blood

Summary

Summary: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.

Top Publications

  1. Manage D, Lauzon J, Atrazhev A, Pang X, Pilarski L. A novel method for sample delivery and testing of whole blood: gel strip PCR for point of care (POC) molecular diagnostics. Lab Chip. 2013;13:4011-4 pubmed publisher
    Testing of whole blood in miniaturized PCR is compromised by the opaque nature of whole blood that leads to physical masking of a fluorescent signal...
  2. Laffler T, Cummins L, McClain C, Quinn C, Toro M, Carolan H, et al. Enhanced diagnostic yields of bacteremia and candidemia in blood specimens by PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3535-41 pubmed publisher
    A prospective study was performed to determine the value of direct molecular testing of whole blood for detecting the presence of culturable and unculturable bacteria and yeasts in patients with suspected bloodstream infections...
  3. Rinker D, Pitts R, Zhou X, Suh E, Rokas A, Zwiebel L. Blood meal-induced changes to antennal transcriptome profiles reveal shifts in odor sensitivities in Anopheles gambiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and olfaction, we have performed cohort comparisons of antennal transcript abundances at five time points after a blood meal, a key event in both reproduction and disease transmission cycles...
  4. Alby K, Daniels L, Weber D, Miller M. Development of a treatment algorithm for streptococci and enterococci from positive blood cultures identified with the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3869-71 pubmed publisher
    Seventy-eight blood cultures with a Gram stain result of Gram-positive cocci in pairs and/or chains were evaluated with the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) assay...
  5. Pawełczyk A, Kubisa N, Jabłońska J, Bukowska Ośko I, Caraballo Cortes K, Fic M, et al. Detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) negative strand RNA and NS3 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC): CD3+, CD14+ and CD19+. Virol J. 2013;10:346 pubmed publisher
    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) is primarily hepatotropic, markers of HCV replication were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as in ex vivo collected tissues and organs...
  6. Pinkevych M, Petravic J, Chelimo K, Vulule J, Kazura J, Moormann A, et al. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1136-43 pubmed publisher
    ..dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study ..
  7. Aitken S, Kliphuis A, Bronze M, Wallis C, Kityo C, Balinda S, et al. Development and evaluation of an affordable real-time qualitative assay for determining HIV-1 virological failure in plasma and dried blood spots. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes the development and evaluation of a low-cost, dried blood spot (DBS)-compatible qualitative assay to determine VF, in accordance with current WHO guideline recommendations ..
  8. Foster A. Rapid Identification of microbes in positive blood cultures by use of the vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3717-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid technique for identifying organisms in positive blood cultures using the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux)...
  9. Diouara A, Diop Ndiaye H, Kebe Fall K, Tchiakpe E, Ndiaye O, Ayouba A, et al. Dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping in decentralized settings in Senegal. J Med Virol. 2014;86:45-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use for HIV-1 drug resistance testing dried blood spots collected in remote areas and sent under field conditions to a reference laboratory and also to document virological failure in patients ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Matz J, Matuschewski K, Kooij T. Two putative protein export regulators promote Plasmodium blood stage development in vivo. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2013;191:44-52 pubmed publisher
    Protein export is considered an essential feature of malaria parasite blood stage development...
  2. Buchan B, Ginocchio C, Manii R, Cavagnolo R, Pancholi P, Swyers L, et al. Multiplex identification of gram-positive bacteria and resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broths: evaluation of an automated microarray-based nucleic acid test. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001478 pubmed publisher
    ..was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test (BC-GP) test to identify 12 Gram-positive bacterial gene targets and three genetic resistance ..
  3. El Saghire H, Thierens H, Monsieurs P, Michaux A, Vandevoorde C, Baatout S. Gene set enrichment analysis highlights different gene expression profiles in whole blood samples X-irradiated with low and high doses. Int J Radiat Biol. 2013;89:628-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Using microarray techniques, this study aims for a better understanding of whole blood response to low and high doses of IR.
