wasp venoms


Summary: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.

Top Publications

  1. Price D, Bell H, Hinchliffe G, Fitches E, Weaver R, Gatehouse J. A venom metalloproteinase from the parasitic wasp Eulophus pennicornis is toxic towards its host, tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracae). Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..EpMP3 is expressed specifically in venom glands. These results suggest that EpMP3 is a functional component of Eulophus venom, which is able to manipulate host development. ..
  2. Crawford A, Brauning R, Smolenski G, Ferguson C, Barton D, Wheeler T, et al. The constituents of Microctonus sp. parasitoid venoms. Insect Mol Biol. 2008;17:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..hyperodae being found in M. aethiopoides. Pyrosequencing should provide a valuable new method for rapidly sampling transcripts from a wide range of specialised insect tissues. ..
  3. Dubuffet A, Doury G, Labrousse C, Drezen J, Carton Y, Poirié M. Variation of success of Leptopilina boulardi in Drosophila yakuba: the mechanisms explored. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:597-602 pubmed
    ..melanogaster immune system as well as the role of parasitoid venoms in intra-specific variation of parasitoid virulence. ..
  4. Gal R, Rosenberg L, Libersat F. Parasitoid wasp uses a venom cocktail injected into the brain to manipulate the behavior and metabolism of its cockroach prey. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2005;60:198-208 pubmed
    ..The alteration in the octopaminergic neurons' activity could be one of the mechanisms by which the venom modulates the escape circuit in the cockroach's central nervous system and metabolism in the peripheral system. ..
  5. Yandek L, Pokorny A, Floren A, Knoelke K, Langel U, Almeida P. Mechanism of the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 permeation of lipid bilayers. Biophys J. 2007;92:2434-44 pubmed
  6. Borodina I, Jensen B, Søndergaard I, Poulsen L. Display of wasp venom allergens on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microb Cell Fact. 2010;9:74 pubmed publisher
    ..In perspective the yeast surface display may be used for allergen discovery from cDNA libraries and possibly for sublingual immunotherapy as the cells can serve as good adjuvant and can be produced in large amounts at a low price. ..
  7. Moore E, Haspel G, Libersat F, Adams M. Parasitoid wasp sting: a cocktail of GABA, taurine, and beta-alanine opens chloride channels for central synaptic block and transient paralysis of a cockroach host. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:811-20 pubmed
    ..Together these data demonstrate that Ampulex utilizes GABAergic chloride channel activation as a strategy for central synaptic block to induce transient and focal leg paralysis in its host. ..
  8. Colinet D, Cazes D, Belghazi M, Gatti J, Poirié M. Extracellular superoxide dismutase in insects: characterization, function, and interspecific variation in parasitoid wasp venom. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:40110-21 pubmed publisher
  9. de Graaf D, Aerts M, Danneels E, Devreese B. Bee, wasp and ant venomics pave the way for a component-resolved diagnosis of sting allergy. J Proteomics. 2009;72:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The information the physician will get from such a single run will largely exceed the output from current IgE capturing tools using whole venom preparations. ..

More Information


  1. Mabiala Moundoungou A, Doury G, Eslin P, Cherqui A, Prevost G. Deadly venom of Asobara japonica parasitoid needs ovarian antidote to regulate host physiology. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also demonstrate that A. japonica secretions from both venom gland and ovary are required to regulate synergistically the host physiology for the success of the parasitoid. ..
  2. Dubuffet A, Colinet D, Anselme C, Dupas S, Carton Y, Poirie M. Variation of Leptopilina boulardi success in Drosophila hosts: what is inside the black box?. Adv Parasitol. 2009;70:147-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This chapter focuses on the physiological and molecular aspects of L. boulardi interactions with two Drosophila host species, while most of the evolutionary hypotheses and models are presented in Chapter 11 of Dupas et al. ..
  3. Fang Q, Wang L, Zhu J, Li Y, Song Q, Stanley D, et al. Expression of immune-response genes in lepidopteran host is suppressed by venom from an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:484 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the actions of venom on host gene expression influence immunity as well as other aspects of host biology in ways that benefit the development and emergence of the next generation of parasitoids. ..
