severe brown snake envenoming. ..
  48. Peterson M. Snake bite: pit vipers. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2006;21:174-82 pubmed
    ..The dosage of antivenin needed is calculated relative to the amount of venom injected, the body mass of the victim, and the bite site. The average dosage in dogs and cats is 1 to 2 vials of antivenin. ..
  49. Isbister G, Brown S, Macdonald E, White J, Currie B. Current use of Australian snake antivenoms and frequency of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. Med J Aust. 2008;188:473-6 pubmed
    ..Antivenom was used appropriately, and most commonly for coagulopathy. Hypersensitivity reactions were common, but most were not severe. The discretionary use of premedication was not associated with any reduction in reactions. ..
  50. Gutierrez J, Rojas E, Quesada L, Leon G, Nunez J, Laing G, et al. Pan-African polyspecific antivenom produced by caprylic acid purification of horse IgG: an alternative to the antivenom crisis in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99:468-75 pubmed
    ..It constitutes a potentially valuable technology for the alleviation of the critical shortage of antivenom in Africa. ..
  51. Currie B. Snakebite in tropical Australia: a prospective study in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory. Med J Aust. 2004;181:693-7 pubmed
    ..Snakebite still causes morbidity in tropical Australia, but, with access to hospital and antivenom, deaths are rare. This study has enabled further definition of the envenoming syndromes of three highly venomous Australasian elapids. ..
  52. Bawaskar H, Bawaskar P, Punde D, Inamdar M, Dongare R, Bhoite R. Profile of snakebite envenoming in rural Maharashtra, India. J Assoc Physicians India. 2008;56:88-95 pubmed
  53. Visser L, Kyei Faried S, Belcher D, Geelhoed D, van Leeuwen J, van Roosmalen J. Failure of a new antivenom to treat Echis ocellatus snake bite in rural Ghana: the importance of quality surveillance. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..ocellatus snake venom. This illustrates the absolute need for regional pilot tests to assess the effectiveness of a new antivenom against local snake venoms before its sole and general distribution in a region is initiated...
  54. Leão L, Ho P, Junqueira de Azevedo I. Transcriptomic basis for an antiserum against Micrurus corallinus (coral snake) venom. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:112 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, their immunogenicity was tested using DNA immunization...
  55. Wagstaff S, Laing G, Theakston R, Papaspyridis C, Harrison R. Bioinformatics and multiepitope DNA immunization to design rational snake antivenom. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e184 pubmed
    ..Here we exploit recent molecular sequence analysis and DNA immunization tools to design more rational toxin-targeted antivenom...
  56. Chippaux J, Goyffon M. Epidemiology of scorpionism: a global appraisal. Acta Trop. 2008;107:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..27%). Although adults are more often concerned, children experience more severe envenomations and among them, mortality is higher. Improvement of therapeutic management would reduce the lethality very significantly. ..
  57. Simpson I. A study of the current knowledge base in treating snake bite amongst doctors in the high-risk countries of India and Pakistan: does snake bite treatment training reflect local requirements?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The central conclusion of the paper is that local protocols and training are required to adequately prepare doctors to improve treatment and reduce mortality. ..
  58. Warrell D. Unscrupulous marketing of snake bite antivenoms in Africa and Papua New Guinea: choosing the right product--'what's in a name?'. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A major source of confusion is labelling antivenom with ambiguous snake names that fail to distinguish the Asian species whose venoms are used in their production from the local snakes whose venoms are antigenically dissimilar...
  59. Lavonas E, Gerardo C, O Malley G, Arnold T, Bush S, Banner W, et al. Initial experience with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom in the treatment of copperhead snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2004;43:200-6 pubmed
    ..Time to return to work and long-term limb function were not assessed. A controlled trial with long-term follow-up is needed to define the role of FabAV treatment for copperhead envenomation. ..
  60. Gutierrez J, León G, Lomonte B. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of immunoglobulin therapy for envenomation. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2003;42:721-41 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are required on different venoms and antivenoms in order to further understand the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of antibodies and their fragments and to optimise the immunotherapy of envenomations. ..
  61. Harrison R, Hasson S, Harmsen M, Laing G, Conrath K, Theakston R. Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera. Toxicon. 2006;47:364-8 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, we report for the first time that camelid serum contains a non-IgG, highly potent inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage...
  62. Otero R, León G, Gutierrez J, Rojas G, Toro M, Barona J, et al. Efficacy and safety of two whole IgG polyvalent antivenoms, refined by caprylic acid fractionation with or without beta-propiolactone, in the treatment of Bothrops asper bites in Colombia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:1173-82 pubmed
    ..A further dose of antivenom at 6 h also did not guarantee resolution of coagulopathy within 12-24 h in all patients. The incidence of early adverse reactions (all mild) was similar for both antivenoms (15% and 24%; P>0.05). ..
  63. Isbister G, O Leary M, Schneider J, Brown S, Currie B. Efficacy of antivenom against the procoagulant effect of Australian brown snake (Pseudonaja sp.) venom: in vivo and in vitro studies. Toxicon. 2007;49:57-67 pubmed
    ..One vial of antivenom appears to be sufficient to bind and neutralise all venom in patients with severe brown snake envenoming...
  64. Ariaratnam C, Sheriff M, Theakston R, Warrell D. Distinctive epidemiologic and clinical features of common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bites in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:458-62 pubmed
    ..Case fatality was 6% (3%). This distinctive pattern of epidemiology and symptoms will aid clinical recognition (syndromic diagnosis) and prevention of krait bite envenoming...
  65. Kitchens C, Eskin T. Fatality in a case of envenomation by Crotalus adamanteus initially successfully treated with polyvalent ovine antivenom followed by recurrence of defibrinogenation syndrome. J Med Toxicol. 2008;4:180-3 pubmed
    ..This is separate from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Thrombin generation, thus hemostasis, are generally considered normal. This case may cause reexamination of this belief. ..
  66. Isbister G, Halkidis L, O Leary M, Whitaker R, Cullen P, Mulcahy R, et al. Human anti-snake venom IgG antibodies in a previously bitten snake-handler, but no protection against local envenoming. Toxicon. 2010;55:646-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, despite the presence of antibodies to death adder venom and free venom not being detected, the patient still developed significant local myotoxicity. ..