  4. Martiny D, Debaugnies F, Gateff D, Gerard M, Aoun M, Martin C, et al. Impact of rapid microbial identification directly from positive blood cultures using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on patient management. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:E568-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the impact of rapid microbial identification (RMI) from positive blood cultures on the management of patients with suspected sepsis...
  5. Khan A, Tareen A, Ikram A, Rahman H, Wadood A, Qasim M, et al. Prevalence of HCV among the young male blood donors of Quetta region of Balochistan, Pakistan. Virol J. 2013;10:83 pubmed publisher
    ..HCV associated infection spreads mainly by blood-to-blood contact...
  6. Abbasi I, Aramin S, Hailu A, Shiferaw W, Kassahun A, Belay S, et al. Evaluation of PCR procedures for detecting and quantifying Leishmania donovani DNA in large numbers of dried human blood samples from a visceral leishmaniasis focus in Northern Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:153 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of these are from the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. Our study was designed to elucidate the role of symptomatic and asymptomatic Leishmania donovani infected persons in the epidemiology of VL in Northern Ethiopia...
  7. Holguin A, Norman F, Martín L, Mateos M, Chacón J, Lopez Velez R, et al. Dried blood as an alternative to plasma or serum for Trypanosoma cruzi IgG detection in screening programs. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1197-202 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Blood samples on filter paper may be a practical alternative to plasma/serum for antibody detection...
  8. Self W, Speroff T, Grijalva C, McNaughton C, Ashburn J, Liu D, et al. Reducing blood culture contamination in the emergency department: an interrupted time series quality improvement study. Acad Emerg Med. 2013;20:89-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs...
  9. Popgeorgiev N, Boyer M, Fancello L, Monteil S, Robert C, Rivet R, et al. Marseillevirus-like virus recovered from blood donated by asymptomatic humans. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:1042-50 pubmed publisher
    The study of the human virome is still in its infancy, especially with regard to the viral content of the blood of people who are apparently disease free...
  10. Lindig S, Quickert S, Vodovotz Y, Wanner G, Bauer M. Age-independent co-expression of antimicrobial gene clusters in the blood of septic patients. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2013;42 Suppl:S2-7 pubmed publisher
    Recent research has unravelled the clinical potential of profiling the blood transcriptome to diagnose diseases...
  11. Inci F, Tokel O, Wang S, Gurkan U, Tasoglu S, Kuritzkes D, et al. Nanoplasmonic quantitative detection of intact viruses from unprocessed whole blood. ACS Nano. 2013;7:4733-45 pubmed publisher
    ..e., HIV subtype D) using spiked whole blood samples and clinical discarded HIV-infected patient whole blood samples validated by the gold standard, i.e...
  12. Chaisuksant S, Koonsuwan A, Sawanyawisuth K. Appropriateness of obtaining blood cultures in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013;44:289-94 pubmed
    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease and blood cultures are frequently performed to identify a causative agent, but doing this results in an economic burden...
  13. Petersen A, Zeilinger S, Kastenmüller G, Römisch Margl W, Brugger M, Peters A, et al. Epigenetics meets metabolomics: an epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..first epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) between DNA methylation and metabolic traits (metabotypes) in human blood. We assess 649 blood metabolic traits from 1814 participants of the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region ..
  14. Altun O, Almuhayawi M, Ullberg M, Ozenci V. Clinical evaluation of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel in identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:4130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..system allowing high-order multiplex PCR analysis with automated readout of results directly from positive blood cultures in 1 h...
  15. Jain S, Das Chugh T. Antimicrobial resistance among blood culture isolates of Salmonella enterica in New Delhi. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013;7:788-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined current pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility among Salmonella enterica isolates from enteric fever cases at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India...
  16. Atchade P, Doderer Lang C, Chabi N, Perrotey S, Abdelrahman T, Akpovi C, et al. Is a Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA)-based assay a valid tool for detecting risky malaria blood donations in Africa?. Malar J. 2013;12:279 pubmed publisher
    ..This study's objective was to compare the performance of different malaria screening methods in blood donors in southern Benin, a malaria-endemic country.
