sebum

Summary

Summary: The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.

Top Publications

  1. Dobrev H. Clinical and instrumental study of the efficacy of a new sebum control cream. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:113-8 pubmed
    Some botanical compounds are considered useful to reduce sebum production...
  2. Tanida M, Katsuyama M, Sakatani K. Effects of fragrance administration on stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and sebum secretion in the facial skin. Neurosci Lett. 2008;432:157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of fragrance on the relation between the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin and the stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, which regulates the activity ..
  3. Kim M, Choi S, Byun H, Huh C, Park K, Patel R, et al. Comparison of sebum secretion, skin type, pH in humans with and without acne. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006;298:113-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the relationship between sebum secretion and pH in these populations has not been determined...
  4. Han B, Jung B, Nelson J, Choi E. Analysis of facial sebum distribution using a digital fluorescent imaging system. J Biomed Opt. 2007;12:014006 pubmed
    Current methods for analysis of sebum excretion have limitations, such as irreproducible results in repeatable measurements due to the point measurement method, user-dependent artifacts due to contact measurement or qualitative ..
  5. Youn S, Park E, Lee D, Huh C, Park K. Does facial sebum excretion really affect the development of acne?. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:919-24 pubmed
    It is generally accepted that the severity of acne is correlated with facial sebum secretion...
  6. Papakonstantinou E, Aletras A, Glass E, Tsogas P, Dionyssopoulos A, Adjaye J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases of epithelial origin in facial sebum of patients with acne and their regulation by isotretinoin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:673-84 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in facial sebum specimens from acne patients, before and after treatment with isotretinoin...
  7. Messenger A. Hair through the female life cycle. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165 Suppl 3:2-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article...
  8. Zouboulis C, Saborowski A, Boschnakow A. Zileuton, an oral 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, directly reduces sebum production. Dermatology. 2005;210:36-8 pubmed
    ..Zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, reduces the number of inflammatory lesions in moderate acne and inhibits the synthesis of sebaceous lipids...
  9. Choi C, Choi J, Park K, Youn S. Ultraviolet-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne reflects regional casual sebum level and acne lesion distribution: qualitative and quantitative analyses of facial fluorescence. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultraviolet (UV)-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne has been considered to be caused by Propionibacterium acnes...
  10. Trivedi N, Cong Z, Nelson A, Albert A, Rosamilia L, Sivarajah S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors increase human sebum production. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2002-9 pubmed
    b>Sebum production is key in the pathophysiology of acne, an extremely common condition, which when severe, may require treatment with isotretinoin, a known teratogen...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Dobrev H. Clinical and instrumental study of the efficacy of a new sebum control cream. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2007;6:113-8 pubmed
    Some botanical compounds are considered useful to reduce sebum production...
  2. Tanida M, Katsuyama M, Sakatani K. Effects of fragrance administration on stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity and sebum secretion in the facial skin. Neurosci Lett. 2008;432:157-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effect of fragrance on the relation between the level of sebum secretion in the facial skin and the stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity, which regulates the activity ..
  3. Kim M, Choi S, Byun H, Huh C, Park K, Patel R, et al. Comparison of sebum secretion, skin type, pH in humans with and without acne. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006;298:113-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the relationship between sebum secretion and pH in these populations has not been determined...
  4. Han B, Jung B, Nelson J, Choi E. Analysis of facial sebum distribution using a digital fluorescent imaging system. J Biomed Opt. 2007;12:014006 pubmed
    Current methods for analysis of sebum excretion have limitations, such as irreproducible results in repeatable measurements due to the point measurement method, user-dependent artifacts due to contact measurement or qualitative ..
  5. Youn S, Park E, Lee D, Huh C, Park K. Does facial sebum excretion really affect the development of acne?. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:919-24 pubmed
    It is generally accepted that the severity of acne is correlated with facial sebum secretion...
  6. Papakonstantinou E, Aletras A, Glass E, Tsogas P, Dionyssopoulos A, Adjaye J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases of epithelial origin in facial sebum of patients with acne and their regulation by isotretinoin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:673-84 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of MMP and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP) in facial sebum specimens from acne patients, before and after treatment with isotretinoin...
  7. Messenger A. Hair through the female life cycle. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165 Suppl 3:2-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article...
