Summary: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.

Top Publications

  1. Christensen Dalsgaard M, Jørgensen M, Gerdes K. Three new RelE-homologous mRNA interferases of Escherichia coli differentially induced by environmental stresses. Mol Microbiol. 2010;75:333-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of the three loci depended on Lon protease that may sense the environmental stresses and activate TA loci by cleavage of the antitoxins. Transcription of the three TA operons was autoregulated by the antitoxins.
  2. Saavedra De Bast M, Mine N, Van Melderen L. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems may act as antiaddiction modules. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4603-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Li G, Zhang Y, Inouye M, Ikura M. Structural mechanism of transcriptional autorepression of the Escherichia coli RelB/RelE antitoxin/toxin module. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:107-19 pubmed publisher
  4. Syed M, Koyanagi S, Sharma E, Jobin M, Yakunin A, Levesque C. The chromosomal mazEF locus of Streptococcus mutans encodes a functional type II toxin-antitoxin addiction system. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the MazEF TA module might represent a cell growth modulator facilitating the persistence of S. mutans under the harsh conditions of the oral cavity. ..
  5. Dziewit L, Jazurek M, Drewniak L, Baj J, Bartosik D. The SXT conjugative element and linear prophage N15 encode toxin-antitoxin-stabilizing systems homologous to the tad-ata module of the Paracoccus aminophilus plasmid pAMI2. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:1983-97 pubmed publisher
    ..have the following common features: (i) the toxins are encoded by the first gene of each operon; (ii) the antitoxins contain a predicted helix-turn-helix motif of the XRE family; and (iii) the cassettes have two promoters that ..
  6. Li D, Mattoo P, Keller J. New equine antitoxins to botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A and B. Biologicals. 2012;40:240-6 pubmed publisher
    Hyperimmune monovalent antitoxins to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B have been produced by immunizing horses with newly developed formalin toxoids...
  7. Pachulec E, van der Does C. Conjugative plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9962 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic load region contains two toxin/antitoxins of the Zeta/Epsilon toxin/antitoxin family previously only found in Gram positive organisms and the virulence ..
  8. Sberro H, Leavitt A, Kiro R, Koh E, Peleg Y, Qimron U, et al. Discovery of functional toxin/antitoxin systems in bacteria by shotgun cloning. Mol Cell. 2013;50:136-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our experiments revealed an "antidefense" protein in phage T7 that neutralizes phage resistance. Our results expose active fronts in the arms race between bacteria and phage. ..
  9. Bunker R, McKenzie J, Baker E, Arcus V. Crystal structure of PAE0151 from Pyrobaculum aerophilum, a PIN-domain (VapC) protein from a toxin-antitoxin operon. Proteins. 2008;72:510-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Kasari V, Kurg K, Margus T, Tenson T, Kaldalu N. The Escherichia coli mqsR and ygiT genes encode a new toxin-antitoxin pair. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2908-19 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and in response to activation of the HipA toxin. Expression of the MqsR toxin does not kill bacteria but causes reversible growth inhibition and elongation of cells. ..
  2. Ramage H, Connolly L, Cox J. Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress responses, and evolution. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000767 pubmed publisher
    ..The expansion and maintenance of TA genes in the MTBC, coupled with the finding that a subset is transcriptionally activated by stress, suggests that TA systems are important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. ..
  3. Fiebig A, Castro Rojas C, Siegal Gaskins D, Crosson S. Interaction specificity, toxicity and regulation of a paralogous set of ParE/RelE-family toxin-antitoxin systems. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..crescentus, encodes eight ParE/RelE-superfamily toxins that are organized into operons with their cognate antitoxins. A systematic genetic analysis of these parDE and relBE TA operons demonstrates that seven encode functional ..
  4. Kopfmann S, Hess W. Toxin-antitoxin systems on the large defense plasmid pSYSA of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to a high biological relevance of pSYSA, whose coding capacity is 75% devoted to three distinct clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems mediating antiviral defense. ..
  5. Wagner E, Unoson C. The toxin-antitoxin system tisB-istR1: Expression, regulation, and biological role in persister phenotypes. RNA Biol. 2012;9:1513-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Friedman M, Rasooly R, Do P, Henika P. The olive compound 4-hydroxytyrosol inactivates Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A (SEA). J Food Sci. 2011;76:M558-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Practical Application:? The results of this study suggest that food-compatible and safe antitoxin olive compounds can be used to reduce both pathogens and toxins produced by the pathogens in foods...
