cerumen

Summary

Summary: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.

Top Publications

  1. McCarter D, Courtney A, Pollart S. Cerumen impaction. Am Fam Physician. 2007;75:1523-8 pubmed
    b>Cerumen is a naturally occurring, normally extruded product of the external auditory canal. It is usually asymptomatic, but when it becomes impacted it can cause complications such as hearing loss, pain, or dizziness...
  2. Toyoda Y, Sakurai A, Mitani Y, Nakashima M, Yoshiura K, Nakagawa H, et al. Earwax, osmidrosis, and breast cancer: why does one SNP (538G>A) in the human ABC transporter ABCC11 gene determine earwax type?. FASEB J. 2009;23:2001-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical studies with cerumen gland-containing tissue specimens revealed that the ABCC11 WT protein was localized in intracellular granules and ..
  3. Thompson L, Nelson B, Barnes E. Ceruminous adenomas: a clinicopathologic study of 41 cases with a review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:308-18 pubmed
    ..Ceruminous gland neoplasms are rare neoplasms. To date, a large clinicopathologic study of benign ceruminous gland neoplasms has not been reported...
  4. Kalcioglu M, Durmaz R, Ozturan O, Bayindir Y, Direkel S. Does cerumen have a risk for transmission of hepatitis B?. Laryngoscope. 2004;114:577-80 pubmed
    ..b>Cerumen has never been studied as a route for hepatitis B transmission...
  5. Olusanya B. Hearing impairment in children with impacted cerumen. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2003;23:121-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine whether children in whom impacted cerumen had been removed were at greater risk of hearing impairment than those without a history of impacted cerumen...
  6. Yoshiura K, Kinoshita A, Ishida T, Ninokata A, Ishikawa T, Kaname T, et al. A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type. Nat Genet. 2006;38:324-30 pubmed
    ..These suggest that the allele A arose in northeast Asia and thereafter spread through the world. The 538G --> A SNP is the first example of DNA polymorphism determining a visible genetic trait...
  7. Selcuk A, Ensari S, Cetin M, Sak S, Dere H. Ceruminous gland carcinoma of the external auditory canal presenting as chronic otitis media. B-ENT. 2007;3:195-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of carcinoma originating from the ceruminous glands of the external ear canal (EAC), operated based on a diagnosis of chronic otitis media with polyp...
  8. Burkhart C, Kruge M, Burkhart C, Black C. Cerumen composition by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22:715-22 pubmed
    To assess the chemical composition of cerumen by flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.
  9. Glynn F, Keogh I, Burns H. Neglected keratosis obturans causing facial nerve palsy. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:784-5 pubmed
    ..We report the first published case, to our knowledge, of a unilateral facial nerve palsy secondary to neglected keratosis obturans...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Kamien M. Ear syringing. Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34:711; author reply 711-2 pubmed
  2. Goh E, Son B, Kong S, Chon K, Cho K. Analysis of hepatitis B virus in the cerumen and otorrhea of chronic HBV-infected patients: is there a hepatitis B virus infectivity?. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:929-32 pubmed publisher
    The object of this study was to find out whether cerumen and otorrhea have any infectivity in the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV).
  3. Luxenberger W, Lahousen T, Walch C. Suction-generated noise in an anatomic silicon ear model. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;269:2291-3 pubmed publisher
    ..5 dB(A) (broadband noise). Peak noise levels reached 118 dB(A). During partial obstruction of the sucker by cerumen or dermal flakes, peak noise levels reached 146 dB(A)...
  4. Coutinho S, Fedullo J, Corrêa S. Isolation of Malassezia spp. from cerumen of wild felids. Med Mycol. 2006;44:383-7 pubmed
    ..One hundred and thirty-two adult animals (264 samples of cerumen), 77 males (58.3%) and 55 females (41...
  5. Hanger H, Mulley G. Cerumen: its fascination and clinical importance: a review. J R Soc Med. 1992;85:346-9 pubmed
  6. Blazys D. An informal discussion of emergency nurses' current clinical practice: what's new and what works. J Emerg Nurs. 2002;28:549-51 pubmed
  7. Saukkoriipi A, Palmu A, Kilpi T, Leinonen M. Real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:385-90 pubmed
    ..The real-time PCR assay was found to be rapid, easy to use, and sensitive in detecting and quantifying pneumococci...
  8. Zackaria M, Aymat A. Ear candling: a case report. Eur J Gen Pract. 2009;15:168-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence of its effectiveness, and it can actually cause damage to the ears...
