venoms

Summary

Summary: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.

Top Publications

  1. Diamant M, Van Gaal L, Stranks S, Northrup J, Cao D, Taylor K, et al. Once weekly exenatide compared with insulin glargine titrated to target in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-3): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet. 2010;375:2234-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to test the hypothesis that improvement in haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) achieved with once weekly exenatide was superior to that achieved with insulin glargine titrated to glucose targets...
  2. Buse J, Bergenstal R, Glass L, Heilmann C, Lewis M, Kwan A, et al. Use of twice-daily exenatide in Basal insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin replacement in diabetes often requires prandial intervention to reach hemoglobin A?(c) (HbA?(c)) targets...
  3. Bao W, Holt L, Prince R, Jones G, Aravindhan K, Szapacs M, et al. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:148 pubmed publisher
  4. Bomfim T, Forny Germano L, Sathler L, Brito Moreira J, Houzel J, Decker H, et al. An anti-diabetes agent protects the mouse brain from defective insulin signaling caused by Alzheimer's disease- associated A? oligomers. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1339-53 pubmed publisher
    ..By establishing molecular links between the dysregulated insulin signaling in AD and diabetes, our results open avenues for the investigation of new therapeutics in AD...
  5. Vrang N, Jelsing J, Simonsen L, Jensen A, Thorup I, Søeborg H, et al. The effects of 13 wk of liraglutide treatment on endocrine and exocrine pancreas in male and female ZDF rats: a quantitative and qualitative analysis revealing no evidence of drug-induced pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E253-64 pubmed publisher
    ..However, clinical outcome studies and studies using primate tissues and/or studies in nonhuman primates are needed to further assess human risk...
  6. Murphy C. Review of the safety and efficacy of exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46:812-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarize and evaluate the available literature assessing the efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  7. Wang M, Sun B, Feng J, Zhang H, Liu B, Li C, et al. Investigation of transport mechanism of exendin-4 across Madin Darby canine kidney cell monolayers. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35:745-52 pubmed
    ..And these absorption enhancers can be used as potential safe ingredients to improve oral efficacy of exendin-4...
  8. Pencek R, Brunell S, Li Y, Hoogwerf B, Malone J. Exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical results in subgroups of patients using different concomitant medications. Postgrad Med. 2012;124:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this pooled analysis, the efficacy and tolerability of exenatide once weekly (EQW) in patients categorized by baseline concomitant glucose-lowering therapy were evaluated...
  9. Hodgson E. Toxins and venoms. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2012;112:373-415 pubmed publisher
    Toxins are produced by numerous microorganisms and invertebrates as well as by higher plants and animals. Venoms are produced by many groups of animals, from coelenterates to vertebrates...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Norwood P, Liutkus J, Haber H, Pintilei E, Boardman M, Trautmann M. Safety of exenatide once weekly in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with a thiazolidinedione alone or in combination with metformin for 2 years. Clin Ther. 2012;34:2082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse event (AE) profile and effects on glycemic control have not been assessed for the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly in combination with a thiazolidinedione (TZD) with or without metformin...
  2. Gao M, Jin Y, Tong Y, Tian H, Gao X, Yao W. A site-specific PEGylated analog of exendin-4 with improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2012;64:1646-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to improve the in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of exendin-4 by using site-specific PEGylation...
  3. Chiquette E, Toth P, Ramirez G, Cobble M, Chilton R. Treatment with exenatide once weekly or twice daily for 30 weeks is associated with changes in several cardiovascular risk markers. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, improved glycemic control, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes in clinical trials...
  4. Li K, Yu L, Liu X, Chen C, Chen Q, Ding J. A long-acting formulation of a polypeptide drug exenatide in treatment of diabetes using an injectable block copolymer hydrogel. Biomaterials. 2013;34:2834-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, a formulation of antidiabetic drugs was set up, and meanwhile a strategy using synergistic excipients to adjust release profiles of peptides from hydrogels was put forward...