  7. Engelberg Kulka H, Amitai S, Kolodkin Gal I, Hazan R. Bacterial programmed cell death and multicellular behavior in bacteria. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e135 pubmed
    ..We relate these two bacterial PCD systems to the ways in which bacterial populations resemble multicellular organisms. ..
  8. Fozo E, Hemm M, Storz G. Small toxic proteins and the antisense RNAs that repress them. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2008;72:579-89, Table of Contents pubmed publisher
  9. Zielenkiewicz U, Ceglowski P. The toxin-antitoxin system of the streptococcal plasmid pSM19035. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6094-105 pubmed
    ..The toxic effects of zeta gene expression in both bacterial species are counteracted by proper expression of epsilon. The epsilon-zeta toxin-antitoxin cassette stabilizes plasmids in E. coli less efficiently than in B. subtilis. ..
  10. Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000437 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in bacterial genomes. ..
  11. Zielenkiewicz U, Kowalewska M, Kaczor C, Ceglowski P. In vivo interactions between toxin-antitoxin proteins epsilon and zeta of streptococcal plasmid pSM19035 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal region of the Zeta protein and its ATP/GTP binding motif were found to be responsible for the toxicity. ..
  12. Albrecht M, Li H, Williamson E, LeButt C, Flick Smith H, Quinn C, et al. Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5425-33 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, IQNPA and IQNLF act independently during prophylactic anthrax treatment and do not interfere with the establishment of endogenous immunity. ..
  13. Wilbaux M, Mine N, Guerout A, Mazel D, Van Melderen L. Functional interactions between coexisting toxin-antitoxin systems of the ccd family in Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:2712-9 pubmed
    ..coli strain harboring the ccd(O157) system in its chromosome. This shows that the plasmidic ccd(F) system is functional in the presence of its chromosomal counterpart. ..
  14. Yamaguchi Y, Inouye M. mRNA interferases, sequence-specific endoribonucleases from the toxin-antitoxin systems. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2009;85:467-500 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that mRNA interferases play roles not only in cell growth regulation and programmed cell death, but also in regulation of specific gene expression (either positively or negatively) in bacteria. ..
  15. Mattison K, Wilbur J, So M, Brennan R. Structure of FitAB from Neisseria gonorrhoeae bound to DNA reveals a tetramer of toxin-antitoxin heterodimers containing pin domains and ribbon-helix-helix motifs. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The FitAB complex points to the mechanism by which antitoxins with RHH motifs can block the activity of toxins with PIN domains...
  16. Ning D, Ye S, Liu B, Chang J. The proteolytic activation of the relNEs (ssr1114/slr0664) toxin-antitoxin system by both proteases Lons and ClpP2s/Xs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Curr Microbiol. 2011;63:496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that both Lons and ClpP2s/Xs are responsible for RelN proteolysis in the native host under certain conditions. RelN is the first protein substrate identified for cyanobacterial ATP-dependent proteases. ..
  17. Henkel J, Tepp W, Przedpelski A, Fritz R, Johnson E, Barbieri J. Subunit vaccine efficacy against Botulinum neurotoxin subtypes. Vaccine. 2011;29:7688-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may provide a reference for the development of pan-BoNT vaccines...
  18. Sletvold H, Johnsen P, Hamre I, Simonsen G, Sundsfjord A, Nielsen K. Complete sequence of Enterococcus faecium pVEF3 and the detection of an omega-epsilon-zeta toxin-antitoxin module and an ABC transporter. Plasmid. 2008;60:75-85 pubmed publisher
  19. Short F, Pei X, Blower T, Ong S, Fineran P, Luisi B, et al. Selectivity and self-assembly in the control of a bacterial toxin by an antitoxic noncoding RNA pseudoknot. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E241-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Wozniak R, Waldor M. A toxin-antitoxin system promotes the maintenance of an integrative conjugative element. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000439 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors that promote SXT excision upregulate mosAT expression. Thus, when the element is extrachromosomal and vulnerable to loss, SXT activates a TA module to minimize the formation of SXT-free cells. ..
  21. Meinhart A, Alonso J, Str ter N, Saenger W. Crystal structure of the plasmid maintenance system epsilon/zeta: functional mechanism of toxin zeta and inactivation by epsilon 2 zeta 2 complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first prokaryotic postsegregational killing system that has been entirely structurally characterized...
