crotalid venoms


Summary: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.

Top Publications

  1. Evangelista I, Martins A, Nascimento N, Havt A, Evangelista J, de Norões T, et al. Renal and cardiovascular effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom and phospholipase A2. Toxicon. 2010;55:1061-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow and electrolyte transport demonstrates physiological changes to the renal system. ..
  2. Rodrigues R, Boldrini França J, Fonseca F, De La Torre P, Henrique Silva F, Sanz L, et al. Combined snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of Bothropoides pauloensis. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2707-20 pubmed publisher
  3. Cardoso K, Da Silva M, Costa G, Torres T, Del Bem L, Vidal R, et al. A transcriptomic analysis of gene expression in the venom gland of the snake Bothrops alternatus (urutu). BMC Genomics. 2010;11:605 pubmed publisher
    ..The lack of basic PLA2 agrees with the lower myotoxicity of this venom compared to other Bothrops species with these toxins. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of the physiopathology of envenoming by this species. ..
  4. McCleary R, Heard D. Venom extraction from anesthetized Florida cottonmouths, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti, using a portable nerve stimulator. Toxicon. 2010;55:250-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique could also be used in remote field locations...
  5. Gutierrez J, Sanz L, Flores Díaz M, Figueroa L, Madrigal M, Herrera M, et al. Impact of regional variation in Bothrops asper snake venom on the design of antivenoms: integrating antivenomics and neutralization approaches. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:564-77 pubmed publisher
    ..asper from Costa Rica do not result in overt variations in immunological cross-reactivity between antivenoms...
  6. Calvete J, Sanz L, Perez A, Borges A, Vargas A, Lomonte B, et al. Snake population venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox: Paedomorphism along its transamazonian dispersal and implications of geographic venom variability on snakebite management. J Proteomics. 2011;74:510-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The degree of immunodepletion achieved suggests that each of these antivenoms may be effective against envenomations by paedomorphic, and some ontogenetic, B. atrox venoms...
  7. Weant K, Johnson P, Bowers R, Armitstead J. Evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the development of a crotalidae polyvalent antivenin (CroFab) protocol at a university hospital. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The inappropriate use of this agent can result in adverse patient consequences and a significant financial burden for both the hospital and the patient...
  8. Zelanis A, Tashima A, Rocha M, Furtado M, Camargo A, Ho P, et al. Analysis of the ontogenetic variation in the venom proteome/peptidome of Bothrops jararaca reveals different strategies to deal with prey. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:2278-91 pubmed publisher
    ..jararaca species...
  9. O Brien N, DeMott M, Suchard J, Clark R, Peterson B. Recurrent coagulopathy with delayed significant bleeding after crotaline envenomation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:457-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Report of delayed significant coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding after Crotaline envenomation...

More Information


  1. Janes D, Bush S, Kolluru G. Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in Southern california. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010;21:120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To correlate rattlesnake size and other characteristics of envenomation with the severity of envenomation...
  2. Nascimento F, Sancey L, Pereira A, Rome C, Oliveira V, Oliveira E, et al. The natural cell-penetrating peptide crotamine targets tumor tissue in vivo and triggers a lethal calcium-dependent pathway in cultured cells. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that the cytotoxic peptide crotamine can be used potentially for a dual purpose: to target and detect growing tumor tissues and to selectively trigger tumor cell death...
  3. Damico D, Vassequi Silva T, Torres Huaco F, Nery Diez A, de Souza R, da Silva S, et al. LmrTX, a basic PLA? (D49) purified from Lachesis muta rhombeata snake venom with enzymatic-related antithrombotic and anticoagulant activity. Toxicon. 2012;60:773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?g/mice. Additionally, LmrTX showed the anticoagulant activity in vitro and ex vivo and prolonging the time aggregation in wash platelet induced by ADP and Thrombin. ..
  4. Lomonte B, Rangel J. Snake venom Lys49 myotoxins: From phospholipases A(2) to non-enzymatic membrane disruptors. Toxicon. 2012;60:520-30 pubmed publisher
  5. Spiller H, Bosse G, Ryan M. Use of antivenom for snakebites reported to United States poison centers. Am J Emerg Med. 2010;28:780-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This has been most noticeable in snake bite categories that were less frequently treated with antivenin in the past. ..