  8. Zouboulis C, Saborowski A, Boschnakow A. Zileuton, an oral 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, directly reduces sebum production. Dermatology. 2005;210:36-8 pubmed
    ..Zileuton, a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, reduces the number of inflammatory lesions in moderate acne and inhibits the synthesis of sebaceous lipids...
  9. Choi C, Choi J, Park K, Youn S. Ultraviolet-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne reflects regional casual sebum level and acne lesion distribution: qualitative and quantitative analyses of facial fluorescence. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultraviolet (UV)-induced red fluorescence of patients with acne has been considered to be caused by Propionibacterium acnes...
  10. Trivedi N, Cong Z, Nelson A, Albert A, Rosamilia L, Sivarajah S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors increase human sebum production. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2002-9 pubmed
    b>Sebum production is key in the pathophysiology of acne, an extremely common condition, which when severe, may require treatment with isotretinoin, a known teratogen...
  11. Mahmood T, Akhtar N, Khan B, Khan H, Saeed T. Outcomes of 3% green tea emulsion on skin sebum production in male volunteers. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010;10:260-4 pubmed
    ..of stable formulation (water in oil emulsion), containing 3% green tea (Camellia sinensis L) extract on skin sebum production in healthy human volunteers...
  12. Wertz P. Human synthetic sebum formulation and stability under conditions of use and storage. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2009;31:21-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This surface lipid film contributes to the cosmetic properties of the skin. Synthetic sebum has been used for studies on properties of skin and hair...
  13. Musiał W, Kubis A. Preliminary assessment of alginic acid as a factor buffering triethanolamine interacting with artificial skin sebum. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2003;55:237-40 pubmed
    ..of alginic acid as a factor buffering triethanolamine interacting with stearic acid--a compound of artificial skin sebum. Penetration of triethanolamine into artificial sebum, induced by the above mentioned interaction, was measured ..
  14. Youn S, Kim S, Hwang I, Park K. Evaluation of facial skin type by sebum secretion: discrepancies between subjective descriptions and sebum secretion. Skin Res Technol. 2002;8:168-72 pubmed
    ..Facial skin is usually classified as dry, normal, and oily in the cosmetics field. However, there is no standard objective method for classifying facial skin...
  15. Passi S, De Pita O, Puddu P, Littarru G. Lipophilic antioxidants in human sebum and aging. Free Radic Res. 2002;36:471-7 pubmed
    Skin surface lipids (SSL), a very complex mixture of sebum mixed to small amounts of epidermal lipids, mantle the human epidermis, thus representing the outermost protection of the body against exogenous oxidative insults...
  16. Cheng Y, Dong Y, Wang J, Dong M, Zou Y, Ren D, et al. Moisturizing and anti-sebum secretion effects of cosmetic application on human facial skin. J Cosmet Sci. 2009;60:7-14 pubmed
    For human skin, high water content and low sebum secretion are considered to be main features of fair skin...
  17. Youn S, Kim J, Lee J, Kim S, Park K. The facial red fluorescence of ultraviolet photography: is this color due to Propionibacterium acnes or the unknown content of secreted sebum?. Skin Res Technol. 2009;15:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recently there are reports correlating this red fluorescence with the amount of facial sebum secretion...
  18. Toyoda M, Morohashi M. Pathogenesis of acne. Med Electron Microsc. 2001;34:29-40 pubmed
    ..acnes, an anaerobe present within the retained sebum in the pilosebaceous ducts...
  19. Man M, Xin S, Song S, Cho S, Zhang X, Tu C, et al. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;22:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size...
  20. Mitchell L, Johnson T, Lu G, Du D, Datta K, Grzemski F, et al. Rational design of a topical androgen receptor antagonist for the suppression of sebum production with properties suitable for follicular delivery. J Med Chem. 2010;53:4422-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1), for the topical control of sebum production is reported...
  21. Roh M, Han M, Kim D, Chung K. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:890-4 pubmed
    ..Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores...
  22. Yosipovitch G, Tang M, Dawn A, Chen M, Goh C, Huak Y, et al. Study of psychological stress, sebum production and acne vulgaris in adolescents. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87:135-9 pubmed
    b>Sebum production is thought to play a major role in acne vulgaris in adolescents...
  23. Nakatsuji T, Kao M, Zhang L, Zouboulis C, Gallo R, Huang C. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:985-94 pubmed publisher
    Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of ..
