Summary: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Vogiatzoglou A, Mulligan A, Luben R, Lentjes M, Heiss C, Kelm M, et al. Assessment of the dietary intake of total flavan-3-ols, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins in the European Union. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:1463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in the present study, we assessed the habitual intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins (PA) and theaflavins in the European Union (EU) and determined their main food sources using the EFSA (..
  2. Pang Y, Abeysinghe I, He J, He X, Huhman D, Mewan K, et al. Functional characterization of proanthocyanidin pathway enzymes from tea and their application for metabolic engineering. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:1103-16 pubmed publisher
    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in specialized metabolites, especially polyphenolic proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their precursors...
  3. Pesca M, Dal Piaz F, Sanogo R, Vassallo A, Bruzual De Abreu M, Rapisarda A, et al. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antiangiogenic activities. J Nat Prod. 2013;76:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated 1 as a new antiangiogenic compound inhibiting the interaction between VEGF-A or PlGF and their receptor VEGRF-1. ..
  4. Baselga Escudero L, Bladé C, Ribas Latre A, Casanova E, Salvadó M, Arola L, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidins repress the hepatic lipid regulators miR-33 and miR-122 in rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:1636-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies from our group have shown that proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet, regulate lipid metabolism and are potent ..
  5. Jungfer E, Zimmermann B, Ruttkat A, Galensa R. Comparing procyanidins in selected Vaccinium species by UHPLC-MS(2) with regard to authenticity and health effects. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9688-96 pubmed
    ..oxycoccus; thus, the effectiveness against UTI may vary among the Vaccinium species. These differences can be used to prove authenticity...
  6. Sun Q, Prasad R, Rosenthal E, Katiyar S. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasiveness of human HNSCC cells by targeting EGFR and reversing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31093 pubmed publisher
    ..strategies for the prevention of metastasis of HNSCC cells, we have determined the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasive potential of HNSCC cell and the mechanisms underlying these effects using OSC19 cells ..
  7. Bindon K, Bacic A, Kennedy J. Tissue-specific and developmental modifications of grape cell walls influence the adsorption of proanthocyanidins. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..whether developmental changes in cell wall composition in different tissue types influence the binding of proanthocyanidins (PAs)...
  8. Song X, Xu H, Feng Y, Li X, Lin M, Cao L. Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins against liver ischemic reperfusion injury: particularly in diet-induced obese mice. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:1345-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) has a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties against oxidative stress...
  9. Liu R, Fang M, Zhao S, Li F, Shen L, Chen J. [The potential effect of proanthocyanidins on the stability of resin-dentin bonds against thermal cycling]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2012;47:268-72 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the potential effect of proanthocyanidins (PA), a natural cross-linker, on the stability of resin-dentin bonds against thermal cycling...

More Information


  1. Huang S, Yang N, Liu Y, Gao J, Huang T, Hu L, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:1410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity...
  2. Prasad R, Vaid M, Katiyar S. Grape proanthocyanidin inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo through induction of apoptosis and by targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43064 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effects of bioactive proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPs) as assessed using In Vitro and In Vivo models...
  3. Chen L, Sun P, Wang T, Chen K, Jia Q, Wang H, et al. Diverse mechanisms of antidiabetic effects of the different procyanidin oligomer types of two different cinnamon species on db/db mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:9144-50 pubmed publisher
  4. Takahashi S, Hamasuna R, Yasuda M, Arakawa S, Tanaka K, Ishikawa K, et al. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect of cranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Infect Chemother. 2013;19:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1 %) patients in group A and 31 of 63 (49.2 %) in group P. In this study, cranberry juice prevented the recurrence of UTI in a limited female population with 24-week intake of the beverage. ..
  5. Feldman M, Grenier D. Cranberry proanthocyanidins act in synergy with licochalcone A to reduce Porphyromonas gingivalis growth and virulence properties, and to suppress cytokine secretion by macrophages. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:438-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to investigate whether two natural compounds, A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) and licochalcone A, act in synergy against Porphyromonas gingivalis and the host inflammatory ..
  6. Qu J, Ye J, Geng Y, Sun Y, Gao S, Zhang B, et al. Dissecting functions of KATANIN and WRINKLED1 in cotton fiber development by virus-induced gene silencing. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:738-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that the TRV-VIGS system can be used for rapid functional analysis of genes involved in cotton fiber development...
  7. Huang S, Yang N, Liu Y, Hu L, Zhao J, Gao J, et al. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit angiogenesis via the downregulation of both vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin signaling. Nutr Res. 2012;32:530-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements with antiangiogenic activity...
  8. Afshar K, Stothers L, Scott H, MacNeily A. Cranberry juice for the prevention of pediatric urinary tract infection: a randomized controlled trial. J Urol. 2012;188:1584-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins found in cranberry have been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. We determined the effectiveness of cranberry juice for the prevention of urinary tract infections in children...