  5. Egecioglu E, ENGEL J, Jerlhag E. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, exendin-4, attenuates the rewarding properties of psychostimulant drugs in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69010 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that GLP-1 analogues, such as exenatide and liraglutide, are clinically available for treatment of type II diabetes, we propose that these should be elucidated as treatments of drug dependence. ..
  6. Meloni A, DeYoung M, Han J, Best J, Grimm M. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes with exenatide once weekly versus oral glucose-lowering medications or insulin glargine: achievement of glycemic and cardiovascular goals. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:48 pubmed publisher
    ..The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve these goals was also calculated and provides a useful clinical metric for comparing potential therapies from different drug classes...
  7. Shirazi R, Dickson S, Skibicka K. Gut peptide GLP-1 and its analogue, Exendin-4, decrease alcohol intake and reward. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61965 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that GLP-1 analogues are already approved for clinical use, this places the GLP system as an exciting new potential therapeutic target for alcohol use disorders...
  8. Kim P, Lee M, Kim S. Delivery of two-step transcription amplification exendin-4 plasmid system with arginine-grafted bioreducible polymer in type 2 diabetes animal model. J Control Release. 2012;162:9-18 pubmed publisher
    ..TSTA exendin-4 expression system with SP and ABP polymer has a potential gene therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  9. Xiao C, Bandsma R, Dash S, Szeto L, Lewis G. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, acutely inhibits intestinal lipoprotein production in healthy humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the acute effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on intestinal and hepatic triglyceride-rich lipoprotein production and clearance in healthy humans...
  10. Dickson S, Shirazi R, Hansson C, Bergquist F, Nissbrandt H, Skibicka K. The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue, exendin-4, decreases the rewarding value of food: a new role for mesolimbic GLP-1 receptors. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4812-20 pubmed publisher
  11. Lønborg J, Kelbæk H, Vejlstrup N, Bøtker H, Kim W, Holmvang L, et al. Exenatide reduces final infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and short-duration of ischemia. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;5:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the post hoc analysis study was to evaluate the effect of exenatide in relation to system delay, defined as time from first medical contact to first balloon...
  12. Peterson G. Current treatments and strategies for type 2 diabetes: can we do better with GLP-1 receptor agonists?. Ann Med. 2012;44:338-49 pubmed publisher
    ..A large number of trials demonstrated benefits of GLP-1 RAs, suggesting they could provide suitable treatment options for patients with T2DM...
  13. Lee J, Lee C, Kim T, Chi S, Moon H, Oh K, et al. Pulmonary administered palmitic-acid modified exendin-4 peptide prolongs hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Regul Pept. 2012;177:68-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that palmitic acid-modified exendin-4 should be viewed as a long-acting inhalation candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes...
  14. Lee J, Lee C, Kim T, Lee E, Shin B, Chi S, et al. Self-assembled glycol chitosan nanogels containing palmityl-acylated exendin-4 peptide as a long-acting anti-diabetic inhalation system. J Control Release. 2012;161:728-34 pubmed publisher
    ..control lungs. The authors believe that Ex4-C16 DOCA-GC nanogels offer a long-acting inhalation delivery system for treating type 2 diabetes...
  15. Kelly A, Bergenstal R, Gonzalez Campoy J, Katz H, Bank A. Effects of exenatide vs. metformin on endothelial function in obese patients with pre-diabetes: a randomized trial. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:64 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the acute and chronic effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exenatide vs. metformin on endothelial function in patients with obesity and pre-diabetes...
  16. Aramadhaka L, Prorock A, Dragulev B, Bao Y, Fox J. Connectivity maps for biosimilar drug discovery in venoms: the case of Gila monster venom and the anti-diabetes drug Byetta®. Toxicon. 2013;69:160-7 pubmed publisher
    Like most natural product libraries animal venoms have long been recognized as potentially rich source of biologically active molecules with the potential to be mined for the discovery of drugs, drug leads and/or biosimilars...
