spider venoms


Summary: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.

Top Publications

  1. Tarasenko A, Storchak L, Himmelreich N. alpha-Latrotoxin affects mitochondrial potential and synaptic vesicle proton gradient of nerve terminals. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:392-400 pubmed
    ..Thus, our data allow clarifying what cell processes underlain a recruitment of the plasma membrane transporter-mediated pathway in alpha-LTX-stimulated secretion. ..
  2. Matavel A, Fleury C, Oliveira L, Molina F, de Lima M, Cruz J, et al. Structure and activity analysis of two spider toxins that alter sodium channel inactivation kinetics. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3078-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The model is supported by experimental and theoretical tests. A likely binding region on PnTx2-5 and PnTx2-6 is proposed on the basis of their different affinities and sequence differences. ..
  3. Bucaretchi F, Mello S, Vieira R, Mamoni R, Blotta M, Antunes E, et al. Systemic envenomation caused by the wandering spider Phoneutria nigriventer, with quantification of circulating venom. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:885-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of confirmed moderate/severe envenoming in an adult caused by P. nigriventer with the quantification of circulating venom. ..
  4. Gremski L, da Silveira R, Chaim O, Probst C, Ferrer V, Nowatzki J, et al. A novel expression profile of the Loxosceles intermedia spider venomous gland revealed by transcriptome analysis. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:2403-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results also confirm that this venom constitutes an amazing source of novel compounds with potential agrochemical, industrial and pharmacological applications. ..
  5. Jiang L, Peng L, Chen J, Zhang Y, Xiong X, Liang S. Molecular diversification based on analysis of expressed sequence tags from the venom glands of the Chinese bird spider Ornithoctonus huwena. Toxicon. 2008;51:1479-89 pubmed publisher
  6. Xiao Y, Jackson J, Liang S, Cummins T. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers. ..
  7. Chaim O, Trevisan Silva D, Chaves Moreira D, Wille A, Ferrer V, Matsubara F, et al. Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom toxins: tools for biological purposes. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:309-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spider venoms have recently garnered much attention from several research groups worldwide...
  8. Windley M, Herzig V, Dziemborowicz S, Hardy M, King G, Nicholson G. Spider-venom peptides as bioinsecticides. Toxins (Basel). 2012;4:191-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the structure and pharmacology of these toxins and discuss the potential of this vast peptide library for the discovery of novel bioinsecticides. ..
  9. Rattmann Y, Pereira C, Cury Y, Gremski W, Marques M, da Silva Santos J. Vascular permeability and vasodilation induced by the Loxosceles intermedia venom in rats: involvement of mast cell degranulation, histamine and 5-HT receptors. Toxicon. 2008;51:363-72 pubmed
    ..Our results disclose that LIV increases vascular permeability and induces vascular relaxation. These effects occur due to its ability to degranulate mast cells and release mediators such as histamine and serotonin. ..

More Information


  1. Che N, Wang L, Gao Y, An C. Soluble expression and one-step purification of a neurotoxin Huwentoxin-I in Escherichia coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2009;65:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Production of HWTX-I by this method has the major advantages of high efficiency and low cost. ..
  2. Escoubas P, Quinton L, Nicholson G. Venomics: unravelling the complexity of animal venoms with mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2008;43:279-95 pubmed publisher
    ..and ISD fragmentation for the determination of structural and pharmacological classes of peptides in complex spider venoms. This approach now serves as the basis for the full investigation of complex spider venom proteomes, in ..
  3. de Souza A, Malaque C, Sztajnbok J, Romano C, Duarte A, Seguro A. Loxosceles venom-induced cytokine activation, hemolysis, and acute kidney injury. Toxicon. 2008;51:151-6 pubmed
    ..Advances in our understanding of multiple pathways and mediators that orchestrate the response to Loxosceles venom might reveal new possibilities for the management of loxoscelism. ..