  6. Mackessy S. Evolutionary trends in venom composition in the western rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis sensu lato): toxicity vs. tenderizers. Toxicon. 2010;55:1463-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional significance of these biochemical characteristics likely relates to characteristics of prey consumed, and venoms with low metalloproteinase activity may constrain snake prey selection or foraging activity patterns. ..
  7. Baldo C, Jamora C, Yamanouye N, Zorn T, Moura da Silva A. Mechanisms of vascular damage by hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases: tissue distribution and in situ hydrolysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e727 pubmed publisher
    ..This is a novel mechanism that underlies the difference between hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic SVMPs, improving the understanding of snakebite pathology. ..
  8. Correa Netto C, Teixeira Araujo R, Aguiar A, Melgarejo A, De Simone S, Soares M, et al. Immunome and venome of Bothrops jararacussu: a proteomic approach to study the molecular immunology of snake toxins. Toxicon. 2010;55:1222-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also reinforce the importance of neutralizing the highly toxic proteins inclusive those with low immunogenicity in commercial antivenom production to obtain a highly protective serum against snake venoms. ..
  9. dos Santos J, Cintra Francischinelli M, Borges R, Fernandes C, Pizzo P, Cintra A, et al. Structural, functional, and bioinformatics studies reveal a new snake venom homologue phospholipase A? class. Proteins. 2011;79:61-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that BthTX-II is more phylogenetically related to Lys49-PLA?s than to other Asp49-PLA?s, thus allowing Crotalinae subfamily PLA?s to be classified into two main branches: a catalytic and a myotoxic one. ..
  10. Barone J, Alponti R, Frezzatti R, Zambotti Villela L, Silveira P. Differential efficiency of simvastatin and lipoic acid treatments on Bothrops jararaca envenomation-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Toxicon. 2011;57:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The beneficial effects of LA and especially of SA on renal effects of vBj open a new perspective for clinical investigations of these drugs as coadjuvant agents in the serotherapy of Bothrops envenomation...
  11. Rokyta D, Wray K, Lemmon A, Lemmon E, Caudle S. A high-throughput venom-gland transcriptome for the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) and evidence for pervasive positive selection across toxin classes. Toxicon. 2011;57:657-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the vast majority of the genes that contribute directly to this vertebrate trait show evidence for a role for positive selection in their evolutionary history. ..
  12. Calvete J, Sanz L, Cid P, De La Torre P, Flores Díaz M, Dos Santos M, et al. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:528-44 pubmed publisher
    ..simus envenomations. The identification of evolutionary trends among tropical Crotalus, as reported here, may have an impact in defining the mixture of venoms for immunization to produce an effective pan-American anti-Crotalus antivenom...
  13. Mello S, Linardi A, Rennó A, Tarsitano C, Pereira E, Hyslop S. Renal kinetics of Bothrops alternatus (Urutu) snake venom in rats. Toxicon. 2010;55:470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose, ketones, leucocytes and occult blood were detected mainly during the first 6 h post-venom. These results indicate reversible alterations in renal function, with renal elimination of the venom...
  14. Aragão E, Randazzo Moura P, Rostelato Ferreira S, Rodrigues Simioni L, Ward R. Shared structural determinants for the calcium-independent liposome membrane permeabilization and sarcolemma depolarization in Bothropstoxin-I, a LYS49-PLA(2) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2588-93 pubmed publisher
  15. Núñez V, Cid P, Sanz L, De La Torre P, Angulo Y, Lomonte B, et al. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism. J Proteomics. 2009;73:57-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunological profile of the Costa Rican antivenom strongly suggests the possibility of using this antivenom for the management of snakebites by B. atrox in Colombia and the Amazon regions of Ecuador, Perú and Brazil. ..