  22. Mine N, Guglielmini J, Wilbaux M, Van Melderen L. The decay of the chromosomally encoded ccdO157 toxin-antitoxin system in the Escherichia coli species. Genetics. 2009;181:1557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular evolution analysis showed that ccdBO157 is under neutral evolution, suggesting that this system is devoid of any biological role in the E. coli species. ..
  23. Stieber D, Gabant P, Szpirer C. The art of selective killing: plasmid toxin/antitoxin systems and their technological applications. Biotechniques. 2008;45:344-6 pubmed publisher
  24. Mutschler H, Gebhardt M, Shoeman R, Meinhart A. A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001033 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics. ..
  25. Muñoz Gómez A, Santos Sierra S, Berzal Herranz A, Lemonnier M, Díaz Orejas R. Insights into the specificity of RNA cleavage by the Escherichia coli MazF toxin. FEBS Lett. 2004;567:316-20 pubmed
  26. Staats H, Alam S, Scearce R, Kirwan S, Zhang J, Gwinn W, et al. In vitro and in vivo characterization of anthrax anti-protective antigen and anti-lethal factor monoclonal antibodies after passive transfer in a mouse lethal toxin challenge model to define correlates of immunity. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5443-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, this LeTx neutralization assay may be a more biologically relevant neutralization assay to predict the in vivo protective capacity of LeTx-neutralizing antibodies. ..
  27. Motiejunaite R, Armalyte J, Markuckas A, Suziedeliene E. Escherichia coli dinJ-yafQ genes act as a toxin-antitoxin module. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;268:112-9 pubmed
    ..Structure modelling of E. coli YafQ revealed its structural relationship with bacterial toxins of known structure suggesting that it might act as a sequence-specific mRNA endoribonuclease. ..
  28. Rendi Wagner P, Tobias J, Moerman L, Goren S, Bassal R, Green M, et al. The seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Israel--Estimate of incidence of infection. Vaccine. 2010;28:3285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..pertussis, particularly in adolescents and elderly. Population-based serosurveillance for pertussis offers the potential to assist interpretation of trends independent of notification and diagnostic bias. ..
  29. Hakami R, Ruthel G, Stahl A, Bavari S. Gaining ground: assays for therapeutics against botulinum neurotoxin. Trends Microbiol. 2010;18:164-72 pubmed publisher
  30. Brown J, Shaw K. A novel family of Escherichia coli toxin-antitoxin gene pairs. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6600-8 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, we could not detect in vivo protein-protein interactions between the new toxin and antitoxin pairs. Instead, the antitoxins appeared to function by causing a large reduction in the level of cellular toxin protein.
  31. Maisonneuve E, Castro Camargo M, Gerdes K. (p)ppGpp controls bacterial persistence by stochastic induction of toxin-antitoxin activity. Cell. 2013;154:1140-1150 pubmed publisher
    ..depends hierarchically on the signaling nucleotide (p)ppGpp, Lon protease, inorganic polyphosphate, and toxin-antitoxins. We show that the level of (p)ppGpp varies stochastically in a population of exponentially growing cells and ..
  32. Takagi H, Kakuta Y, Okada T, Yao M, Tanaka I, Kimura M. Crystal structure of archaeal toxin-antitoxin RelE-RelB complex with implications for toxin activity and antitoxin effects. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis suggests that Arg85, in the C-terminal region, is strongly involved in the functional activity of aRelE, whereas Arg40, Leu48, Arg58 and Arg65 play a modest role in the toxin's activity...
  33. Winterroth L, Rivera J, Nakouzi A, Dadachova E, Casadevall A. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to edema toxin and its effect on murine anthrax. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2890-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Lioy V, Rey O, Balsa D, Pellicer T, Alonso J. A toxin-antitoxin module as a target for antimicrobial development. Plasmid. 2010;63:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..zetaD18A K46A-GFP interaction. In this study, we validate the hypothesis that it is possible to disrupt a TA module and offer a novel and unexploited targets to fight against antibiotic-resistant strains. ..
  35. Francuski D, Saenger W. Crystal structure of the antitoxin-toxin protein complex RelB-RelE from Methanococcus jannaschii. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:898-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative studies suggest that Asp43 and His79 are also involved in the activity of the toxin...