  4. Yamamoto T, Arimoto H, Kinumi T, Oba Y, Uemura D. Identification of proteins from venom of the paralytic spider wasp, Cyphononyx dorsalis. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:278-86 pubmed
    ..coli were purified and used for bioassay. The results showed that the arginine kinase-like protein exhibited paralytic activity against spiders with the same characteristic symptoms as the crude venom. ..
  5. Vincent B, Kaeslin M, Roth T, Heller M, Poulain J, Cousserans F, et al. The venom composition of the parasitic wasp Chelonus inanitus resolved by combined expressed sequence tags analysis and proteomic approach. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:693 pubmed publisher
    ..These new molecular data enrich our knowledge on parasitoid venoms and more generally, might contribute to a better understanding of the evolution and functional diversity of venom proteins within Hymenoptera. ..
  6. Kolarich D, Leonard R, Hemmer W, Altmann F. The N-glycans of yellow jacket venom hyaluronidases and the protein sequence of its major isoform in Vespula vulgaris. FEBS J. 2005;272:5182-90 pubmed
    ..Close homologues of this new, putative hyaluronidase b (Ves v 2b) were also the major isoform in the other wasp venoms.
  7. Kischnick S, Weber B, Verdino P, Keller W, Sanders E, Anspach F, et al. Bacterial fermentation of recombinant major wasp allergen Antigen 5 using oxygen limiting growth conditions improves yield and quality of inclusion bodies. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;47:621-8 pubmed
    ..This might also be true for other recombinant proteins that accumulate as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. ..
  8. Rivers D, Crawley T, Bauser H. Localization of intracellular calcium release in cells injured by venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and dependence of calcium mobilization on G-protein activation. J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:149-60 pubmed
    ..Mobilization of calcium in this fashion could stimulate cAMP formation, and subsequently promote calcium release from NAADP-sensitive stores. ..
  9. Mertens M, Amler S, Moerschbacher B, Brehler R. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants strongly affect the results of the basophil activation test in hymenoptera-venom allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:1333-45 pubmed publisher
  10. Jin C, Focke M, Leonard R, Jarisch R, Altmann F, Hemmer W. Reassessing the role of hyaluronidase in yellow jacket venom allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:184-90.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptide-specific cross-reactivity with Api m 2 occurs in half of these sera. Component-resolved diagnosis with antigen 5 and phospholipase would detect virtually all patients with yellow jacket venom allergy. ..
  11. Moreau S, Guillot S. Advances and prospects on biosynthesis, structures and functions of venom proteins from parasitic wasps. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;35:1209-23 pubmed
  12. Han J, You D, Xu X, Han W, Lu Y, Lai R, et al. An anticoagulant serine protease from the wasp venom of Vespa magnifica. Toxicon. 2008;51:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnvesin shares 52% identity with allergen serine protease from the wasp Polistes dominulus. Magnvesin exerted its anti-coagulant function by hydrolyzing coagulant factors TF, VII, VIII, IX and X. ..
  13. Kolarich D, Loos A, Leonard R, Mach L, Marzban G, Hemmer W, et al. A proteomic study of the major allergens from yellow jacket venoms. Proteomics. 2007;7:1615-23 pubmed
    ..vulgaris, germanica, maculifrons, pensylvanica, flavopilosa and squamosa revealed the latter as a taxonomic outlier and led to the discovery of several not previously reported amino acid differences. ..
  14. de Graaf D, Brunain M, Scharlaken B, Peiren N, Devreese B, Ebo D, et al. Two novel proteins expressed by the venom glands of Apis mellifera and Nasonia vitripennis share an ancient C1q-like domain. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19 Suppl 1:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..A preliminary test using recombinant proteins failed to demonstrate Am_C1q-VP-specific immunoglobulin E recognition by serum from patients with a documented severe bee venom allergy...
  15. Jappe U, Raulf Heimsoth M, Hoffmann M, Burow G, Hübsch Müller C, Enk A. In vitro hymenoptera venom allergy diagnosis: improved by screening for cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants and reciprocal inhibition. Allergy. 2006;61:1220-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, subsequent reciprocal inhibition is an essential diagnostic method to specify cross-reacting sIgE results. ..