  16. Gibbs H, Sanz L, Chiucchi J, Farrell T, Calvete J. Proteomic analysis of ontogenetic and diet-related changes in venom composition of juvenile and adult Dusky Pigmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri). J Proteomics. 2011;74:2169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..m. barbouri and that, at least in adults, prey consumed may influence the relative abundance of possibly functionally-distinct classes of venom proteins. ..
  17. Faure G, Saul F. Crystallographic characterization of functional sites of crotoxin and ammodytoxin, potent ?-neurotoxins from Viperidae venom. Toxicon. 2012;60:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose future research directions based on knowledge of the recently reported 3D structures of crotoxin and ammodytoxin...
  18. de Melo Alves Paiva R, de Freitas Figueiredo R, Antonucci G, Paiva H, de Lourdes Pires Bianchi M, Rodrigues K, et al. Cell cycle arrest evidence, parasiticidal and bactericidal properties induced by L-amino acid oxidase from Bothrops atrox snake venom. Biochimie. 2011;93:941-7 pubmed publisher
    ..BatroxLAAO is an interesting enzyme that provides a better understanding of the ophidian envenomation mechanism, and has biotechnological potential as a model for therapeutic agents...
  19. Oguiura N, Boni Mitake M, Affonso R, Zhang G. In vitro antibacterial and hemolytic activities of crotamine, a small basic myotoxin from rattlesnake Crotalus durissus. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2011;64:327-31 pubmed publisher
  20. Lisle Gibbs H, Chiucchi J. Deconstructing a complex molecular phenotype: population-level variation in individual venom proteins in Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus c. catenatus). J Mol Evol. 2011;72:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify particular classes of venom proteins and their associated genes as being fruitful targets for future studies of the molecular and functional basis for this complex adaptive phenotype...
  21. Walker J, Morrison R. Current management of copperhead snakebite. J Am Coll Surg. 2011;212:470-4; discussion 474-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Several thousand snakebites occur annually in the US, but fewer than 10 deaths occur. Most deaths are from envenomations by rattlesnakes (Crotalus species), but deaths from copperhead and water moccasin (Agkistrodon species) are rare...
  22. Lavonas E, Kokko J, Schaeffer T, Mlynarchek S, Bogdan G, Dart R. Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:128-137.e3 pubmed publisher
  23. Ruha A, Curry S, Albrecht C, Riley B, Pizon A. Late hematologic toxicity following treatment of rattlesnake envenomation with crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom. Toxicon. 2011;57:53-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Massey D, Calvete J, Sanchez E, Sanz L, Richards K, Curtis R, et al. Venom variability and envenoming severity outcomes of the Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave rattlesnake) from Southern Arizona. J Proteomics. 2012;75:2576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..06). Although not part of the original data to be collected, death and intubations, were also noted. There is a 10× increased risk of death and a 50× increased risk of intubations if envenomated in Cochise County...
  25. Hayashi W, Obata Y, Nishino T, Abe S, Io K, Furusu A, et al. Glomerular repair retardation via blocking of angiotensin II type 1a receptor pathway in a mouse glomerulonephritis model. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2012;122:13-22 pubmed publisher
  26. Oliveira A, Paes Leme A, Asega A, Camargo A, Fox J, Serrano S. New insights into the structural elements involved in the skin haemorrhage induced by snake venom metalloproteinases. Thromb Haemost. 2010;104:485-97 pubmed publisher
  27. Ruha A, Curry S. Recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage following rattlesnake envenomation. Wilderness Environ Med. 2009;20:156-60 pubmed publisher
  28. Marchi Salvador D, Fernandes C, Silveira L, Soares A, Fontes M. Crystal structure of a phospholipase A(2) homolog complexed with p-bromophenacyl bromide reveals important structural changes associated with the inhibition of myotoxic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1583-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also proposed a novel myotoxic inhibition hypothesis integrating "myotoxic" and "active" sites for bothropic Lys49-PLA(2)s. ..
  29. Yount N, Kupferwasser D, Spisni A, Dutz S, Ramjan Z, Sharma S, et al. Selective reciprocity in antimicrobial activity versus cytotoxicity of hBD-2 and crotamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights may accelerate development of anti-infective or therapeutic peptides that selectively target microbial or abnormal host cells...