  17. Li X, de Castro Borges W, Parker Manuel S, Vance G, DeMarco R, Neves L, et al. The schistosome oesophageal gland: initiator of blood processing. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2337 pubmed publisher
    ..of the schistosome esophageal gland was described >35 years ago, its role in the processing of ingested blood has never been established. The current study was prompted by our identification of MEG-4...
  18. Beal S, Ciurca J, Smith G, John J, Lee F, Doern C, et al. Evaluation of the nanosphere verigene gram-positive blood culture assay with the VersaTREK blood culture system and assessment of possible impact on selected patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3988-92 pubmed publisher
    The Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) assay (Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL) is a molecular method for the rapid identification of Gram-positive organisms and resistance markers directly from blood culture bottles...
  19. Tylee D, Kawaguchi D, Glatt S. On the outside, looking in: a review and evaluation of the comparability of blood and brain "-omes". Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2013;162B:595-603 pubmed publisher
    In this article, we review studies detailing the correspondence between peripheral blood and brain tissue across various domains of high-throughput -omic analysis in order to provide a context for evaluating blood-based biomarker studies...
  20. Paul S, Smilenov L, Amundson S. Widespread decreased expression of immune function genes in human peripheral blood following radiation exposure. Radiat Res. 2013;180:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 2, 5, 8 Gy) of human peripheral blood from five donors...
  21. Haas C, Hanson E, Anjos M, Ballantyne K, Banemann R, Bhoelai B, et al. RNA/DNA co-analysis from human menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains: results of a fourth and fifth collaborative EDNAP exercise. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2014;8:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The task was to identify dried menstrual blood and vaginal secretion stains using specific RNA biomarkers, and additionally test 3 housekeeping genes for their ..
  22. Mach N, Gao Y, Lemonnier G, Lecardonnel J, Oswald I, Estellé J, et al. The peripheral blood transcriptome reflects variations in immunity traits in swine: towards the identification of biomarkers. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:894 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether the peripheral blood transcriptome can provide a significant and comprehensive view of IT variations in pig.
  23. Ateş S, Bagirova M, Allahverdiyev A, Kocazeybek B, Kosan E. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank. Acta Trop. 2013;128:54-60 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis...
  24. Stekler J, O Neal J, Lane A, Swanson F, Maenza J, Stevens C, et al. Relative accuracy of serum, whole blood, and oral fluid HIV tests among Seattle men who have sex with men. J Clin Virol. 2013;58 Suppl 1:e119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV tests have sensitivity during the "window period" comparable only to earliest generation EIAs. To date, it is unclear whether any POC test performs significantly better than others...
  25. Wright F, Sullivan P, Brooks A, Zou F, Sun W, Xia K, et al. Heritability and genomics of gene expression in peripheral blood. Nat Genet. 2014;46:430-7 pubmed publisher
    ..using a classic twin design to quantify expression heritability and quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in peripheral blood. The most highly heritable genes (?777) were grouped into distinct expression clusters, enriched in gene-poor ..
  26. Shin S, Fauman E, Petersen A, Krumsiek J, Santos R, Huang J, et al. An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites. Nat Genet. 2014;46:543-550 pubmed publisher
    ..associations at 145 metabolic loci and their biochemical connectivity with more than 400 metabolites in human blood. We extensively characterize the resulting in vivo blueprint of metabolism in human blood by integrating it with ..
  27. Gupta S, Neogi U, Srinivasa H, Shet A. High concordance of genotypic coreceptor prediction in plasma-viral RNA and proviral DNA of HIV-1 subtype C: implications for use of whole blood DNA in resource-limited settings. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2013;68:2003-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to evaluate the performance of cell-associated proviral DNA against plasma-derived viral RNA as the genetic material for GTT in an Indian clinical setting...
  28. Leli C, Cenci E, Cardaccia A, Moretti A, D Alo F, Pagliochini R, et al. Rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF MS. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:205-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an in-house protocol based on Tween 80 to process 109 positive blood cultures for bacteria and yeast identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass ..