  16. Werren J, Richards S, Desjardins C, Niehuis O, Gadau J, Colbourne J, et al. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid Nasonia species. Science. 2010;327:343-8 pubmed publisher
  17. Bonadonna P, Zanotti R, Muller U. Mastocytosis and insect venom allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:347-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyse the association of systemic allergic hymenoptera sting reactions with mastocytosis and elevated baseline serum tryptase and to discuss diagnosis and treatment in patients with both diseases...
  18. Muller U, Johansen N, Petersen A, Fromberg Nielsen J, Haeberli G. Hymenoptera venom allergy: analysis of double positivity to honey bee and Vespula venom by estimation of IgE antibodies to species-specific major allergens Api m1 and Ves v5. Allergy. 2009;64:543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Double positivity of IgE to bee and Vespula venom is often caused by crossreactions, especially to CCDs. IgE to both Api m1 and Ves v5 indicates true double sensitization and immunotherapy with both venoms. ..
  19. Skov L, Seppälä U, Coen J, Crickmore N, King T, Monsalve R, et al. Structure of recombinant Ves v 2 at 2.0 Angstrom resolution: structural analysis of an allergenic hyaluronidase from wasp venom. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006;62:595-604 pubmed
    ..The analysis suggests that the harboured allergic IgE-mediated cross-reactivity between Ves v 2 and the allergen from D. maculata is much higher than that between Ves v 2 and the allergen from A. mellifera. ..
  20. de Graaf D, Aerts M, Brunain M, Desjardins C, Jacobs F, Werren J, et al. Insights into the venom composition of the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis from bioinformatic and proteomic studies. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19 Suppl 1:11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study contributes greatly to the understanding of the biological diversity of the venom of parasitoid wasps at the molecular level. ..
  21. Zhou Z, Yang H, Xu X, Wang X, Lai R. The first report of kininogen from invertebrates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:1099-102 pubmed
    ..Several bradykinin-like peptides, vespakinins, have been found in wasp venoms since 1970s, but the mode of biosynthesis of these peptides is unknown...
  22. Dani M, Edwards J, Richards E. Hydrolase activity in the venom of the pupal endoparasitic wasp, Pimpla hypochondriaca. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;141:373-81 pubmed
    ..oleracea haemocytes. The results suggest that, despite the relatively high levels of acid phosphatase activity in venom, venom acid phosphatase plays no role in the antihaemocytic activity of P. hypochondriaca venom in vitro. ..
  23. Xu X, Yang H, Yu H, Li J, Lai R. The mastoparanogen from wasp. Peptides. 2006;27:3053-7 pubmed
    ..The glycine at the tetradecapeptide end is the donator of -NH(4) for the amidation of the leucine at the C-terminal. As far as we know, this is the first report of the precursor of animal mastoparan. ..
  24. Asgari S. Venom proteins from polydnavirus-producing endoparasitoids: their role in host-parasite interactions. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2006;61:146-56 pubmed
    ..rubecula venom proteins in host-parasitoid interactions...
  25. Zhu J, Ye G, Hu C. Morphology and ultrastructure of the venom apparatus in the endoparasitic wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Micron. 2008;39:926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The venom proteins are first mainly produced in the secretory unit of venom gland, then drained to the lumen through the end apparatus, and are finally collected and stored in the venom reservoir. ..
  26. Zhang G, Schmidt O, Asgari S. A calreticulin-like protein from endoparasitoid venom fluid is involved in host hemocyte inactivation. Dev Comp Immunol. 2006;30:756-64 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the protein might function as an antagonist competing for binding sites with the host hemocyte calreticulin, which mediates early-encapsulation reactions. ..
  27. Schlenke T, Morales J, Govind S, Clark A. Contrasting infection strategies in generalist and specialist wasp parasitoids of Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:1486-501 pubmed
    ..However, we uncover the mechanism for one potentially important fitness tradeoff of the generalist's highly immune suppressive infection strategy. ..
  28. Xu X, Li J, Lu Q, Yang H, Zhang Y, Lai R. Two families of antimicrobial peptides from wasp (Vespa magnifica) venom. Toxicon. 2006;47:249-53 pubmed
    ..These peptides show antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. However, they show little hemolytic activity against human blood red cells. ..