  36. de la Cueva M ndez G. Distressing bacteria: structure of a prokaryotic detox program. Mol Cell. 2003;11:848-50 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Molecular Cell, Kamada et al. describe the crystal structure of a MazE/MazF heterohexamer and propose that the mechanism of toxin-antidote recognition is common to other homologous chromosomal and plasmid-borne systems...
  37. Makarova K, Wolf Y, Koonin E. Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes. Biol Direct. 2009;4:19 pubmed publisher
  38. Gerdes K, Christensen S, Løbner Olesen A. Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:371-82 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that toxin-antitoxin loci function in bacterial programmed cell death, but evidence now indicates that these loci provide a control mechanism that helps free-living prokaryotes cope with nutritional stress. ..
  39. Szekeres S, Dauti M, Wilde C, Mazel D, Rowe Magnus D. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin loci can diminish large-scale genome reductions in the absence of selection. Mol Microbiol. 2007;63:1588-605 pubmed
    ..Thus, chromosomal TA loci can stabilize massive SI arrays and limit the extensive gene loss that is a hallmark of reductive evolution...
  40. Weaver K. The par toxin-antitoxin system from Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1 and its chromosomal homologs. RNA Biol. 2012;9:1498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous chromosomal homologs of pAD1 par have been identified in Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that this locus may play important roles in cellular function...
  41. Kamphuis M, Monti M, van den Heuvel R, Santos Sierra S, Folkers G, Lemonnier M, et al. Interactions between the toxin Kid of the bacterial parD system and the antitoxins Kis and MazE. Proteins. 2007;67:219-31 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a high structural similarity exists between these antitoxins, using NMR spectroscopy...
  42. Sevin E, Barloy Hubler F. RASTA-Bacteria: a web-based tool for identifying toxin-antitoxin loci in prokaryotes. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R155 pubmed
    ..The tool successfully confirmed all reported TA systems, and spotted new putative loci upon screening of sequenced genomes. RASTA-Bacteria is publicly available at ..
  43. Baldwin M, Tepp W, Przedpelski A, Pier C, Bradshaw M, Johnson E, et al. Subunit vaccine against the seven serotypes of botulism. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1314-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first E. coli-derived vaccine that effectively neutralizes each of the seven BoNT serotypes...
  44. Leung V, Levesque C. A stress-inducible quorum-sensing peptide mediates the formation of persister cells with noninherited multidrug tolerance. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:2265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the induction of bacterial persistence using a quorum-sensing regulatory system. ..
  45. Ahidjo B, Kuhnert D, McKenzie J, Machowski E, Gordhan B, Arcus V, et al. VapC toxins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ribonucleases that differentially inhibit growth and are neutralized by cognate VapB antitoxins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21738 pubmed publisher
    ..of the cognate VapB as part of a vapBC operon or from a different chromosomal locus, while that of non-cognate antitoxins did not...
  46. Tachdjian S, Kelly R. Dynamic metabolic adjustments and genome plasticity are implicated in the heat shock response of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4553-9 pubmed
    ..0. This included many toxin-antitoxin loci and insertion elements, implicating a connection between genome plasticity and metabolic regulation in the early stages of stress response...
  47. Mutschler H, Meinhart A. ?/? systems: their role in resistance, virulence, and their potential for antibiotic development. J Mol Med (Berl). 2011;89:1183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Contrarily, inhibition of virulence-associated ? toxins might attenuate infections. Here we provide an overview of ?/? toxin-antitoxin family and its potential role in the development of new therapeutic approaches in microbial defense. ..
  48. Gupta A. Killing activity and rescue function of genome-wide toxin-antitoxin loci of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;290:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These toxins need to be further tested for their activity in the native host and other organism backgrounds and growth environments for utilization of their antibacterial potential. ..
  49. Nieto C, Pellicer T, Balsa D, Christensen S, Gerdes K, Espinosa M. The chromosomal relBE2 toxin-antitoxin locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization and use of a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay to detect toxin-antitoxin interaction. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:1280-96 pubmed
    ..This technique has shown to be amenable to a high-throughput screening (HTS), opening new avenues in the search of molecules with potential antibacterial activity able to inhibit TA interactions. ..
  50. Reason D, Liberato J, Sun J, Keitel W, Zhou J. Frequency and domain specificity of toxin-neutralizing paratopes in the human antibody response to anthrax vaccine adsorbed. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2030-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A vaccine design strategy that directed a higher percentage of the antibody response toward neutralizing epitopes may result in a more efficacious vaccine for the prevention of anthrax infection. ..