  9. Afolabi A, Kodiya A, Bakari A, Ahmad B. Attitude of self ear cleaning in black Africans: any benefit?. East Afr J Public Health. 2009;6:43-6 pubmed
    ..Wax removal compromises the integrity of the ear's defenses. It is a leading cause of otitis externa, Otomycosis and impaired hearing. Aims of the study are to assess the knowledge and implication of self ear cleaning among black Africans...
  10. Bandyopadhyay R, Sengupta A, Dasgupta A, Biswas R, Mukherjee S, Biswas A. A comparative study of common ear morbidity pattern among the primary school children of an urban slum of Kolkata and rural area of Hooghly. J Indian Med Assoc. 2005;103:428, 430-2 pubmed
    ..Middle ear pathology was found to be present in 20% and 12.6% among rural and urban students respectively. Cerumen in the external auditory canal was the commonest clinical finding in both the areas and was found to be present ..
  11. Kuwabara H, Haginomori S, Takamaki A, Ito K, Takenaka H, Kurisu Y, et al. Lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma of the ceruminous gland. Pathol Int. 2006;56:51-3 pubmed
    ..This case demonstrates the peculiar location of a lipomatous pleomorphic adenoma in the external auditory canal...
  12. Somerville G. The most effective products available to facilitate ear syringing. Br J Community Nurs. 2002;7:94-101 pubmed
    Loss of hearing from accumulation of cerumen (ear wax) is a commonly seen problem. Treatment for this condition often involves use of a wax softening or dispersing agent (cerumenolytic) before syringing...
  13. Harkin H. A nurse-led ear care clinic: sharing knowledge and improving patient care. Br J Nurs. 2005;14:250-4 pubmed
    ..Study seminars, publications, the use of the hospital intranet site, treatment and discharge summaries can all be used to communicate new developments in patient care...
  14. Robinson E, Trumble S, Subedi B, Sanders R, Usenko S. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a whale earplug (earwax): a novel method for analyzing organic contaminants in lipid-rich matrices. J Chromatogr A. 2013;1319:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..requiring no additional cleanup has been developed for the simultaneous extraction and cleanup of whale earwax (cerumen; a lipid-rich matrix). Whale earwax accumulates in select whale species over their lifetime to form wax earplugs...
  15. Aasham T, Khandekar R, Khabori M, Helmi S. Cost-effectiveness of audiometric screening of first-year preparatory pupils in Dhofar Region, Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2004;10:303-8 pubmed
    ..The screening expenditure was US$ 5 per pupil. As the prevalence of serious ear conditions was low, we conclude that expanding the audiometric screening of schoolchildren to first-year preparatory pupils is not cost-effective...
  16. Lee L, Govindaraju R, Hon S. Cotton bud and ear cleaning--a loose tip cotton bud?. Med J Malaysia. 2005;60:85-8 pubmed
    ..The misconception of needing to clean the ear canal by introducing an object into the ear is rampant. This practice should be avoided and health care providers can play an important role in this...
  17. Neumaier J. [The most frequent ear problems in general practice. Can you see that your patient is hard-of-hearing?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2006;148:4-6 pubmed
  18. Olusanya B, Okolo A, Aderemi A. Predictors of hearing loss in school entrants in a developing country. J Postgrad Med. 2004;50:173-8; discussion 178-9 pubmed
    ..Lack of a simple and practical screening protocol often deters routine and systematic hearing screening at school entry...
  19. Nakano M, Miwa N, Hirano A, Yoshiura K, Niikawa N. A strong association of axillary osmidrosis with the wet earwax type determined by genotyping of the ABCC11 gene. BMC Genet. 2009;10:42 pubmed publisher
    Two types of cerumen occur in humans: the wet type with brownish, sticky earwax, and the dry type with a lack of or reduced ceruminous secretion...
  20. Sréter T, Széll Z, Varga I. Ectoparasite infestations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2003;115:349-54 pubmed
  21. Krouse J, Krouse H. Allergic disease and associated concurrent medical illnesses. ORL Head Neck Nurs. 2002;20:10-4 pubmed
    ..usage among 249 patients with allergic rhinitis contrasted with a comparison group of 253 patients with cerumen impaction...
  22. Reiss G, Reiss M. [Otorhinolaryngology--VII: Cotton swabs have no business in ears]. Pflege Z. 2002;55:472-3 pubmed
  23. Oron Y, Zwecker Lazar I, Levy D, Kreitler S, Roth Y. Cerumen removal: comparison of cerumenolytic agents and effect on cognition among the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;52:228-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerumen impaction may affect hearing and decrease hearing acuity, thus decreasing cognitive functions among the elderly...