  30. Teixeira C, Cury Y, Moreira V, Picolob G, Chaves F. Inflammation induced by Bothrops asper venom. Toxicon. 2009;54:988-97 pubmed
    ..asper venom are also described...
  31. Costa Torres A, Dantas R, Toyama M, Diz Filho E, Zara F, Rodrigues de Queiroz M, et al. Antibacterial and antiparasitic effects of Bothrops marajoensis venom and its fractions: Phospholipase A2 and L-amino acid oxidase. Toxicon. 2010;55:795-804 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, whole venom as well as the l-amino acid oxidase from Bothrops marajoensis was able to inhibit the growth of several microorganisms, including S. aureus, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Leishmania sp. ..
  32. Calvete J. Antivenomics and venom phenotyping: A marriage of convenience to address the performance and range of clinical use of antivenoms. Toxicon. 2010;56:1284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work showing how the knowledge of evolutionary trends along with venom phenotyping may have an impact in designing a mixture of venoms for immunization aimed to produce a pan-American anti-crotalic antivenom is discussed...
  33. Wang Y, Parmelee J, Guo Y, Tsai I. Absence of phospholipase A(2) in most Crotalus horridus venom due to translation blockage: comparison with Crotalus horridus atricaudatus venom. Toxicon. 2010;56:93-100 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the acidic PLA(2)s was identical to CH-E6 and showed high lipolytic activity and weak anti-platelet activities. The possibility that C. h. atricaudatus could be a hybrid between CH and Crotalus scutulatus is discussed...
  34. Antunes T, Yamashita K, Barbaro K, Saiki M, Santoro M. Comparative analysis of newborn and adult Bothrops jararaca snake venoms. Toxicon. 2010;56:1443-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Bothrops antivenin can efficaciously neutralize proteins lacking in the adult venom pool, especially those that promote more intense hemostatic disturbances in victims of newborn snakes. ..
  35. Magalhães A, Santos G, Verdam M, Fraporti L, Malheiro A, Lima E, et al. Inhibition of the inflammatory and coagulant action of Bothrops atrox venom by the plant species Marsypianthes chamaedrys. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:82-8 pubmed publisher
  36. Arlinghaus F, Eble J. C-type lectin-like proteins from snake venoms. Toxicon. 2012;60:512-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with EMS16 and VP12, rhodocetin inhibits collagen-binding to the ?2A-domain. These integrin-specific antagonists are lead structures for the development of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic drugs...
  37. Calvete J, Perez A, Lomonte B, Sanchez E, Sanz L. Snake venomics of Crotalus tigris: the minimalist toxin arsenal of the deadliest Nearctic rattlesnake venom. Evolutionary Clues for generating a pan-specific antivenom against crotalid type II venoms [corrected]. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:1382-90 pubmed publisher
  38. Maduwage K, Kularatne K, Wazil A, Gawarammana I. Coagulopthy, acute kidney injury and death following Hypnale zara envenoming: the first case report from Sri Lanka. Toxicon. 2011;58:641-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka...
  39. Zelanis A, Tashima A, Pinto A, Paes Leme A, Stuginski D, Furtado M, et al. Bothrops jararaca venom proteome rearrangement upon neonate to adult transition. Proteomics. 2011;11:4218-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study expands the in-depth understanding of venom complexity variation particularly with regard to toxin families that have been associated with envenomation pathogenesis...
  40. Jansa S, Voss R. Adaptive evolution of the venom-targeted vWF protein in opossums that eat pitvipers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20997 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in the arms race implied by our results, venomous snakes are prey, and their venom has a correspondingly defensive function in addition to its usual trophic role...
  41. Gibbs H, Mackessy S. Functional basis of a molecular adaptation: prey-specific toxic effects of venom from Sistrurus rattlesnakes. Toxicon. 2009;53:672-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They also emphasize the need to consider ecological and evolutionary factors other than diet alone as causes of variation in venom toxicity. ..