  51. Schuster C, Bertram R. Toxin-antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and versatile modulators of prokaryotic cell fate. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2013;340:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..TA toxin activity can then result in cell death or in the formation of drug-tolerant persister cells. The versatile properties of TA systems have also been exploited in biotechnology and may aid in combating infectious diseases. ..
  52. Prysak M, Mozdzierz C, Cook A, Zhu L, Zhang Y, Inouye M, et al. Bacterial toxin YafQ is an endoribonuclease that associates with the ribosome and blocks translation elongation through sequence-specific and frame-dependent mRNA cleavage. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:1071-87 pubmed publisher
  53. Zhang Q, Han F, Nie Q, Ren H, Zhang B, Liu Q, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis and diphtheria among healthy adults in China. J Infect. 2011;63:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) and diphtheria among adults in China...
  54. Wang X, Wood T. Toxin-antitoxin systems influence biofilm and persister cell formation and the general stress response. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5577-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, upon stress, the sequence-specific mRNA interferases MqsR and MazF mediate cell survival. In addition, we propose that TA systems are not redundant, as they may have developed to respond to specific stresses. ..
  55. Brenneman K, Doganay M, Akmal A, Goldman S, Galloway D, Mateczun A, et al. The early humoral immune response to Bacillus anthracis toxins in patients infected with cutaneous anthrax. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:164-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of human LF-specific antibodies to neutralize toxin activity supports the possible inclusion of LF in future anthrax vaccines...
  56. Schuster C, Park J, Prax M, Herbig A, Nieselt K, Rosenstein R, et al. Characterization of a mazEF toxin-antitoxin homologue from Staphylococcus equorum. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:115-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data strongly suggest that MazEF(seq) represents the first characterized TA system in a nonpathogenic Staphylococcus species and indicate that MazEF modules in staphylococci may also control processes beyond pathogenicity...
  57. Bukowski M, Rojowska A, Wladyka B. Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems--the role in bacterial physiology and application in molecular biology. Acta Biochim Pol. 2011;58:1-9 pubmed
    ..The impact of toxin-antitoxin systems on bacteria physiology prompted their application in molecular biology as tools allowing cloning of some hard-to-maintain genes, plasmid maintenance and production of recombinant proteins. ..
  58. Moritz E, Hergenrother P. Toxin-antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and plasmid-encoded in vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:311-6 pubmed
    ..Given this ubiquity of mazEF in VRE and the deleterious activity of the MazF toxin, disruption of mazEF with pharmacological agents is an attractive strategy for tailored antimicrobial therapy. ..
  59. Lah J, Simic M, Vesnaver G, Marianovsky I, Glaser G, Engelberg Kulka H, et al. Energetics of structural transitions of the addiction antitoxin MazE: is a programmed bacterial cell death dependent on the intrinsically flexible nature of the antitoxins?. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17397-407 pubmed
  60. Rainey G, Young J. Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:721-6 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on the use of antitoxins - antibodies, receptor decoys, dominant-negative inhibitors of translocation, small-molecule inhibitors and ..
  61. Arcus V, Rainey P, Turner S. The PIN-domain toxin-antitoxin array in mycobacteria. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:360-5 pubmed
  62. Silvaggi J, Perkins J, Losick R. Small untranslated RNA antitoxin in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:6641-50 pubmed
    ..We propose that the ratA transcript is an antisense RNA that anneals to the 3' end of the txpA mRNA, thereby triggering its degradation. ..
  63. Smith J, Magnuson R. Modular organization of the Phd repressor/antitoxin protein. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:2692-8 pubmed
    ..Consideration of similar antitoxin proteins and their surroundings indicates that modular exchange may contribute to antitoxin and operon diversity. ..
  64. Lioy V, Martín M, Camacho A, Lurz R, Antelmann H, Hecker M, et al. pSM19035-encoded zeta toxin induces stasis followed by death in a subpopulation of cells. Microbiology. 2006;152:2365-79 pubmed
    ..These results support the view that zeta interacts with its specific target and reversibly inhibits cell proliferation, but accumulation of zeta might lead to cell death due to pleiotropic effects. ..
