Summary: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.

Top Publications

  1. Rogers N, Abdi J, Moore D, Nd iangui S, Smith L, Carlson A, et al. Colostrum avoidance, prelacteal feeding and late breast-feeding initiation in rural Northern Ethiopia. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:2029-36 pubmed publisher
    To identify specific cultural and behavioural factors that might be influenced to increase colostrum feeding in a rural village in Northern Ethiopia to improve infant health.
  2. Chattha K, Vlasova A, Kandasamy S, Esseili M, Siegismund C, Rajashekara G, et al. Probiotics and colostrum/milk differentially affect neonatal humoral immune responses to oral rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2013;31:1916-23 pubmed publisher
    Breast milk (colostrum [col]/milk) components and gut commensals play important roles in neonatal immune maturation, establishment of gut homeostasis and immune responses to enteric pathogens and oral vaccines...
  3. Gao W, Chen L, Xu L, Huang X. Specific IgG activity against diarrheagenic bacteria in bovine immune milk and effect of pH on its antigen-binding activity upon heating. J Dairy Res. 2010;77:220-4 pubmed publisher
    Bovine colostrum and milk antibodies of calving and lactating cows immunized with a multivalent vaccine consisting of whole cells of three different species of pathogenic bacteria including four strains of enterotoxigenic Escherischia ..
  4. Bastian M, Holsteg M, Hanke Robinson H, Duchow K, Cussler K. Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia: is this alloimmune syndrome caused by vaccine-induced alloreactive antibodies?. Vaccine. 2011;29:5267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, the syndrome is induced after ingestion of colostrum, the first milk that supplies the calf with maternal antibodies...
  5. Hammon H, Steinhoff Wagner J, Flor J, Schönhusen U, Metges C. Lactation Biology Symposium: role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves. J Anim Sci. 2013;91:685-95 pubmed publisher
    In neonatal calves, nutrient intake shifts from continuous glucose supply via the placenta to discontinuous colostrum and milk intake with lactose and fat as main energy sources...
  6. Fidler A, Alley M, Smith G. Short communication: serum immunoglobulin G and total protein concentrations in dairy calves fed a colostrum-replacement product. J Dairy Sci. 2011;94:3609-12 pubmed publisher
    Neonatal calf health is largely dependent on the ingestion and absorption of maternally derived antibodies via colostrum administration...
  7. Baumrucker C, Burkett A, Magliaro Macrina A, Dechow C. Colostrogenesis: mass transfer of immunoglobulin G1 into colostrum. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammary IgG(1) appearance in cow colostrum has typically been reported as a concentration and shows IgG(1) concentration to be extremely variable because ..
  8. Morceli G, França E, Magalhães V, Damasceno D, Calderon I, Honorio França A. Diabetes induced immunological and biochemical changes in human colostrum. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:550-6 pubmed publisher
    This article describes the changes and relationships between biochemical and immunological parameters in the colostrum and serum of diabetic women.
  9. Hurley W, Theil P. Perspectives on immunoglobulins in colostrum and milk. Nutrients. 2011;3:442-74 pubmed publisher
    Immunoglobulins form an important component of the immunological activity found in milk and colostrum. They are central to the immunological link that occurs when the mother transfers passive immunity to the offspring...

More Information


  1. de Lira L, Lima M, de Medeiros J, da Silva I, Dimenstein R. Correlation of vitamin A nutritional status on alpha-tocopherol in the colostrum of lactating women. Matern Child Nutr. 2013;9:31-40 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to establish nutritional status for vitamins A and E and evaluate the correlation of retinol on colostrum alpha-tocopherol in lactating women...
  2. França E, Morceli G, Fagundes D, Rudge M, Calderon I, Honorio França A. Secretory IgA-Fc? receptor interaction modulating phagocytosis and microbicidal activity by phagocytes in human colostrum of diabetics. APMIS. 2011;119:710-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we studied the colostrum of hyperglycemic women to assess SIgA interactions with Fc? receptors of macrophages as well as the functional ..
  3. Meyer A, Reed J, Neville T, Thorson J, Maddock Carlin K, Taylor J, et al. Nutritional plane and selenium supply during gestation affect yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in primiparous ewes. J Anim Sci. 2011;89:1627-39 pubmed publisher investigate effects of nutritional plane and Se supply during gestation on yield and nutrient composition of colostrum and milk in first parity ewes. Rambouillet ewe lambs (n = 84, age = 240 ± 17 d, BW = 52.1 ± 6...