  24. Cossette C, Patel P, Anumolu J, Sivendran S, Lee G, Gravel S, et al. Human neutrophils convert the sebum-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid Sebaleic acid to a potent granulocyte chemoattractant. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11234-43 pubmed publisher
    Sebaleic acid (5,8-octadecadienoic acid) is the major polyunsaturated fatty acid in human sebum and skin surface lipids...
  25. Lu G, Valiveti S, Spence J, Zhuang C, Robosky L, Wade K, et al. Comparison of artificial sebum with human and hamster sebum samples. Int J Pharm. 2009;367:37-43 pubmed publisher
    To understand drug delivery to the sebum filled hair and sebaceous follicles, it is essential to use an artificial sebum as a surrogate of the human sebum for the investigation of drug transport properties...
  26. Janiczek Dolphin N, Cook J, Thiboutot D, Harness J, Clucas A. Can sebum reduction predict acne outcome?. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163:683-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Sebum excretion has generally been accepted as an important factor in the development of acne vulgaris. However, the relationship of sebum excretion and acne outcome has not yet been clearly demonstrated quantitatively...
  27. Giltay E, Gooren L. Effects of sex steroid deprivation/administration on hair growth and skin sebum production in transsexual males and females. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:2913-21 pubmed
    ..score; acne by the Leeds classification; hair growth rate, density, and shaft diameter by image analysis; and sebum production by Sebutape. In males, estrogens and antiandrogens reduced plasma testosterone to below 1.0 nmol/L...
  28. Muti P, Stanulla M, Micheli A, Krogh V, Freudenheim J, Yang J, et al. Markers of insulin resistance and sex steroid hormone activity in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective analysis of abdominal adiposity, sebum production, and hirsutism (Italy). Cancer Causes Control. 2000;11:721-30 pubmed
    ..analyzed the association of breast cancer with markers of insulin resistance and elevated serum sex steroids, abdominal adiposity, increase in sebum production and hirsutism in a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort study.
  29. Youn S, Na J, Choi S, Huh C, Park K. Regional and seasonal variations in facial sebum secretions: a proposal for the definition of combination skin type. Skin Res Technol. 2005;11:189-95 pubmed
    Facial sebum secretions are known to change under various circumstances. Facial skin types have been categorized as oily, normal, dry, and combination types...
  30. Ekanayake Mudiyanselage S, Kraemer K, Thiele J. Oral supplementation with all-Rac- and RRR-alpha-tocopherol increases vitamin E levels in human sebum after a latency period of 14-21 days. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1031:184-94 pubmed
    In human skin, highest alpha-tocopherol levels are found in facial sebum. We hypothesized that the bioavailability of vitamin E in human skin is, at least in part, dependent on sebaceous gland secretion...
  31. Swatschek D, Schatton W, Kellermann J, Muller W, Kreuter J. Marine sponge collagen: isolation, characterization and effects on the skin parameters surface-pH, moisture and sebum. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2002;53:107-13 pubmed
    ..None of the preparations had a noticeable influence on the physiological skin surface pH. Skin hydration increased only slightly. However, all tested formulations showed a significant increase of lipids measured by sebumetry...
  32. Suh D, Kwon T, Youn J. Changes of comedonal cytokines and sebum secretion after UV irradiation in acne patients. Eur J Dermatol. 2002;12:139-44 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of UVA and UVB on comedones and sebum secretion in acne patients...
  33. Fong E, Bay B. Keloids - the sebum hypothesis revisited. Med Hypotheses. 2002;58:264-9 pubmed
    ..some of our photographic records of keloids and electron microscopic findings of keloid edges and reiterate the sebum hypothesis...
  34. Ekanayake Mudiyanselage S, Hamburger M, Elsner P, Thiele J. Ultraviolet a induces generation of squalene monohydroperoxide isomers in human sebum and skin surface lipids in vitro and in vivo. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:915-22 pubmed
    ..To test this, sebum samples were collected from facial skin of 17 healthy volunteers, weighed, and immediately irradiated with either ..
  35. Wille J, Kydonieus A. Palmitoleic acid isomer (C16:1delta6) in human skin sebum is effective against gram-positive bacteria. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2003;16:176-87 pubmed
    The percent lipid composition of pooled human sebum analyzed by thin-layer chromatography was: ceramides (13%), fatty acid (47%), cholesterol (7%), cholesterol esters (2%), squalene (11%), triglycerides (3%), and wax esters (17%)...