  29. Jimenez M, Gonzalez E, Iriso A, Marco E, Alegret A, Fúster F, et al. Detection of Leishmania infantum and identification of blood meals in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a focus of human leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of Leishmania DNA in the sand flies captured was studied by kDNA-PCR and cpb-PCR. In addition, blood fed and gravid female P. perniciosus were analysed by a PCR based in vertebrate cytochrome b (cyt b) gene...
  30. Ross R, Stambouli O, Grüner N, Marcus U, Cai W, Zhang W, et al. Detection of infections with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus by analyses of dried blood spots--performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT system and two commercial assays for nucleic acid amplification. Virol J. 2013;10:72 pubmed publisher
    Nowadays, dried blood spots (DBS) are primarily used to obtain diagnostic access to risk collectives such as intravenous drug users, who are prone to infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human ..
  31. Metzgar D, Frinder M, Lovari R, Toleno D, Massire C, Blyn L, et al. Broad-spectrum biosensor capable of detecting and identifying diverse bacterial and Candida species in blood. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of the assay was characterized using whole-blood samples spiked with low titers of 64 bacterial species and 6 Candida species representing the breadth of coverage ..
  32. Bernal Martinez L, Gago S, Buitrago M, Gomez Lopez A, Rodriguez Tudela J, Cuenca Estrella M. Analysis of performance of a PCR-based assay to detect DNA of Aspergillus fumigatus in whole blood and serum: a comparative study with clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3596-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 711 serial samples (356 whole-blood and 355 serum samples) from 38 adult patients were analyzed...
  33. Furtado M, Andrade R, Romanelli L, Ribeiro M, Ribas J, Torres E, et al. Monitoring the HTLV-1 proviral load in the peripheral blood of asymptomatic carriers and patients with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis from a Brazilian cohort: ROC curve analysis to establish the threshold for risk disease. J Med Virol. 2012;84:664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..proviral load is a risk marker for HAM/TSP, although there is an overlap of proviral load levels in peripheral blood between asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP patients...
  34. Zbinden A, Mueller N, Tarr P, Sproer C, Keller P, Bloemberg G. Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov., isolated from blood of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:2941-5 pubmed publisher
    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped bacterial strains were isolated from multiple blood cultures of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis...
  35. Farney T, McCarthy C, Canale R, Schilling B, Whitehead P, Bloomer R. Absence of blood oxidative stress in trained men after strenuous exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012;44:1855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The discrepancy in findings may be related to differences in exercise intensity across protocols, as well as to differences in training status of participants...
  36. Vasumathy R, Pandey B, Mishra K. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic death in human peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with plasma from gamma-irradiated blood. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2012;31:1-6 pubmed
    The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of plasma from irradiated human blood on the induction of apoptotic death in human peripheral blood lymphocytes...
  37. Mtove G, Hendriksen I, Amos B, Mrema H, Mandia V, Manjurano A, et al. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses. Malar J. 2011;10:290 pubmed publisher
    ..with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
  38. Arnon T, Xu Y, Lo C, Pham T, An J, Coughlin S, et al. GRK2-dependent S1PR1 desensitization is required for lymphocytes to overcome their attraction to blood. Science. 2011;333:1898-903 pubmed publisher
    ..egress from lymphoid organs in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); minutes later they migrate from blood into tissue against the S1P gradient...
  39. Zhu A, Han H, Zhao H, Hu J, Jiang C, Xie F, et al. Increased frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells in the peripheral blood of patients with secondary syphilis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;66:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the frequencies of Th17 and Th22 cells are significantly increased in the peripheral blood of patients with secondary syphilis (SS)...
  40. Näslund J, Kerner A, Drobni P, Bucht G, Evander M, Ahlm C. Detection of Puumala and Rift Valley Fever virus by quantitative RT-PCR and virus viability tests in samples of blood dried and stored on filter paper. J Virol Methods. 2011;178:186-90 pubmed publisher
    Haemorrhagic fever viruses cause emerging infections worldwide, and blood or serum is the main sample used for diagnosis...