  4. Oura C, Wood J, Floyd T, Sanders A, Bin Tarif A, Henstock M, et al. Colostral antibody protection and interference with immunity in lambs born from sheep vaccinated with an inactivated Bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:2749-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly lower titres of neutralising antibodies were transferred in colostrum to lambs born from sheep vaccinated once as opposed those vaccinated twice (single vaccine in the first year and ..
  5. Carol A, Witkamp R, Wichers H, Mensink M. Bovine colostrum supplementation's lack of effect on immune variables during short-term intense exercise in well-trained athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21:135-45 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of bovine colostrum to attenuate postexercise decline in immune function...
  6. Dimenstein R, Lira L, Medeiros A, Cunha L, Stamford T. [Effect of vitamin E supplementation on alpha-tocopherol levels in human colostrum]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2011;29:399-403 pubmed
    To assess the levels of alpha-tocopherol in human colostrum following supplementation with capsules containing vitamin A plus synthetic vitamin E.
  7. Deutskens F, Lamp B, Riedel C, Wentz E, Lochnit G, Doll K, et al. Vaccine-induced antibodies linked to bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) recognize cattle major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). Vet Res. 2011;42:97 pubmed publisher
    ..Alloantibodies reacting with blood leukocytes of calves were detected in serum and colostrum of dams, which have given birth to calves affected by BNP...
  8. Luoto R, Laitinen K, Nermes M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counseling during pregnancy on colostrum adiponectin concentration: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The breast milk bioactive substances such as adiponectin, have a presumably long-term impact upon the health and well-being of a child...
  9. Tshering C, Takagi M, Deguchi E. Detection of Torque teno sus virus types 1 and 2 by nested polymerase chain reaction in sera of sows at parturition and of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum and at 24 hr after suckling colostrum. J Vet Med Sci. 2012;74:315-9 pubmed
    ..6 sows (Sows 1-6) at parturition and in sera of their newborn piglets immediately after birth without suckling colostrum was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR)...
  10. Negrón M, Pogranichniy R, Van Alstine W, Hilton W, Levy M, Raizman E. Evaluation of horizontal transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) to colostrum-deprived calves. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:257-62 pubmed publisher
    To assess the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns to colostrum-deprived calves by use of a BVDV strain isolated from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer.
  11. Abd El Fattah A, Abd Rabo F, El Dieb S, El Kashef H. Changes in composition of colostrum of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:19 pubmed publisher
    Changes in colostrum composition of Egyptian buffaloes and Holstein cows collected at calving, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h and after 14 days of parturition were studied...
  12. Donahue M, Godden S, Bey R, Wells S, Oakes J, Sreevatsan S, et al. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:2697-702 pubmed publisher
    ..dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat treatment (at 60°C for 60 min) on colostrum, on colostrum bacteria counts, and immunoglobulin G concentrations...
  13. Bell C, Rocchi M, Dagleish M, Melzi E, Ballingall K, Connelly M, et al. Reproduction of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) by feeding pooled colostrum reveals variable alloantibody damage to different haematopoietic lineages. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013;151:303-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Feeding colostrum from cows that have previously produced a BNP affected calf has been shown to induce the disease in some calves, ..
  14. Polo J, Campbell J, Crenshaw J, Rodriguez C, Pujol N, Navarro N, et al. Half-life of porcine antibodies absorbed from a colostrum supplement containing porcine immunoglobulins. J Anim Sci. 2012;90 Suppl 4:308-10 pubmed publisher
    Absorption of immunoglobulins (Ig) at birth from colostrum is essential for piglet survival...
  15. Pires Lapa M, Tamura E, Salustiano E, Markus R. Melatonin synthesis in human colostrum mononuclear cells enhances dectin-1-mediated phagocytosis by mononuclear cells. J Pineal Res. 2013;55:240-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that these cells are present in human colostrum for 4 or 5 days after birth, this mechanism may be relevant for the protection of infant health.