  29. Seismann H, Blank S, Braren I, Greunke K, Cifuentes L, Grunwald T, et al. Dissecting cross-reactivity in hymenoptera venom allergy by circumvention of alpha-1,3-core fucosylation. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:799-808 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the use of recombinant molecules devoid of CCDs represents a novel strategy with major implications for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. ..
  30. Kaeslin M, Reinhard M, Bühler D, Roth T, Pfister Wilhelm R, Lanzrein B. Venom of the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus inanitus is a complex mixture and has multiple biological effects. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:686-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The multifunctionality of the venom might thus be essential in enabling parasitization of all stages of host eggs...
  31. Vinchon S, Moreau S, Drezen J, Prevost G, Cherqui A. Molecular and biochemical analysis of an aspartylglucosaminidase from the venom of the parasitoid wasp Asobara tabida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:38-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of this enzyme may allow a better understanding of the functional evolution of venom enzymes in hymenopteran parasitoids...
  32. Yang H, Xu X, Ma D, Zhang K, Lai R. A phospholipase A1 platelet activator from the wasp venom of Vespa magnifica (Smith). Toxicon. 2008;51:289-96 pubmed
    ..Magnifin can activate platelet aggregation and induce thrombosis in vivo. The current results proved that PLA(1) in wasp venom could be contributable to aortic thrombosis after massive wasp stings. ..
  33. Vinzón S, Pirpignani M, Nowicki C, Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino M. Molecular cloning and expression in Pichia pastoris of a hypoallergenic antigen 5. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;73:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a novel protocol for the recombinant expression of Poly s 5 in P. pastoris was designed thus bringing about a high yield of the protein useful for clinical and scientific purposes. ..
  34. Watanabe A, Fonseca L, Galvão C, Kalil J, Castro F. Specific immunotherapy using Hymenoptera venom: systematic review. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010;128:30-7 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the risk-benefit relation should always be assessed in each case. ..
  35. Sturm G, Schuster C, Kranzelbinder B, Wiednig M, Groselj Strele A, Aberer W. Asymptomatic sensitization to hymenoptera venom is related to total immunoglobulin E levels. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148:261-4 pubmed publisher
    ..0), respectively; p < 0001]. Specific antibodies are frequently seen in individuals with high tIgE, but appear to be largely irrelevant in clinical terms. This might lead to misdiagnosis in persons with an inconclusive sting history. ..
  36. Wu M, Ye G, Zhu J, Chen X, Hu C. Isolation and characterization of an immunosuppressive protein from venom of the pupa-specific endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;99:186-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that this protein is an actual component of P. puparum crude venom as host cellular-immune suppressive factor. ..
  37. Yu H, Yang H, Ma D, Lv Y, Liu T, Zhang K, et al. Vespid chemotactic peptide precursor from the wasp, Vespa magnifica (Smith). Toxicon. 2007;50:377-82 pubmed
    ..The current results suggested that the biosynthesis mode of VCP was different from that of temporin AMP, even though the two mature peptides were similar in many ways. It is also the first report about VCP precursor from wasp venom. ..
  38. Hoffman D. Hymenoptera venom allergens. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2006;30:109-28 pubmed
    ..Examples of the use of these techniques with venom proteins are presented. ..
  39. Seppälä U, Selby D, Monsalve R, King T, Ebner C, Roepstorff P, et al. Structural and immunological characterization of the N-glycans from the major yellow jacket allergen Ves v 2: the N-glycan structures are needed for the human antibody recognition. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2014-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrences of carbohydrate-specific antibodies against nVes v 2, however, suggest that non-mammalian glycan structures as in nVes v 2 may provide a link between T cells and other effector cells in allergic responses. ..
  40. Gal R, Libersat F. A parasitoid wasp manipulates the drive for walking of its cockroach prey. Curr Biol. 2008;18:877-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus report that the venom, rather than decreasing overall arousal, manipulates neuronal centers within the cerebral ganglia that are specifically involved in the initiation and maintenance of walking...
  41. Falabella P, Riviello L, Caccialupi P, Rossodivita T, Teresa Valente M, Luisa De Stradis M, et al. A gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase of Aphidius ervi venom induces apoptosis in the ovaries of host aphids. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:453-65 pubmed
    ..ervi and in the chromatographic fractions containing Ae-gamma-GT. Thus, we suggest that this venom protein may induce apoptosis in the host ovarioles by generating an alteration of the GSH metabolism and a consequent oxidative stress. ..