  24. Stroman D, Roland P, Dohar J, Burt W. Microbiology of normal external auditory canal. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:2054-9 pubmed
    ..To isolate and characterize bacteria and fungi from the healthy ear and to obtain susceptibility profiles on each bacterial isolate...
  25. Ohashi J, Naka I, Tsuchiya N. The impact of natural selection on an ABCC11 SNP determining earwax type. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:849-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a striking example of how local adaptation has played a significant role in the diversification of human traits...
  26. Singer A, Sauris E, Viccellio A. Ceruminolytic effects of docusate sodium: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36:228-32 pubmed
    Assessment of the tympanic membrane is often impeded by the presence of cerumen. We compared the ceruminolytic effects of triethanolamine polypeptide and docusate sodium in patients with cerumen.
  27. Prieve B, Hancur Bucci C, Preston J. Changes in transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions in the first month of life. Ear Hear. 2009;30:330-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explores whether changes in TEOAE levels in half-octave frequency bands are related to changes in ear-canal debris over the first month of life...
  28. Schmiemann G, Kruschinski C. [Complication rate of out-patient removal of ear wax: systematic review of the literature]. HNO. 2009;57:713-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Cerumen impaction is known as a frequent problem both in general practice as well as in community based ENT surgeries...
  29. Jimena O, Laura J, Elena M, Alonso N, Teresa Q. Association of Raillietia caprae with the presence of Mycoplasmas in the external ear canal of goats. Prev Vet Med. 2009;92:150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycoplasma cottewii and Mycoplasma yeatsii were the only Mycoplasmas isolated from the uninfested goats, and also were the predominant (29 of 34) isolates from the infested goats and/or from the mites...
  30. Eley K, FitzGerald J. Quality improvement in action. Direct general practitioner referrals to audiology for the provision of hearing aids: a single centre review. Qual Prim Care. 2010;18:201-6 pubmed
    ..DRACs appear to continue to provide a cost-benefit to the NHS, reducing demand on ENT appointments, but further improvements could be made within primary care to further utilise this service...
  31. Stránský K, Valterova I, Kofronová E, Urbanová K, Zarevúcka M, Wimmer Z. Non-polar lipid components of human cerumen. Lipids. 2011;46:781-8 pubmed publisher
    Human cerumen was separated by column chromatography into the following groups of compounds: hydrocarbons, squalene, wax esters and cholesterol esters, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, free fatty alcohols, monoacylglycerols, free ..
  32. Kocer M, Guldur T, Akarcay M, Miman M, Beker G. Investigation of age, sex and menstrual stage variation in human cerumen lipid composition by high performance thin layer chromatography. J Laryngol Otol. 2008;122:881-6 pubmed
    The objective of the study was to correlate quantitative changes in the lipid composition of human cerumen with changes in age, sex and menstrual cycle stage.
  33. Siddiq M. Prevention of cerumen impaction by treatment of ear canal skin. Clin Otolaryngol. 2005;30:479; author reply 479-80 pubmed
  34. Pothier D, Hall C, Gillett S. A comparison of endoscopic and microscopic removal of wax: a randomised clinical trial. Clin Otolaryngol. 2006;31:375-80 pubmed
    ..Using a microscope to achieve a view of the canal during dewaxing is the most commonly performed method of dewaxing in secondary care, but an endoscope can also be used. We set out to compare endoscopic and microscopic dewaxing...
  35. Sullivan R. Video otoscopy in audiologic practice. J Am Acad Audiol. 1997;8:447-67 pubmed
    ..membrane, (2) physician communication/telemedicine, (3) hearing instrument selection and fitting applications, (4) patient education, (5) scope of practice reinforcement, (6) knowledge base/skill growth, and (7) cerumen management.
  36. Deguine C, Pulec J. Impacted cerumen. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81:304 pubmed
  37. Memel D, Langley C, Watkins C, Laue B, Birchall M, Bachmann M. Effectiveness of ear syringing in general practice: a randomised controlled trial and patients' experiences. Br J Gen Pract. 2002;52:906-11 pubmed
    ..Ear syringing is a common procedure performed for a variety of symptoms in primary care. Reports of its effectiveness vary considerably and no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed...