  16. Aly S, Pithua P, Champagne J, Haines D. A randomized controlled trial on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifers fed a lacteal-derived colostrum replacer or pooled maternal colostrum. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:168 pubmed publisher
    ..of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of feeding a commercial lacteal-derived colostrum replacer (CR) or pooled maternal colostrum (MC) on preweaning morbidity, growth and mortality in Holstein heifer ..
  17. Eilers E, Ziska T, Harder T, Plagemann A, Obladen M, Loui A. Leptin determination in colostrum and early human milk from mothers of preterm and term infants. Early Hum Dev. 2011;87:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analytical methods used for leptin measurement in human milk differ widely in the literature and yield varying results...
  18. Bielmann V, Gillan J, Perkins N, Skidmore A, Godden S, Leslie K. An evaluation of Brix refractometry instruments for measurement of colostrum quality in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3713-21 pubmed publisher
    Acquisition of high quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health. Many methods have been used to assess the Ig concentration of colostrum; however, improved, validated evaluation tools are needed...
  19. Møller H, Thymann T, Fink L, Frokiaer H, Kvistgaard A, Sangild P. Bovine colostrum is superior to enriched formulas in stimulating intestinal function and necrotising enterocolitis resistance in preterm pigs. Br J Nutr. 2011;105:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesised that bovine colostrum and milk formulas enriched with sialic acids (SL), gangliosides (Gang) or osteopontin (OPN) would improve ..
  20. Inagaki M, Yamamoto M, Xijier -, Cairangzhuoma -, Uchida K, Yamaguchi H, et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the efficacy of bovine colostrum against human rotavirus infection. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:680-2 pubmed
    We found that skimmed and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC) obtained from normal cows at 6-7 d after parturition exhibited high potency in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus (HRV) in vitro...
  21. Garcia L, Ribeiro K, Araujo K, Pires J, Azevedo G, Dimenstein R. Alpha-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of nursing women supplemented with retinyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010;23:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to determine the effect of maternal supplementation with a megadose of retinyl palmitate in the immediate post-partum on ?-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum.
  22. Friedrich A, Büttner M, Rademacher G, Klee W, Weber B, Muller M, et al. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) in some calves. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:10 pubmed publisher
    ..field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum.The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves ..
  23. Parreño V, Marcoppido G, Vega C, Garaicoechea L, Rodriguez D, Saif L, et al. Milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine rotavirus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;136:12-27 pubmed publisher
    ..All calves received control colostrum (CC; VN=65,536; IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (VN=..
  24. Sun Q, Chen X, Yu J, Zen K, Zhang C, Li L. Immune modulatory function of abundant immune-related microRNAs in microvesicles from bovine colostrum. Protein Cell. 2013;4:197-210 pubmed publisher
    b>Colostrum provides essential nutrients and immunologically active factors that are beneficial to newborns...
  25. Vasseur E, Borderas F, Cue R, Lefebvre D, Pellerin D, Rushen J, et al. A survey of dairy calf management practices in Canada that affect animal welfare. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:1307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..6% of farms relied on the dam to provide colostrum and none checked colostrum quality or passive transfer of immunity, 4) dehorning and removal of extra teats ..
  26. Campbell J, Jacobi S, Liu Y, Robertson K, Drayton J, Medina I, et al. Evaluation of immunoglobulin G absorption from colostrum supplements gavaged to newborn piglets. J Anim Sci. 2012;90 Suppl 4:299-301 pubmed publisher
    Absorption of energy and IgG at birth from colostrum may improve survival and immune competency of newborn piglets. Adequate intake of colostrum may be difficult for piglets due to low birth weight, birth order, or viability...
  27. Espinosa Martos I, Montilla A, de Segura A, Escuder D, Bustos G, Pallas C, et al. Bacteriological, biochemical, and immunological modifications in human colostrum after Holder pasteurisation. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013;56:560-8 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Holder pasteurisation of human colostrum on a variety of microbiological, biochemical, and immunological parameters.
  28. Kramski M, Lichtfuss G, Navis M, Isitman G, Wren L, Rawlin G, et al. Anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mediated by hyperimmune bovine colostrum IgG. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2771-81 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-specific IgG can be easily and inexpensively produced in large quantities using bovine colostrum. We previously vaccinated cows with HIV-1 envelope gp140 and elicited high titers of anti-gp140-binding IgG in ..