  17. Egecioglu E, Steensland P, Fredriksson I, Feltmann K, ENGEL J, Jerlhag E. The glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue Exendin-4 attenuates alcohol mediated behaviors in rodents. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these findings implicate that the GLP-1 receptor may be a potential target for the development of novel treatment strategies for alcohol use disorders...
  18. Mima A, Hiraoka Yamomoto J, Li Q, Kitada M, Li C, Geraldes P, et al. Protective effects of GLP-1 on glomerular endothelium and its inhibition by PKC? activation in diabetes. Diabetes. 2012;61:2967-79 pubmed publisher
  19. Wootten D, Simms J, Miller L, Christopoulos A, Sexton P. Polar transmembrane interactions drive formation of ligand-specific and signal pathway-biased family B G protein-coupled receptor conformations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5211-6 pubmed publisher
  20. Alves C, Batel Marques F, Macedo A. A meta-analysis of serious adverse events reported with exenatide and liraglutide: acute pancreatitis and cancer. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98:271-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis was aimed at evaluating the risk of those serious adverse events associated with GLP-1 agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  21. Painter N, Morello C, Singh R, McBane S. An evidence-based and practical approach to using Bydureon™ in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Board Fam Med. 2013;26:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Exenatide is a reasonable option that can be added to the regimen of a patient with type 2 diabetes...
  22. Wilson Perez H, Chambers A, Ryan K, Li B, Sandoval D, Stoffers D, et al. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy is effective in two genetic mouse models of glucagon-like Peptide 1 receptor deficiency. Diabetes. 2013;62:2380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activity is not necessary for the metabolic improvements induced by VSG surgery. ..
  23. Kwon K, Nityanandam R, New J, Daniell H. Oral delivery of bioencapsulated exendin-4 expressed in chloroplasts lowers blood glucose level in mice and stimulates insulin secretion in beta-TC6 cells. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Oral delivery of the bioencapsulated EX4 should eliminate injections, increase patient compliance/convenience and significantly lower their cost...
  24. Buse J, Nauck M, Forst T, Sheu W, Shenouda S, Heilmann C, et al. Exenatide once weekly versus liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-6): a randomised, open-label study. Lancet. 2013;381:117-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly with liraglutide once daily in patients with type 2 diabetes...
  25. Casewell N, Wüster W, Vonk F, Harrison R, Fry B. Complex cocktails: the evolutionary novelty of venoms. Trends Ecol Evol. 2013;28:219-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Venoms have evolved on numerous occasions throughout the animal kingdom. These 'biochemical weapon systems' typically function to facilitate, or protect the producing animal from, predation...
  26. Erreger K, Davis A, Poe A, Greig N, Stanwood G, Galli A. Exendin-4 decreases amphetamine-induced locomotor activity. Physiol Behav. 2012;106:574-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate GLP-1R signaling as a novel modulator of psychostimulant-induced behavior and therefore a potential therapeutic target for psychostimulant abuse...
  27. Elashoff M, Matveyenko A, Gier B, Elashoff R, Butler P. Pancreatitis, pancreatic, and thyroid cancer with glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There are also concerns that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors could cause cancer, given their effects on immune function...
  28. Perez Tilve D, González Matías L, Aulinger B, Alvarez Crespo M, Gil Lozano M, Alvarez E, et al. Exendin-4 increases blood glucose levels acutely in rats by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1088-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, since there are many similarities in the response of the GLP-1R system across mammalian species, it is important to consider whether there is acute activation of the SNS by Ex-4 in humans...
  29. Washington M, Raboin S, Thompson W, Larsen C, Sayegh A. Exenatide reduces food intake and activates the enteric nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract and the dorsal vagal complex of the hindbrain in the rat by a GLP-1 receptor. Brain Res. 2010;1344:124-33 pubmed publisher
    ..g. area postrema, nucleus tractus solitaries and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. In addition, pretreatment with exendin (9-39) prior to exenatide injection blocked the activation in both locations...