  65. Fico S, Mahillon J. TasA-tasB, a new putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) system from Bacillus thuringiensis pGI1 plasmid is a widely distributed composite mazE-doc TA system. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:259 pubmed
    ..and in a large variety of microorganisms, either as tasA-tasB homologues or in association with toxins (or antitoxins) from other TA systems. In this work, we showed that the pGI1 plasmid of B. thuringiensis H1...
  66. Nieto C, Sadowy E, de la Campa A, Hryniewicz W, Espinosa M. The relBE2Spn toxin-antitoxin system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: role in antibiotic tolerance and functional conservation in clinical isolates. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11289 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that even though the relBE2Spn TAS is not essential for pneumococcus, it may provide additional advantages to the bacteria for colonization and/or infection. ..
  67. Agarwal S, Agarwal S, Bhatnagar R. Identification and characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin module from Bacillus anthracis. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Gel retardation assays demonstrated that PemI binds to its upstream DNA sequence. This study reports the first evidence of an active chromosome encoded toxin-antitoxin locus in B. anthracis...
  68. Florek P, Muchová K, Pavelcikova P, Barak I. Expression of functional Bacillus SpoIISAB toxin-antitoxin modules in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;278:177-84 pubmed
    ..coli as their homologue from B. subtilis. Moreover, expression of the proposed spoIISB-like gene rescues E. coli cells from death induced by the SpoIISA homologue. ..
  69. Zhao L, Zhang J. Biochemical characterization of a chromosomal toxin-antitoxin system in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:710-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Rv1991a and the Rv1991a-Rv1991c complex were able to bind to the promoter region of the Rv1991a-Rv1991c operon, indicating that the expression of the Rv1991a-Rv1991c operon can be autoregulated. ..
  70. Williams J, Hergenrother P. Exposing plasmids as the Achilles' heel of drug-resistant bacteria. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2008;12:389-99 pubmed publisher
  71. Li G, Zhang Y, Inouye M, Ikura M. Inhibitory mechanism of Escherichia coli RelE-RelB toxin-antitoxin module involves a helix displacement near an mRNA interferase active site. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our structures indicate that RelB counteracts the toxic activity of RelE by displacing alpha4 helix from the catalytically competent position found in the free RelE structure. ..
  72. Blower T, Fineran P, Johnson M, Toth I, Humphreys D, Salmond G. Mutagenesis and functional characterization of the RNA and protein components of the toxIN abortive infection and toxin-antitoxin locus of Erwinia. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6029-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This work on the components of the ToxIN system suggests that there is very tight toxin regulation prior to suicide activation by incoming phage...
  73. Kim Y, Wang X, Zhang X, Grigoriu S, Page R, Peti W, et al. Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:1105-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we demonstrate that the MqsR/MqsA TA system controls cell physiology via its own toxicity as well as through its regulation of another toxin, CspD. ..
  74. Sesardic D. Alternatives in testing of bacterial toxins and antitoxins. Dev Biol (Basel). 2002;111:101-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, large numbers of animals continue to be used for the potency and safety testing of therapeutic antitoxins. There is thus an increasing need to develop acceptable alternative assays for toxicity testing which would ..
  75. Goldman E, Anderson G, Liu J, Delehanty J, Sherwood L, Osborn L, et al. Facile generation of heat-stable antiviral and antitoxin single domain antibodies from a semisynthetic llama library. Anal Chem. 2006;78:8245-55 pubmed
    ..The ability to rapidly select such rugged antibodies will enhance the reliability of immunoassays by extending shelf life and the capacity to function in hostile environments...
  76. Samson J, Spinelli S, Cambillau C, Moineau S. Structure and activity of AbiQ, a lactococcal endoribonuclease belonging to the type III toxin-antitoxin system. Mol Microbiol. 2013;87:756-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The AbiQ system is the first lactococcal abortive infection system characterized to date at a structural level...
  77. Mabry R, Rani M, Geiger R, Hubbard G, Carrion R, Brasky K, et al. Passive protection against anthrax by using a high-affinity antitoxin antibody fragment lacking an Fc region. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8362-8 pubmed
    ..Importantly, our results suggest that PEGylated antibody fragments may represent a unique approach for mounting a rapid therapeutic response to emerging pathogen infections. ..
  78. Mutschler H, Reinstein J, Meinhart A. Assembly dynamics and stability of the pneumococcal epsilon zeta antitoxin toxin (PezAT) system from Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21797-806 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that PezAT complex formation is distinct to all other conventional toxin antitoxin modules and a controlled mode of toxin release is required for activation. ..