  36. Fasika O. Keloids: a study of the immune reaction to sebum. East Afr Med J. 1992;69:114-6 pubmed
    A controlled study of the "immune reaction to sebum" pathogenesis of keloids was carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria; on 22 humans using a homogenate solution of liquid paraffin and vernix caseosa ..
  37. Mourelatos K, Eady E, Cunliffe W, Clark S, Cove J. Temporal changes in sebum excretion and propionibacterial colonization in preadolescent children with and without acne. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:22-31 pubmed
    It is generally accepted that the onset of sebum secretion occurs before puberty in boys and girls as a result of increasing androgen output during the adrenarche...
  38. Passi S, De Pita O, Grandinetti M, Simotti C, Littarru G. The combined use of oral and topical lipophilic antioxidants increases their levels both in sebum and stratum corneum. Biofactors. 2003;18:289-97 pubmed
    ..to inquire the effect of the combined use of topical bio-cosmetics containing natural active principles (including sebum-like lipid fractions, sebum and epidermal lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants), and oral antioxidant ..
  39. Mastrolonardo M, Diaferio A, Logroscino G. Seborrheic dermatitis, increased sebum excretion, and Parkinson's disease: a survey of (im)possible links. Med Hypotheses. 2003;60:907-11 pubmed
    ..The three major pathogenical pathways so far conceived in this context will be critically reviewed on the basis of evidences provided in the literature...
  40. Tong S, Yip J, Yick K, Yuen M. Effects of different heel angles in sleep mode on heel interface pressure in the elderly. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2016;32:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The moisture, sebum content, and elasticity of the skin of the heel are tested...
  41. Sakuma T, Maibach H. Oily skin: an overview. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;25:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin...
  42. Zhang L, Li W, Anthonavage M, Pappas A, Rossetti D, Cavender D, et al. Melanocortin-5 receptor and sebogenesis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;660:202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The melanocortin MC(5) and MC(1) receptors are expressed in human sebaceous glands, which produce sebum, a lipid mixture of squalene, wax esters, triglycerides, cholesterol esters, and free fatty acids that is secreted ..
  43. Crowther J. Method for quantification of oils and sebum levels on skin using the Sebumeter(®). Int J Cosmet Sci. 2016;38:210-6 pubmed publisher
    The Sebumeter(®) is widely used in both cosmetic and medical research, for measuring changes in sebum levels on skin...
  44. Kurihara H, Sato T, Akimoto N, Ogura T, Ito A. Identification and characterization of ABCB1-mediated and non-apoptotic sebum secretion in differentiated hamster sebocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1811:1090-6 pubmed publisher
    Sebaceous glands secrete sebum onto the skin surface in a holocrine manner and as such a thin lipid layer is formed as a physiological barrier...
  45. Ní Raghallaigh S, Bender K, Lacey N, Brennan L, Powell F. The fatty acid profile of the skin surface lipid layer in papulopustular rosacea. Br J Dermatol. 2012;166:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..have previously demonstrated that patients with PPR have reduced skin surface hydration levels in the presence of normal sebum casual levels, suggesting that it may be the quality and not the quantity of sebum that plays a role in PPR.
  46. Minami Hori M, Honma M, Fujii M, Nomura W, Kanno K, Hayashi T, et al. Developmental alterations of physical properties and components of neonatal-infantile stratum corneum of upper thighs and diaper-covered buttocks during the 1st year of life. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;73:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Although physical properties of neonatal-infantile stratum corneum (SC) change drastically after birth, precise developmental alterations of specific sites have not been fully elucidated...
  47. Rosa R, Veronesi P, Leonelli C. Microwave selective thermal development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces: potentialities of the method and preliminary experimental results. J Forensic Sci. 2013;58:1314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Microwaves demonstrated more effectiveness in the development of eccrine-rich residues, aged up to 12 weeks. ..
  48. Yoon J, Kwon H, Min S, Thiboutot D, Suh D. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Only isotretinoin and hormonal therapy reduce sebum production...
  49. Hörfelt C, Stenquist B, Halldin C, Ericson M, Wennberg A. Single low-dose red light is as efficacious as methyl-aminolevulinate--photodynamic therapy for treatment of acne: clinical assessment and fluorescence monitoring. Acta Derm Venereol. 2009;89:372-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant reduction in Propionibacterium acnes or sebum excretion was found.