  30. Erdogdu O, Nathanson D, Sjoholm A, Nystrom T, Zhang Q. Exendin-4 stimulates proliferation of human coronary artery endothelial cells through eNOS-, PKA- and PI3K/Akt-dependent pathways and requires GLP-1 receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;325:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-incubation of exendin-4 and GLP-1 did not show additive effects. Our results suggest that exendin-4 stimulates proliferation of HCAECs through PKA-PI3K/Akt-eNOS activation pathways via a GLP-1 receptor-dependent mechanism...
  31. Blevins T, Han J, Nicewarner D, Chen S, Oliveira J, Aronoff S. Exenatide is non-inferior to insulin in reducing HbA1c: an integrated analysis of 1423 patients with type 2 diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2010;122:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective was to compare the treatment effects between exenatide and insulin, which are 2 injectable peptide hormone-based therapy options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  32. Garg R, Chen W, Pendergrass M. Acute pancreatitis in type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide or sitagliptin: a retrospective observational pharmacy claims analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:2349-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Cases of acute pancreatitis have been reported in association with exenatide, sitagliptin, and type 2 diabetes without use of these medications. It remains unknown whether exenatide or sitagliptin increase the risk of acute pancreatitis...
  33. Chae S, Choi Y, Son S, Jung S, Lee D, Lee K. The fatty acid conjugated exendin-4 analogs for type 2 antidiabetic therapeutics. J Control Release. 2010;144:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that FA conjugated exendin-4s should be considered potential candidates for the treatment of diabetes...
  34. Thong K, Jose B, Sukumar N, Cull M, Mills A, Sathyapalan T, et al. Safety, efficacy and tolerability of exenatide in combination with insulin in the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists nationwide exenatide audit*. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011;13:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the extent, safety, efficacy and tolerability of reported off-licence exenatide use through a nationwide audit...
  35. Kim H, Lee J, Kim T, Lee E, Oh K, Lee D, et al. Albumin-coated porous hollow poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles bound with palmityl-acylated exendin-4 as a long-acting inhalation delivery system for the treatment of diabetes. Pharm Res. 2011;28:2008-19 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the development of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles (PLGA MPs) coated initially with albumin and then with palmityl-acylated exendin-4 (Pal-Ex4) as an inhalation system for treating diabetes...
  36. Teramoto S, Miyamoto N, Yatomi K, Tanaka Y, Oishi H, Arai H, et al. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, provides neuroprotection in mice transient focal cerebral ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:1696-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Exendin-4 is potentially useful in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke...
  37. Svegliati Baroni G, Saccomanno S, Rychlicki C, Agostinelli L, De Minicis S, Candelaresi C, et al. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation stimulates hepatic lipid oxidation and restores hepatic signalling alteration induced by a high-fat diet in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver Int. 2011;31:1285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of hepatic GLP-1r and the effect of exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue, on hepatic signalling...
  38. Jelsing J, Vrang N, Hansen G, Raun K, Tang Christensen M, Knudsen L. Liraglutide: short-lived effect on gastric emptying -- long lasting effects on body weight. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012;14:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the acute and chronic effects of two different GLP-1 analogues with different pharmacokinetic profiles on GE, food intake and body weight...
  39. Russell Jones D, Cuddihy R, Hanefeld M, Kumar A, González J, Chan M, et al. Efficacy and safety of exenatide once weekly versus metformin, pioglitazone, and sitagliptin used as monotherapy in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (DURATION-4): a 26-week double-blind study. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:252-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the safety and efficacy of exenatide once weekly (EQW) compared with metformin (MET), pioglitazone (PIO), and sitagliptin (SITA) over 26 weeks, in suboptimally treated (diet and exercise) drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes...
  40. Bergenstal R, Garrison L, Miller L, Hou L, Blickensderfer A, Zagar A, et al. Exenatide BID Observational Study (ExOS): results for primary and secondary endpoints of a prospective research study to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of exenatide BID use in patients with type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting. Curr Med Res Opin. 2011;27:2335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The Exenatide BID Observational Study (ExOS) was designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of exenatide BID use in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a real-world clinical practice setting in the United States...