  4. Samways D, Harkins A, Egan T. Native and recombinant ASIC1a receptors conduct negligible Ca2+ entry. Cell Calcium. 2009;45:319-25 pubmed publisher
  5. Tambourgi D, Gonçalves de Andrade R, van den Berg C. Loxoscelism: From basic research to the proposal of new therapies. Toxicon. 2010;56:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we aim to give an overview of our contributions to the understanding of the mechanism of action of the Loxosceles venom and propose targets and therapeutics for medical intervention. ..
  6. Schmalhofer W, Calhoun J, Burrows R, Bailey T, Kohler M, Weinglass A, et al. ProTx-II, a selective inhibitor of NaV1.7 sodium channels, blocks action potential propagation in nociceptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1476-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the (125)I-ProTx-II binding assay, described here, offers a new tool in the search for novel Na(V)1.7-selective blockers. ..
  7. Barbaro K, Lira M, Araújo C, Pareja Santos A, Távora B, Prezotto Neto J, et al. Inflammatory mediators generated at the site of inoculation of Loxosceles gaucho spider venom. Toxicon. 2010;56:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gaucho venom. ..
  8. dos Santos L, Dias N, Roberto J, Pinto A, Palma M. Brown recluse spider venom: proteomic analysis and proposal of a putative mechanism of action. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:933-43 pubmed
    ..Were identified 39 proteins which seem to responsible by the lesion of different types of tissues, to some physiopathological actions and by the prevention of structural damage to the toxin structures. ..
  9. Felicori L, Fernandes P, Giusta M, Duarte C, Kalapothakis E, Nguyen C, et al. An in vivo protective response against toxic effects of the dermonecrotic protein from Loxosceles intermedia spider venom elicited by synthetic epitopes. Vaccine. 2009;27:4201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results encourage us in the utilization of synthetic peptides for therapeutic serum development or vaccination approaches. ..
  10. Schmidt D, MacKinnon R. Voltage-dependent K+ channel gating and voltage sensor toxin sensitivity depend on the mechanical state of the lipid membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The dependence of VSTx1 activity on the mechanical state of the membrane leads us to hypothesize that voltage sensor toxins exert their effect by perturbing the interaction forces that exist between the channel and the membrane. ..
  11. Diego Garcia E, Peigneur S, Waelkens E, Debaveye S, Tytgat J. Venom components from Citharischius crawshayi spider (Family Theraphosidae): exploring transcriptome, venomics, and function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2799-813 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results may contribute to a better understanding of the cellular processes involved in the transcriptome and help us to discover new components from spider venom glands with therapeutic potential. ..
  12. Ribeiro R, Chaim O, da Silveira R, Gremski L, Sade Y, Paludo K, et al. Biological and structural comparison of recombinant phospholipase D toxins from Loxosceles intermedia (brown spider) venom. Toxicon. 2007;50:1162-74 pubmed
    ..Finally, evidence for structural differences among the recombinant toxins was strengthened by circular dichroism spectra, which suggested that the toxins were folded, and not aggregated or denatured proteins. ..
  13. Revell J, Lund P, Linley J, Metcalfe J, Burmeister N, Sridharan S, et al. Potency optimization of Huwentoxin-IV on hNav1.7: a neurotoxin TTX-S sodium-channel antagonist from the venom of the Chinese bird-eating spider Selenocosmia huwena. Peptides. 2013;44:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7 while maintaining the original selectivity profile of the wild-type peptide 1 on hNav1.5. Peptide 47 (Gly(1), Gly(4), Trp(33)-HwTx) demonstrated the largest potency increase on hNav1.7 (IC50 0.4 ± 0.1 nM). ..
  14. Herzig V, Wood D, Newell F, Chaumeil P, Kaas Q, Binford G, et al. ArachnoServer 2.0, an updated online resource for spider toxin sequences and structures. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D653-7 pubmed publisher
    ..database providing information on the sequence, structure and biological activity of protein toxins from spider venoms. These proteins are of interest to a wide range of biologists due to their diverse applications in medicine, ..
  15. Gomes P, de Souza B, Dias N, Cesar Tognoli L, Silva Filho L, Tormena C, et al. Nigriventrine: a low molecular mass neuroactive compound from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer. Toxicon. 2011;57:266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Nigriventrine causes convulsions in rats, even when peripherally applied. ..