  42. Aung H, Furukawa T, Nikai T, Niwa M, Takaya Y. Contribution of cinnamic acid analogues in rosmarinic acid to inhibition of snake venom induced hemorrhage. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:2392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, among the compound tested, it was concluded that rosmarinic acid (1) (IC(50) 0.15 ?M) was the most potent inhibitor against the venom. ..
  43. Boldrini França J, Correa Netto C, Silva M, Rodrigues R, De La Torre P, Perez A, et al. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Crotalus durissus subspecies from Brazil: assessment of geographic variation and its implication on snakebite management. J Proteomics. 2010;73:1758-76 pubmed publisher
    ..C. durissus causes most of the lethal snakebite accidents in Brazil. The implication of the geographic variation of venom composition for the treatment of bites by different C. durissus subspecies populations is discussed...
  44. Neiva M, Arraes F, de Souza J, Radis Baptista G, Prieto da Silva A, Walter M, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the Amazonian viper Bothrops atrox venom gland using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Toxicon. 2009;53:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results can be used for future studies with other snake species from the Amazon region to investigate differences in gene patterns or phylogenetic relationships. ..
  45. Adade C, Cons B, Melo P, Souto Padron T. Effect of Crotalus viridis viridis snake venom on the ultrastructure and intracellular survival of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology. 2011;138:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi, and yields altered parasites with limited infective capacity, suggesting the potential use of Cvv venom in Chagas' disease chemotherapy...
  46. Ikeda N, Chijiwa T, Matsubara K, Oda Ueda N, Hattori S, Matsuda Y, et al. Unique structural characteristics and evolution of a cluster of venom phospholipase A2 isozyme genes of Protobothrops flavoviridis snake. Gene. 2010;461:15-25 pubmed publisher
  47. Passero L, Laurenti M, Tomokane T, Corbett C, Toyama M. The effect of phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus collilineatus on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:1025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results indicate that PLA2 may be a progression factor for cutaneous leishmaniasis, since the PLA2 effect suppressed IL-2 levels and generated PGE2, an inflammatory lipid mediator. ..
  48. Murakami M, Viçoti M, Abrego J, Lourenzoni M, Cintra A, Arruda E, et al. Interfacial surface charge and free accessibility to the PLA2-active site-like region are essential requirements for the activity of Lys49 PLA2 homologues. Toxicon. 2007;49:378-87 pubmed
    ..These results provide the framework for the potential application of both clinically approved drugs for the treatment of Viperidae snakebites. ..
  49. Yonamine C, Prieto da Silva A, Magalhaes G, Radis Baptista G, Morganti L, Ambiel F, et al. Cloning of serine protease cDNAs from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom gland and expression of a functional Gyroxin homologue in COS-7 cells. Toxicon. 2009;54:110-20 pubmed publisher
  50. Pérez A, Rucavado A, Sanz L, Calvete J, Gutierrez J. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase with thrombin-like activity from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41:12-7 pubmed
    ..e., loss of the righting reflex, opisthotonus, and intermittent rotations over the long axis of the body, which closely resemble the ;gyroxin-like' effect induced by other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. ..
  51. Lin X, Liang X, Chen J, Chen Q, Qiu P, Yan G. The effect of fibrinolytic enzyme FIIa from Agkistrodon acutus venom on disseminated intravascular coagulation in rabbits. Transl Res. 2007;150:295-302 pubmed
    ..We conclude that FII(a) may be useful in the treatment of DIC. ..
  52. Sauleau P, Martin M, Dau M, Youssef D, Bourguet Kondracki M. Hyrtiazepine, an azepino-indole-type alkaloid from the Red Sea marine sponge Hyrtios erectus. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1676-9 pubmed
    ..Hyrtiosulawesine (1) displayed a significant antiphospholipase A2 activity with an IC50 value of 14 microM in a fluorometric assay using Crotalus adamanteus venom phospholipase A2. ..
  53. de Oliveira C, de Oliveira S, Godoy L, Gabardo J, Buchi D. Canova, a Brazilian medical formulation, alters oxidative metabolism of mice macrophages. J Infect. 2006;52:420-32 pubmed
    ..CA can be considered as a new adjuvant therapeutic approach to known therapies. ..