  38. Klaassen J. Cytology of subcutaneous glandular tissues. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2002;32:1237-66, v-vi pubmed
    ..Subcutaneous neoplasms that are not associated with a subcutaneous gland, and lymph node cytology are not covered in this article but are addressed elsewhere...
  39. Lemon H, Mazyck Brown J, Cancellaro T, Darden P, Basco W. Review of a randomized trial comparing 2 cerumenolytic agents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:1181-3 pubmed
  40. Bayindir Y, Kalcioglu M, Durmaz R, Ozturan O. Detection of HCV-RNA in cerumen of chronically HCV-infected patients. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:508-11 pubmed
    ..b>Cerumen, however, has not been investigated for its ability to transmit hepatitis C virus...
  41. Olajide T, Ologe F, Alabi B. Management of impacted ear wax--an observational report. Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34:395-6 pubmed
  42. Pothier D. How we do it: technical note: endoscopic removal of cerumen. Clin Otolaryngol. 2006;31:153-5 pubmed
    Syringing of ears to remove cerumen is losing favour in primary care owing to the fact that it is carried out 'blind' and that the potential exists for serious complications...
  43. Djalilian H, Memar O. Topical pimecrolimus 1% for the treatment of pruritic external auditory canals. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1809-12 pubmed
    ..To understand the role and efficacy of topical pimecrolimus in the treatment of refractory pruritus of the external auditory canals (EACs)...
  44. Yasui T, Tsukise A, Habata I, Nara T, Meyer W. Histochemistry of complex carbohydrates in the ceruminous glands of the goat. Arch Dermatol Res. 2004;296:12-20 pubmed
    ..complex glycoconjugates found in the ceruminous gland secretion may control viscoelasticity of and bacterial proliferation within the cerumen in order to protect the external auditory canal against physical damage or microbial attacks.
  45. Orendorz Fraczkowska K, Jaworska M, Gawron W, Badowski R. Middle-ear ceruminous adenoma as a rare cause of hearing loss and vertigo: case reports. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2005;32:393-7 pubmed
    ..The clinical features, intraoperative findings, and histological and radiological findings are presented. The cases are compared to those described in the literature...
  46. Bird S. The potential pitfalls of ear syringing. Minimising the risks. Aust Fam Physician. 2003;32:150-1 pubmed
    ..This article discusses the common complications of ear syringing and provides some tips on how to minimise the possibility of a complication and claim arising from this procedure...
  47. Serpanos Y, Jarmel F. Quantitative and qualitative follow-up outcomes from a preschool audiologic screening program: perspectives over a decade. Am J Audiol. 2007;16:4-12 pubmed
    ..This investigation reports on quantitative and qualitative follow-up information obtained from a preschool audiologic screening program covering a 10-year period (1995 to 2004)...
  48. Shapiro J, Clarke C. By the way doctor... I have two perfectly good hearing aids, so my hearing wouldn't be so bad if it weren't for the huge buildup of earwax that makes them useless. It happens as quickly as two or three days after the doctor has cleaned out my ears. I. Harv Health Lett. 2002;27:8 pubmed
  49. Masuda A, Sukegawa T, Tani H, Miyamoto T, Sasai K, Morikawa Y, et al. Attachment of Malassezia pachydermatis to the ear dermal cells in canine otitis externa. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:667-9 pubmed
    ..pachydermatis) as a causative agent of canine otitis externa, ear cerumen samples were observed for adhesion of M...
  50. Reiss M. [Cotton swabs and ear cleaning. Should one do it or not?]. MMW Fortschr Med. 1999;141:36-9 pubmed
    ..It is the purpose of the present paper to show that the insertion into the ear or nose of foreign bodies in the form of cotton tips is not only absolutely unnecessary, but is also potentially dangerous...
  51. Kamien M. Practice tip. Which cerumenolytic?. Aust Fam Physician. 1999;28:817, 828 pubmed
    ..To test the in vitro dispersion of ear wax by four commonly used cerumenolytics...
  52. Adeyi A, Tonga L. What health professionals at the Jos University Teaching Hospital insert in their ears. Niger J Med. 2013;22:109-12 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study is to determine if health professionals in our hospital insert objects in their ears and the complications which follow...
  53. Miura K, Yoshiura K, Miura S, Shimada T, Yamasaki K, Yoshida A, et al. A strong association between human earwax-type and apocrine colostrum secretion from the mammary gland. Hum Genet. 2007;121:631-3 pubmed
    ..0002), and the measurable colostrum volume in dry-type women was significantly smaller than in wet-type women (P=0.0341)...