  16. Garb J, Hayashi C. Molecular evolution of ?-latrotoxin, the exceptionally potent vertebrate neurotoxin in black widow spider venom. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:999-1014 pubmed publisher
  17. Lane L, McCoppin H, Dyer J. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia in a child following Loxosceles reclusa envenomation. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28:685-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that this case adds Loxosceles envenomation to the spectrum of agents that can trigger acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. ..
  18. Wee C, Gavaghan D, Sansom M. Interactions between a voltage sensor and a toxin via multiscale simulations. Biophys J. 2010;98:1558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results show that serial multiscale MD simulations may be used to model a two-stage process of protein-bilayer and protein-protein interactions within a membrane. ..
  19. Tang X, Zhang Y, Hu W, Xu D, Tao H, Yang X, et al. Molecular diversification of peptide toxins from the tarantula Haplopelma hainanum (Ornithoctonus hainana) venom based on transcriptomic, peptidomic, and genomic analyses. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:2550-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hoped that this work will also provide an effective guide for high-throughput identification of peptide toxins from other spider species, especially tarantula species. ..
  20. Zobel Thropp P, Bodner M, Binford G. Comparative analyses of venoms from American and African Sicarius spiders that differ in sphingomyelinase D activity. Toxicon. 2010;55:1274-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Spider venoms are cocktails of toxic proteins and peptides, whose composition varies at many levels. Understanding patterns of variation in chemistry and bioactivity is fundamental for understanding factors influencing variation...
  21. Pluzhnikov K, Vassilevski A, Korolkova Y, Fisyunov A, Iegorova O, Krishtal O, et al. omega-Lsp-IA, a novel modulator of P-type Ca2+ channels. Toxicon. 2007;50:993-1004 pubmed
    ..omega-Agatoxin IVA completely removed the effect of omega-Lsp-IA on the whole-cell Ca(2+) current. Therefore, omega-Lsp-IA appears to act specifically on P-type Ca(2+) channels. ..
  22. McDade J, Aygun B, Ware R. Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) envenomation leading to acute hemolytic anemia in six adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010;156:155-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To highlight this important diagnostic consideration for unexplained hemolysis in areas endemic for brown recluse spiders, we report on 6 adolescents with acute hemolytic anemia from presumed L reclusa bites. ..
  23. Dawson R, Benz J, Stohler P, Tetaz T, Joseph C, Huber S, et al. Structure of the acid-sensing ion channel 1 in complex with the gating modifier Psalmotoxin 1. Nat Commun. 2012;3:936 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a general concept for gating modifier toxin binding suggesting that both surface motifs are required to modify the gating characteristics of an ion channel. ..
  24. Sales P, Santoro M. Nucleotidase and DNase activities in Brazilian snake venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;147:85-95 pubmed
    ..The omnipresence of nucleotidase and DNase activities in viperid venoms implies a role for them within the repertoire of enzymes involved in immobilization and death of preys...
  25. Alabi A, Bahamonde M, Jung H, Kim J, Swartz K. Portability of paddle motif function and pharmacology in voltage sensors. Nature. 2007;450:370-5 pubmed
    ..The widespread targeting of voltage-sensor paddles by toxins demonstrates that this modular structural motif is an important pharmacological target. ..
  26. Gentz M, Jones A, Clement H, King G. Comparison of the peptidome and insecticidal activity of venom from a taxonomically diverse group of theraphosid spiders. Toxicon. 2009;53:496-502 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that even closely related spiders have evolved quite different toxin repertoires that nevertheless have comparable efficiency with respect to killing their primary prey, namely insects. ..
  27. Yuan C, He Q, Peng K, Diao J, Jiang L, Tang X, et al. Discovery of a distinct superfamily of Kunitz-type toxin (KTT) from tarantulas. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3414 pubmed publisher
  28. Hernández Campuzano B, SUAREZ R, Lina L, Hernandez V, Villegas E, Corzo G, et al. Expression of a spider venom peptide in transgenic tobacco confers insect resistance. Toxicon. 2009;53:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrated that the expression of Magi 6 peptide in transgenic plants conferred resistance to insect attack and opens the possibility of employing this peptide to improve the resistance of diverse plants...