  41. Hwang J, Jaroensuk J, Leimanis M, Russell B, McGready R, Day N, et al. Long-term storage limits PCR-based analyses of malaria parasites in archival dried blood spots. Malar J. 2012;11:339 pubmed publisher
    b>Blood samples collected in epidemiological and clinical investigations and then stored, often at room temperature, as blood spots dried on a filter paper have become one of the most popular source of material for further molecular ..
  42. Murphy S, Daza G, Chang M, Coombs R. Laser cutting eliminates nucleic acid cross-contamination in dried-blood-spot processing. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:4128-30 pubmed publisher
    Dried blood spots (DBS) are useful for molecular assays but are prone to false positives from cross-contamination. In our malaria DBS assay, cross-contamination was encountered despite cleaning techniques suitable for HIV-1...
  43. de Steenwinkel J, De Knegt G, ten Kate M, Verbrugh H, Ottenhoff T, Bakker Woudenberg I. Dynamics of interferon-gamma release assay and cytokine profiles in blood and respiratory tract specimens from mice with tuberculosis and the effect of therapy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..However, IGRA proved to be a useful biomarker to monitor therapy success. In addition, different cytokines might serve as biomarkers...
  44. Lilliecreutz C, Theodorsson E, Sydsjo G, Josefsson A. Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14:405-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress, including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks, during pregnancy...
  45. Tao Z, Xia H, Cao J, Gao Q. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood. Malar J. 2011;10:251 pubmed publisher
    Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate ..
  46. Kahama Maro J, D Acremont V, Mtasiwa D, Genton B, Lengeler C. Low quality of routine microscopy for malaria at different levels of the health system in Dar es Salaam. Malar J. 2011;10:332 pubmed publisher
  47. Steindor M, Weizenegger M, Harrison N, Hirschl A, Schweickert B, Göbel U, et al. Use of a commercial PCR-based line blot method for identification of bacterial pathogens and the mecA and van genes from BacTAlert blood culture bottles. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of bacteria and the resistance genes mecA, vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/3 directly from positive BacTAlert blood culture bottles was evaluated in a multicenter study...
  48. Hendriksen R, Hyytia Trees E, Pulsrikarn C, Pornruangwong S, Chaichana P, Svendsen C, et al. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates recovered from blood and stool specimens in Thailand. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, 60.8% of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates (n?=?1517) were recovered from blood specimens and infection with Salmonella serovar Enteritidis was a statistically significant risk factor for ..
  49. Frickmann H, Lakner A, Essig A, Poppert S. Rapid identification of yeast by fluorescence in situ hybridisation from broth and blood cultures. Mycoses. 2012;55:521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..22 reference strains, 23 well-characterised laboratory control strains, 169 isolates from clinical samples and 48 blood cultures...
  50. Villumsen S, Pedersen R, Borre M, Ahrens P, Jensen J, Krogfelt K. Novel TaqMan® PCR for detection of Leptospira species in urine and blood: pit-falls of in silico validation. J Microbiol Methods. 2012;91:184-90 pubmed publisher
    In the acute phase of leptospirosis, the diagnosis can be established with high sensitivity by testing blood and urine samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  51. Denić L, Ostrić I, Pavlović A, Dimitra K. Knowledge and occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among health care workers and medical students. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2012;59:71-5 pubmed
    Health workers and medical students are at occupational risk of blood-borne diseases during the accidents, that is, via percutaneous injury or entry of blood or body fluids through the mucosa or injured skin.
  52. Kawada H, Dida G, Sonye G, Njenga S, Mwandawiro C, Minakawa N. Reconsideration of Anopheles rivulorum as a vector of Plasmodium falciparum in western Kenya: some evidence from biting time, blood preference, sporozoite positive rate, and pyrethroid resistance. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:230 pubmed publisher
    ..funestus group. The role of An. rivulorum as a malaria vector has not been fully studied, although it has been found to be a minor or opportunistic transmitter of Plasmodium falciparum...
  53. Lavergne R, Chauvin P, Valentin A, Fillaux J, Roques Malecaze C, Arnaud S, et al. An extraction method of positive blood cultures for direct identification of Candida species by Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Med Mycol. 2013;51:652-6 pubmed publisher
    ..desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry for direct identification of Candida species from positive blood cultures...