  9. Liu Y, Yang L, Zu Y, Zhao C, Zhang L, Zhang Y, et al. Development of an ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted method for simultaneous extraction and distillation for determination of proanthocyanidins and essential oil in Cortex cinnamomi. Food Chem. 2012;135:2514-21 pubmed publisher
    ..simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) technique was used to extract cassia oil and proanthocyanidins from Cortex cinnamomi; these were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the ..
  10. Choy Y, Jaggers G, Oteiza P, Waterhouse A. Bioavailability of intact proanthocyanidins in the rat colon after ingestion of grape seed extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..known to be only slightly absorbed in the small intestine, but the metabolism of oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAC) in the colon is poorly understood...
  11. Vaid M, Singh T, Prasad R, Elmets C, Xu H, Katiyar S. Bioactive grape proanthocyanidins enhance immune reactivity in UV-irradiated skin through functional activation of dendritic cells in mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013;6:242-52 pubmed publisher
    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced immunosuppression has been implicated in skin carcinogenesis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in mice and GSPs-fed mice exhibit a reduction in UV-induced ..
  12. Jaiswal R, Jayasinghe L, Kuhnert N. Identification and characterization of proanthocyanidins of 16 members of the Rhododendron genus (Ericaceae) by tandem LC-MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2012;47:502-15 pubmed publisher
    The proanthocyanidins of the leaves of 16 taxa of the Rhododendron genus (Ericaceae) [Rhododendron 'Catawbiense Grandiflorum', Rhododendron 'Cunningham's White', Rhododendron smirnowii Trautv., Rhododendron calophytum Franch...
  13. Krueger C, Reed J, Feliciano R, Howell A. Quantifying and characterizing proanthocyanidins in cranberries in relation to urinary tract health. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013;405:4385-95 pubmed publisher
    The "A-type" proanthocyanidins in cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are bioactive components associated with prevention of urinary tract infections (UTI)...
  14. Sarnoski P, Boyer R, O Keefe S. Application of proanthocyanidins from peanut skins as a natural yeast inhibitory agent. J Food Sci. 2012;77:M242-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins were extracted from peanut skins and investigated for their antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus in traditional growth media (Sabouraud ..
  15. Vaid M, Prasad R, Singh T, Jones V, Katiyar S. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;263:122-30 pubmed publisher
    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored...
  16. Prasad R, Katiyar S. Bioactive phytochemical proanthocyanidins inhibit growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting multiple signaling molecules. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46404 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the chemotherapeutic effect of proanthocyanidins on HNSCC cells using in vitro and in vivo models...
  17. Lin L, Harnly J. Quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, benzoic acid derivatives using ultraviolet absorbance after identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5832-40 pubmed publisher
    A general method was developed for the systematic quantitation of flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, flavanones, dihydrochalcones, stilbenes, and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (mainly hydrolyzable tannins) based on UV band II ..
  18. Jiao L, Zhang X, Huang L, Gong H, Cheng B, Sun Y, et al. Proanthocyanidins are the major anti-diabetic components of cinnamon water extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:398-405 pubmed publisher
    ..water extract (CWE) inhibited the amyloid formation of hIAPP in a dose-dependent manner, and identified proanthocyanidins as the major anti-amyloidogenic compounds of CWE...
  19. Ulusoy S, Ozkan G, Yücesan F, Ersoz S, Orem A, Alkanat M, et al. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in preventing cyclosporine A-induced nephropathy. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels. ..
  20. Ammar E, Said S, El Damarawy S, Suddek G. Cardioprotective effect of grape-seed proanthocyanidins on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Pharm Biol. 2013;51:339-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to assess whether the antioxidant, proanthocyanidins (Pro) can ameliorate Dox-induced cardiotoxicity in rats...
  21. Liu Y, Chen M, Yao X, Xu C, Zhang Y, Wang Y. Enhancement in dentin collagen's biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods. Dent Mater. 2013;29:485-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen's biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant.
  22. Arimboor R, Arumughan C. Effect of polymerization on antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of sea buckthorn (H. rhamnoides) proanthocyanidins. J Food Sci. 2012;77:C1036-41 pubmed publisher
    Inhibitory potential of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) seed proanthocyanidins against oxidative stress and xanthine oxidase activity was evaluated...
  23. Yu F, Li B, Li X, Cai Q, Zhang Z, Cheng M, et al. Proteomic analysis of aorta and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 in db/db mice reveal a critical role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 in diabetic arterial damage. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52541 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM...
  24. Martínez Micaelo N, González Abuín N, Ardevol A, Pinent M, Blay M. Procyanidins and inflammation: molecular targets and health implications. Biofactors. 2012;38:257-65 pubmed publisher
  25. Feliciano R, Krueger C, Shanmuganayagam D, Vestling M, Reed J. Deconvolution of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry isotope patterns to determine ratios of A-type to B-type interflavan bonds in cranberry proanthocyanidins. Food Chem. 2012;135:1485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed to determine ratios of A- to B-type interflavan bonds in proanthocyanidins that were isolated from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ait.) press cake (c-PAC)...
  26. Gunaratne A, Wu K, Li D, Bentota A, Corke H, Cai Y. Antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins. Food Chem. 2013;138:1153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..components, and nutritional parameters of eight traditional red-grained rice varieties containing proanthocyanidins grown in Sri Lanka were investigated...