  29. Souza A, Ferreira J, Cordeiro M, Vieira L, De Castro C, Trevisan G, et al. Analgesic effect in rodents of native and recombinant Ph alpha 1beta toxin, a high-voltage-activated calcium channel blocker isolated from armed spider venom. Pain. 2008;140:115-26 pubmed publisher
  30. Cromer B, McIntyre P. Painful toxins acting at TRPV1. Toxicon. 2008;51:163-73 pubmed
    ..2 ion channel, to open the channel and activate primary sensory nerves, causing pain. ..
  31. Silva L, Lages C, Venuto T, Lima R, Diniz M, Valentim C, et al. Primary culture of venom glands from the Brazilian armed spider, Phoneutria nigriventer (Araneae, Ctenidae). Toxicon. 2008;51:428-34 pubmed
    Phoneutria spider venoms are a rich source of bioactive components. The limited amounts of crude material available, however, can be considered as a major hindrance for a faster development in the field...
  32. Saez N, Senff S, Jensen J, Er S, Herzig V, Rash L, et al. Spider-venom peptides as therapeutics. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:2851-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Most spider venoms are dominated by disulfide-rich peptides that typically have high affinity and specificity for particular ..
  33. Vassilevski A, Kozlov S, Samsonova O, Egorova N, Karpunin D, Pluzhnikov K, et al. Cyto-insectotoxins, a novel class of cytolytic and insecticidal peptides from spider venom. Biochem J. 2008;411:687-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The spider L. tarabaevi is suggested to have evolved to rely on a unique set of linear cytolytic toxins, as opposed to the more common disulfide-containing spider neurotoxins. ..
  34. Fernandes Pedrosa M, Junqueira de Azevedo I, Gonçalves de Andrade R, Kobashi L, Almeida D, Ho P, et al. Transcriptome analysis of Loxosceles laeta (Araneae, Sicariidae) spider venomous gland using expressed sequence tags. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:279 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a first global view of the gene expression scenario of the venom gland of L. laeta described so far, indicating the molecular bases of its venom composition. ..
  35. Hua S, Gottlieb P, Heo J, Sachs F. A mechanosensitive ion channel regulating cell volume. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C1424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The NRK cells form a stable platform from which to screen drugs that affect volume regulation via mechanosensory channels and as a sensitive system to clone the channel. ..
  36. Silva J, Suckling J, Ushkaryov Y. Penelope's web: using alpha-latrotoxin to untangle the mysteries of exocytosis. J Neurochem. 2009;111:275-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, any future success of alpha-LTX research will require a better understanding of this unusual natural tool and a more precise dissection of its multiple mechanisms. ..
  37. Rocha e Silva T, Sutti R, Hyslop S. Milking and partial characterization of venom from the Brazilian spider Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae). Toxicon. 2009;53:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblotting with this IgG detected proteins of 30-140 kDa only. Fractionation of the venom by reverse-phase chromatography resulted in five major and eight minor peaks. ..
  38. Binford G, Bodner M, Cordes M, Baldwin K, Rynerson M, Burns S, et al. Molecular evolution, functional variation, and proposed nomenclature of the gene family that includes sphingomyelinase D in sicariid spider venoms. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:547-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these combined results, we propose an inclusive nomenclature for the gene family, renaming it SicTox, and discuss emerging patterns of functional diversification. ..
  39. Bosmans F, Swartz K. Targeting voltage sensors in sodium channels with spider toxins. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2010;31:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on our existing knowledge of the mechanism by which spider toxins affect Nav channel gating and the possible applications of these toxins in the drug discovery process. ..
  40. Vassilevski A, Kozlov S, Grishin E. Molecular diversity of spider venom. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:1505-34 pubmed
    ..Special attention is given to the structure, properties, and biosynthesis of toxins of polypeptide nature. ..