  41. Iyer S, Drake A, West R, Mendez C, Tanenberg R. Case report of acute necrotizing pancreatitis associated with combination treatment of sitagliptin and exenatide. Endocr Pract. 2012;18:e10-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the first postmarketing case of necrotizing pancreatitis in a patient on combination therapy of sitagliptin and exenatide...
  42. Baraboi E, St Pierre D, Shooner J, Timofeeva E, Richard D. Brain activation following peripheral administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;301:R1011-24 pubmed publisher
  43. Marre M, Penfornis A. GLP-1 receptor agonists today. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93:317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..It also concentrates on the physiological basis for early use of GLP-1 receptor agonists, their use as an alternative to insulin therapy, the rationale for combining them with insulin and their cost-effectiveness...
  44. Tian L, Gao J, Weng G, Yi H, Tian B, O Brien T, et al. Comparison of exendin-4 on beta-cell replication in mouse and human islet grafts. Transpl Int. 2011;24:856-64 pubmed publisher
  45. Eldor R, Kidron M, Greenberg Shushlav Y, Arbit E. Novel glucagon-like peptide-1 analog delivered orally reduces postprandial glucose excursions in porcine and canine models. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010;4:1516-23 pubmed
    ..To date, GLP-1 analogs are only available as injectable dosage forms, and its oral delivery is expected to provide physiological portal/peripheral concentration ratios while fostering patient compliance and adherence...
  46. Kim H, Park H, Lee J, Kim T, Lee E, Oh K, et al. Highly porous large poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres adsorbed with palmityl-acylated exendin-4 as a long-acting inhalation system for treating diabetes. Biomaterials. 2011;32:1685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider that this new prototype of porous PLGA MS has considerable pharmaceutical potential as a type 2 anti-diabetic inhalation treatment...
  47. Griffioen K, Wan R, Okun E, Wang X, Lovett Barr M, Li Y, et al. GLP-1 receptor stimulation depresses heart rate variability and inhibits neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;89:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We used the long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4) to test the hypothesis that GLP-1 signalling modulates central parasympathetic control of heart rate...
  48. Pawaskar M, Blickensderfer A, Hoogwerf B, Quimbo R, Wade R. Hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes using concomitant exenatide BID and long-acting insulin therapy. J Med Econ. 2011;14:705-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Koole C, Wootten D, Simms J, Valant C, Sridhar R, Woodman O, et al. Allosteric ligands of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) differentially modulate endogenous and exogenous peptide responses in a pathway-selective manner: implications for drug screening. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;78:456-65 pubmed publisher
  50. Best J, Rubin R, Peyrot M, Li Y, Yan P, Malloy J, et al. Weight-related quality of life, health utility, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with exenatide once weekly compared with sitagliptin or pioglitazone after 26 weeks of treatment. Diabetes Care. 2011;34:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess change in patient-reported outcomes in subjects with type 2 diabetes treated with exenatide once weekly compared with those treated with sitagliptin or pioglitazone...
  51. DeYoung M, MacConell L, Sarin V, Trautmann M, Herbert P. Encapsulation of exenatide in poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres produced an investigational long-acting once-weekly formulation for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011;13:1145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Weight loss due to EQW or EBID was similar. EQW is the first glucose-lowering agent that is administered once weekly...
  52. Kong J, Oh E, Chae S, Lee K, Hahn S. Long acting hyaluronate--exendin 4 conjugate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Biomaterials. 2010;31:4121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The HA - exendin 4 conjugates will be investigated further as a twice a week injection dosage form for clinical applications...
  53. DeFronzo R, Triplitt C, Qu Y, Lewis M, Maggs D, Glass L. Effects of exenatide plus rosiglitazone on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes on metformin. Diabetes Care. 2010;33:951-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Study the effects of exenatide (EXE) plus rosiglitazone (ROSI) on beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity using hyperglycemic and euglycemic insulin clamp techniques in participants with type 2 diabetes on metformin...