  29. Morrill K, Conrad E, Lago A, Campbell J, Quigley J, Tyler H. Nationwide evaluation of quality and composition of colostrum on dairy farms in the United States. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:3997-4005 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to characterize the quality of maternal colostrum (MC) fed to newborn dairy calves in the United States and identify the proportion of MC that meets industry standards for IgG concentration and total plate ..
  30. Priestley D, Bittar J, Ibarbia L, Risco C, Galvao K. Effect of feeding maternal colostrum or plasma-derived or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning heifer calves. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:3247-56 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding maternal colostrum (MC), a plasma-derived (PDCR) or colostrum-derived colostrum replacer (CDCR) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance of preweaning ..
  31. Friedman J, Alam S, Shen X, Xia S, Stewart S, Anasti K, et al. Isolation of HIV-1-neutralizing mucosal monoclonal antibodies from human colostrum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37648 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, characterization of HIV-specific antibodies produced by B cells in milk could guide the development of vaccines that elicit protective mucosal antibody responses...
  32. Ohtsuka H, Terasawa S, Watanabe C, Kohiruimaki M, Mukai M, Ando T, et al. Effect of parity on lymphocytes in peripheral blood and colostrum of healthy Holstein dairy cows. Can J Vet Res. 2010;74:130-5 pubmed
    ..investigated the leukocyte population and cytokine mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and colostrum mononuclear cells (CCs) obtained from healthy cows soon after calving...
  33. Foisnet A, Farmer C, David C, Quesnel H. Relationships between colostrum production by primiparous sows and sow physiology around parturition. J Anim Sci. 2010;88:1672-83 pubmed publisher
    Relationships between hormonal and metabolic changes around parturition and colostrum yield and composition were investigated in 16 Landrace x Large White primiparous sows...
  34. Adar T, Ben Ya Acov A, Lalazar G, Lichtenstein Y, Nahman D, Mizrahi M, et al. Oral administration of immunoglobulin G-enhanced colostrum alleviates insulin resistance and liver injury and is associated with alterations in natural killer T cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;167:252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Bovine colostrum has therapeutic effects in a variety of chronic infections. However its effectiveness in NASH was never studied...
  35. Nechvatalova K, Kudlackova H, Leva L, Babickova K, Faldyna M. Transfer of humoral and cell-mediated immunity via colostrum in pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;142:95-100 pubmed publisher
    The first aim of our study was to obtain information on the transmission of antigen-specific antibodies from colostrum to respiratory tract mucosa in piglets...
  36. Mathias A, Corthesy B. Recognition of gram-positive intestinal bacteria by hybridoma- and colostrum-derived secretory immunoglobulin A is mediated by carbohydrates. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between ..
  37. Bridger P, Bauerfeind R, Wenzel L, Bauer N, Menge C, Thiel H, et al. Detection of colostrum-derived alloantibodies in calves with bovine neonatal pancytopenia. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;141:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we investigated whether this phenomenon is related to colostrum-derived alloantibodies directed against neonatal leukocytes...
  38. Ng W, Wong V, Muller B, Rawlin G, Brown L. Prevention and treatment of influenza with hyperimmune bovine colostrum antibody. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13622 pubmed publisher
    ..However, preparation of appropriate Ab in large scale, quickly and on a yearly basis is viewed as a significant logistical hurdle for this approach to control seasonal influenza...
  39. Martínez Martínez S, Frandoloso R, Gutiérrez Martín C, Lampreave F, García Iglesias M, Perez Martinez C, et al. Acute phase protein concentrations in colostrum-deprived pigs immunized with subunit and commercial vaccines against Glässer's disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;144:61-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was focused on the characterization of the acute-phase response after immunization and infection of colostrum-deprived pigs with H...
  40. Danielsen M, Pedersen L, Bendixen E. An in vivo characterization of colostrum protein uptake in porcine gut during early lactation. J Proteomics. 2011;74:101-9 pubmed publisher
    Understanding the bioactive roles of colostrum proteins has gained much attention, and in particular, their potential use in human and veterinary medicine has been extensively studied...