  42. Kochuyt A, Van Hoeyveld E, Stevens E. Prevalence and clinical relevance of specific immunoglobulin E to pollen caused by sting- induced specific immunoglobulin E to cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants in Hymenoptera venoms. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:441-7 pubmed
    ..We found evidence that the recognition of CCD might be related to the 'atopic' trait. Importantly, a positive bromelain CAP test does not exclude clinical reactivity to both venoms in 'CCD positive' HV allergic patients. ..
  43. Blank S, Seismann H, Bockisch B, Braren I, Cifuentes L, McIntyre M, et al. Identification, recombinant expression, and characterization of the 100 kDa high molecular weight Hymenoptera venom allergens Api m 5 and Ves v 3. J Immunol. 2010;184:5403-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the patient IgE reactivity together with the cellular activation demonstrates for the first time the relevance of high m.w. allergens in the context of hymenoptera venom allergy...
  44. Goecks J, Mortimer N, Mobley J, Bowersock G, Taylor J, Schlenke T. Integrative approach reveals composition of endoparasitoid wasp venoms. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64125 pubmed publisher
    ..Our joint transcriptomic-proteomic approach for endoparasitoid wasp venoms is generally applicable to identification of functional protein subsets from any non-genome sequenced organism.
  45. Przybilla B, Rueff F. Hymenoptera venom allergy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8:114-27; quiz 128-30 pubmed publisher
  46. Sturm G, Kranzelbinder B, Sturm E, Heinemann A, Groselj Strele A, Aberer W. The basophil activation test in the diagnosis of allergy: technical issues and critical factors. Allergy. 2009;64:1319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the skin test, BAT can be performed in patients undergoing treatment with antihistamines. For reasons of multiple influencing factors, BAT should be performed only at validated laboratories. ..
  47. Richards E, Dani M. Biochemical isolation of an insect haemocyte anti-aggregation protein from the venom of the endoparasitic wasp, Pimpla hypochondriaca, and identification of its gene. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, its gene has been identified as vpr3. The work is presented within the context of the role of P. hypochondriaca venom and the isolated protein in host immune suppression. ..
  48. Zhu J, Ye G, Hu C. Molecular cloning and characterization of acid phosphatase in venom of the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Toxicon. 2008;51:1391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the mRNA expression, a time-course-related enzyme activity in an individual venom apparatus was also found. ..
  49. Abt M, Rivers D. Characterization of phenoloxidase activity in venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;94:108-18 pubmed
    ..These observations collectively argue that wasp venom PO is unique from that of the fly hosts, and that the venom enzyme is critical in the intoxication pathway leading to cell death. ..
  50. Colinet D, Dubuffet A, Cazes D, Moreau S, Drezen J, Poirié M. A serpin from the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi targets the Drosophila phenoloxidase cascade. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:681-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results identify the first serpin used as a virulence factor by a parasitoid wasp and show that it disrupts the activation pathway of the PO in the Drosophila host. ..
  51. Parkinson N, Smith I, Weaver R, Edwards J. A new form of arthropod phenoloxidase is abundant in venom of the parasitoid wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:57-63 pubmed
    ..A novel means of host immune suppression, mediated by the unregulated activity of venom PO in the haemocoel, is proposed. ..
  52. Konno K, Palma M, Hitara I, Juliano M, Juliano L, Yasuhara T. Identification of bradykinins in solitary wasp venoms. Toxicon. 2002;40:309-12 pubmed
    Bradykinins were identified in three solitary wasp venoms. Purification and characterization of the venom extract of the scoliid wasp Megacampsomeris prismatica led to the identification of bradykinin and threonine(6)-bradykinin as the ..
  53. Krishnan A, Nair P, Jones D. Isolation, cloning, and characterization of new chitinase stored in active form in chitin-lined venom reservoir. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:20971-6 pubmed
    ..The kinetic properties of the 52-kDa wasp chitinase were quite distinct from Serratia marcescens chitinase for both catalytic rate and substrate inhibition. ..