  50. Mitchell L, Wang Z, Hu L, Kostlan C, Carroll M, Dettling D, et al. 4-(Alkylthio)- and 4-(arylthio)-benzonitrile derivatives as androgen receptor antagonists for the topical suppression of sebum production. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1310-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Analogs from both the 4-(alkylthio)- and of 4-(arylthio)-benzonitrile series showed moderate reduction of wax esters in vivo...
  51. Lee W, Jung H, Lee H, Kim B, Lee S, Kim D. Influence of substance-P on cultured sebocytes. Arch Dermatol Res. 2008;300:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that SP is involved in the pathogenesis of acne...
  52. Caisey L, Gubanova E, Camus C, Lapatina N, Smetnik V, Lévêque J. Influence of age and hormone replacement therapy on the functional properties of the lips. Skin Res Technol. 2008;14:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the influence of age and hormonal status on some functional properties of the lips of women...
  53. Robosky L, Wade K, Woolson D, Baker J, Manning M, Gage D, et al. Quantitative evaluation of sebum lipid components with nuclear magnetic resonance. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:686-92 pubmed
    ..measuring cholesterol, squalene, and pools of sterol esters, wax esters (WEs), and triglyceride (TG) components in sebum and meibum...
  54. Hu L, Lei H, Du D, Johnson T, Fedij V, Kostlan C, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of amino-pyridines as androgen receptor antagonists for stimulating hair growth and reducing sebum production. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:5693-7 pubmed
    ..It also demonstrated remarkable potency for stimulating hair growth in a male C3H mouse model as well as reducing sebum production in the male Syrian hamster ear model.
  55. Kazakov D, Calonje E, Rutten A, Glatz K, Michal M. Cutaneous sebaceous neoplasms with a focal glandular pattern (seboapocrine lesions): a clinicopathological study of three cases. Am J Dermatopathol. 2007;29:359-64 pubmed
    ..These tumors may be viewed as rare histopathological variants of sebaceous carcinoma and sebaceoma, with a second type of differentiation along the lines of the folliculosebaceous-apocrine unit...
  56. Spiteri A, Mitra M, Menon G, Casini A, Adams D, Ricketts C, et al. Tear lipid layer thickness and ocular comfort with a novel device in dry eye patients with and without Sjögren's syndrome. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:357-64 pubmed
    ..The device is designed to promote release of meibomian sebum into the tear film by delivering latent heat to the eyelids.
  57. Lee S, Huh C, Park K, Youn S. Effects of repetitive superficial chemical peels on facial sebum secretion in acne patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:964-8 pubmed
    Glycolic acid and Jessner's solution are popular superficial chemical peel agents for the treatment of facial acne, and increased sebum secretion is one of the major aetiological factors of acne.
  58. Musial W, Kubis A. Preliminary evaluation of interactions between selected alcoholamines and model skin sebum components. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2006;54:1076-81 pubmed
    The aim was to evaluate the interaction between selected alcoholamines and components of artificial skin sebum. The rate and depth of penetration into the lipophilic bead imitating pilosebaceous unit lumen was applied for alcoholamine ..
  59. Sunwoo Y, Chou C, Takeshita J, Murakami M, Tochihara Y. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity. J Physiol Anthropol. 2006;25:7-14 pubmed
    ..of blinking, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, hydration state of skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), recovery sebum level and skin temperature as physiological responses...
  60. Worley C, Wiltshire S, Miller T, Havrilla G, Majidi V. Detection of visible and latent fingerprints using micro-X-ray fluorescence elemental imaging. J Forensic Sci. 2006;51:57-63 pubmed
    ..This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential for visualizing fingerprints by MXRF on surfaces that can be problematic using current methods...
  61. Burkhart C, Gottwald L. Assessment of etiologic agents in acne pathogenesis. Skinmed. 2003;2:222-8 pubmed
    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units. Traditional etiologic factors include increased sebum production, ductal hyperkeratosis, abnormality of the microbial flora within the pilosebaceous unit, and mediators ..
  62. Ge L, Gordon J, Hsuan C, Stenn K, Prouty S. Identification of the delta-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:707-14 pubmed
    ..Sapienate is the most abundant fatty acid in human sebum, and among hair-bearing animals is restricted to humans...