  41. Dias Lopes C, Guimaraes G, Felicori L, Fernandes P, Emery L, Kalapothakis E, et al. A protective immune response against lethal, dermonecrotic and hemorrhagic effects of Loxosceles intermedia venom elicited by a 27-residue peptide. Toxicon. 2010;55:481-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible mechanisms of neutralization are discussed in light of these findings. ..
  42. Pietra F. Docking and MD simulations of the interaction of the tarantula peptide psalmotoxin-1 with ASIC1a channels using a homology model. J Chem Inf Model. 2009;49:972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mapping the closest lying amino acids of the homology model and PcTx1 can have heuristic value in stimulating ideas, software, and experimentation. ..
  43. Milescu M, Vobecky J, Roh S, Kim S, Jung H, Kim J, et al. Tarantula toxins interact with voltage sensors within lipid membranes. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:497-511 pubmed
  44. Chaves Moreira D, Chaim O, Sade Y, Paludo K, Gremski L, Donatti L, et al. Identification of a direct hemolytic effect dependent on the catalytic activity induced by phospholipase-D (dermonecrotic toxin) from brown spider venom. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:655-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide evidence that L. intermedia venom phospholipase-D triggers direct human blood cell hemolysis in a catalytic-dependent manner. ..
  45. Milescu M, Bosmans F, Lee S, Alabi A, Kim J, Swartz K. Interactions between lipids and voltage sensor paddles detected with tarantula toxins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that lipids bind to voltage-sensing domains and demonstrate that the pharmacological sensitivities of voltage-activated ion channels are influenced by the surrounding lipid membrane. ..
  46. Zobel Thropp P, Kerins A, Binford G. Sphingomyelinase D in sicariid spider venom is a potent insecticidal toxin. Toxicon. 2012;60:265-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Spider venoms have evolved over hundreds of millions of years with a primary role of immobilizing prey...
  47. Mesngon M, McNutt P. Alpha-latrotoxin rescues SNAP-25 from BoNT/A-mediated proteolysis in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:489-503 pubmed publisher
    ..They further demonstrate that ESNs are a novel, responsive and biologically relevant model for LTX research and BoNT therapeutic drug discovery. ..
  48. Appel M, da Silveira R, Chaim O, Paludo K, Silva D, Chaves D, et al. Identification, cloning and functional characterization of a novel dermonecrotic toxin (phospholipase D) from brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia) venom. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:167-78 pubmed
  49. Meng E, Cai T, Li W, Zhang H, Liu Y, Peng K, et al. Functional expression of spider neurotoxic peptide huwentoxin-I in E. coli. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21608 pubmed publisher
    ..The heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was able to block currents generated by human Na(v1.7) at an IC?? of 640 nmole/L, similar to that of the natural huwentoxin-I, which is 630 nmole/L. ..
  50. Vandorpe D, Xu C, Shmukler B, Otterbein L, Trudel M, Sachs F, et al. Hypoxia activates a Ca2+-permeable cation conductance sensitive to carbon monoxide and to GsMTx-4 in human and mouse sickle erythrocytes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8732 pubmed publisher
    ..1 in sickle erythrocytes. Blockade of this pathway represents a novel therapeutic approach for treatment of sickle disease. ..
  51. Wee C, Gavaghan D, Sansom M. Lipid bilayer deformation and the free energy of interaction of a Kv channel gating-modifier toxin. Biophys J. 2008;95:3816-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, one should allow for local deformations that may arise due to the spatial array of charged and hydrophobic elements of an interfacially located membrane protein. ..
  52. Corzo G, Diego Garcia E, Clement H, Peigneur S, Odell G, Tytgat J, et al. An insecticidal peptide from the theraposid Brachypelma smithi spider venom reveals common molecular features among spider species from different genera. Peptides. 2008;29:1901-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Bs1 had minor, but significant effects on the Para/tipE insect ion channel, which could indirectly correlate with the observed lethal activity to crickets. ..
  53. Bosmans F, Martin Eauclaire M, Swartz K. Deconstructing voltage sensor function and pharmacology in sodium channels. Nature. 2008;456:202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This reporter approach and the principles that emerge will be useful in developing new drugs for treating pain and Na(v) channelopathies. ..