  41. Guxens M, Mendez M, Molto Puigmarti C, Julvez J, Garcia Esteban R, Forns J, et al. Breastfeeding, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in colostrum, and infant mental development. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e880-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Breastfeeding has been associated with improved neurodevelopment in children. However, it remains unknown to what extent nutritional advantages of breast milk may explain this relationship...
  42. Schröter P, Kuiper H, Holsteg M, Puff C, Haas L, Baumgartner W, et al. [Reproducibility of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) via the application of colostrum]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2011;124:390-400 pubmed
    ..The objectives of our investigation were to test if BNP could be reproduced using colostrum of cows with a BNP history and pre-colostral calves from farms where BNP has not been observed...
  43. Barile D, Marotta M, Chu C, Mehra R, Grimm R, Lebrilla C, et al. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides in Holstein-Friesian colostrum during the first 3 days of lactation measured by high performance liquid chromatography on a microfluidic chip and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work we measured, comprehensively and systematically, free milk OS in the colostrum of 7 Holstein-Friesian cows during the first 3 d of lactation in 12-h intervals by HPLC-chip/time-of-flight mass ..
  44. Rodriguez N, Meier P, Groer M, Zeller J, Engstrom J, Fogg L. A pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of oropharyngeal administration of own mother's colostrum to extremely low-birth-weight infants. Adv Neonatal Care. 2010;10:206-12 pubmed publisher
    Own mother's colostrum is rich in cytokines and other immune agents that may stimulate oropharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue if administered oropharyngeally to extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants during the first days of life ..
  45. Nissen A, Bendixen E, Ingvartsen K, Røntved C. In-depth analysis of low abundant proteins in bovine colostrum using different fractionation techniques. Proteomics. 2012;12:2866-78 pubmed publisher
    Bovine colostrum is well known for its large content of bioactive components and its importance for neonatal survival...
  46. Morales E, Garcia Esteban R, Guxens M, Guerra S, Mendez M, Molto Puigmarti C, et al. Effects of prolonged breastfeeding and colostrum fatty acids on allergic manifestations and infections in infancy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:918-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In developed countries World Health Organization recommendation of 6 months' exclusive breastfeeding is under debate...
  47. Murakami K, Suzuki S, Aoki N, Okajima T, Nadano D, Uchida K, et al. Binding of Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) to human intestinal Caco-2 cells and the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum on this VLP binding. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:541-7 pubmed
    ..Then the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum was analyzed on the VLP binding to Caco-2 cells by immunoblotting...
  48. Dündar N, Dundar B, Cesur G, Yilmaz N, Sutcu R, Ozguner F. Ghrelin and adiponectin levels in colostrum, cord blood and maternal serum. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:622-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to determine ghrelin and adiponectin levels in colostrum, cord blood and maternal serum and to investigate the correlations between colostrum and cord blood levels of ..
  49. Van Brandt L, Coudijzer K, Vlaemynck G, Hendrickx M, Michiels C, Messens W, et al. Localization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in artificially inoculated milk and colostrum by fractionation. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:4722-9 pubmed publisher
    ..paratuberculosis (MAP) across the main milk and colostrum fractions (cream, curd, and whey)...
  50. Czech A, Grela E, Mokrzycka A, Pejsak Z. Efficacy of mannanoligosaccharides additive to sows diets on colostrum, blood immunoglobulin content and production parameters of piglets. Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:525-31 pubmed
    ..MOS) included in a sow nutrition may affect its immune system and humoral antibody production in colostrum and milk, and thus increase the piglet immunity at the postnatal period...
  51. Krogh U, Flummer C, Jensen S, Theil P. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid. J Anim Sci. 2012;90 Suppl 4:366-8 pubmed publisher
    ..until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield...
  52. Elizondo Salazar J, Jayarao B, Heinrichs A. Effect of heat treatment of bovine colostrum on bacterial counts, viscosity, and Immunoglobulin G concentration. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:961-7 pubmed publisher
    A study was conducted to identify the optimal temperature and time at which heat treatment of bovine colostrum would least change viscosity and IgG concentrations yet reduce bacterial count...
  53. Nonnecke B, Waters W, Goff J, Foote M. Adaptive immunity in the colostrum-deprived calf: response to early vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis strain bacille Calmette Guerin and ovalbumin. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:221-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study evaluated effects of colostrum ingestion on the adaptive immune response of the preruminant calf to early vaccination...