  27. Fracassetti D, Costa C, Moulay L, Tomas Barberan F. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia). Food Chem. 2013;139:578-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyanidin 3-glucoside, and quercetin and its glycosides were only found in the pulp powder, while proanthocyanidins were only present in the flour (3.5 g/100 g, mean degree of polymerisation 3)...
  28. Ou K, Percival S, Zou T, Khoo C, Gu L. Transport of cranberry A-type procyanidin dimers, trimers, and tetramers across monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:1390-6 pubmed publisher
    ..6%, 0.4%, and 0.2%, respectively. This study demonstrated that A-type dimers, trimers, and tetramers were transported across Caco-2 cells at low rates, suggesting that they could be absorbed by humans after cranberry consumption. ..
  29. Hechler B, Yao X, Wang Y. Proanthocyanidins alter adhesive/dentin bonding strengths when included in a bonding system. Am J Dent. 2012;25:276-80 pubmed
    To determine the effect of proanthocyanidins (PA) incorporation into a bonding system on dentin/adhesive bond stability following long-term storage in buffer and collagenase.
  30. Baselga Escudero L, Arola Arnal A, Pascual Serrano A, Ribas Latre A, Casanova E, Salvadó M, et al. Chronic administration of proanthocyanidins or docosahexaenoic acid reverses the increase of miR-33a and miR-122 in dyslipidemic obese rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69817 pubmed publisher the livers of dyslipidemic cafeteria diet-fed rats and of cafeteria diet-fed rats supplemented with proanthocyanidins and/or ?-3 PUFAs because these two dietary components are well-known to counteract dyslipidemia...
  31. Rossi M, Bosetti C, Negri E, Lagiou P, La Vecchia C. Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:871-7 pubmed publisher
    We considered flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in a network of multicentric Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and over 16,000 controls...
  32. Yanarates O, Guven A, Sizlan A, Uysal B, Akgul O, Atim A, et al. Ameliorative effects of proanthocyanidin on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ren Fail. 2008;30:931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pretreatment of rats with PA reduced the renal dysfunction and morphological changes, ameliorated cellular injury, and restored renal antioxidant enzymes caused by renal I/R. ..
  33. Del Bas J, Ricketts M, Vaqué M, Sala E, Quesada H, Ardevol A, et al. Dietary procyanidins enhance transcriptional activity of bile acid-activated FXR in vitro and reduce triglyceridemia in vivo in a FXR-dependent manner. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:805-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds dietary procyanidins to the arsenal of FXR ligands with potential therapeutic use to combat hypertriglyceridemia, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. ..
  34. Baiges I, Palmfeldt J, Bladé C, Gregersen N, Arola L. Lipogenesis is decreased by grape seed proanthocyanidins according to liver proteomics of rats fed a high fat diet. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:1499-513 pubmed publisher
    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
  35. Yang H, Ye X, Liu D, Chen J, Zhang J, Shen Y, et al. Characterization of unusual proanthocyanidins in leaves of bayberry ( Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.). J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:1622-9 pubmed publisher
    Extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins (EPAs and UEPAs) from leaves of bayberry were characterized. Both EPAs and UEPAs were analyzed by acid catalysis in the presence of excess phloroglucinol...
  36. Shin M, Yoon S, Moon J. The proanthocyanidins inhibit dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver damage in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2010;33:167-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins are naturally occurring compounds widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. They are a class of phenolic compounds and have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects...
  37. Jia Z, Song Z, Zhao Y, Wang X, Liu P. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human lens epithelial cells from oxidative stress via reducing NF-?B and MAPK protein expression. Mol Vis. 2011;17:210-7 pubmed
    ..GSE contain 70%-95% standardized proanthocyanidins. The study described herein investigated the protective effect of Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ..
  38. Gonzalez A, Santofimia Castaño P, Rivera Barreno R, Salido G. Cinnamtannin B-1, a natural antioxidant that reduces the effects of H(2)O(2) on CCK-8-evoked responses in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. J Physiol Biochem. 2012;68:181-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the beneficial effect of natural antioxidants in the therapy against oxidative stress-derived deleterious effects on cellular physiology. ..
  39. Montagut G, Onnockx S, Vaqué M, Bladé C, Blay M, Fernandez Larrea J, et al. Oligomers of grape-seed procyanidin extract activate the insulin receptor and key targets of the insulin signaling pathway differently from insulin. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:476-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the differences between GSPE and insulin might help us to understand the wide range of biological effects that procyanidins have. ..
  40. Su L, Deng Y, Zhang Y, Li C, Zhang R, Sun Y, et al. Protective effects of grape seed procyanidin extract against nickel sulfate-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in rat testes. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011;21:487-94 pubmed publisher
  41. Takahama U, Tanaka M, Hirota S. Proanthocyanidins in buckwheat flour can reduce salivary nitrite to nitric oxide in the stomach. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65:1-7 pubmed publisher
    Buckwheat flour, which is used for various dishes in the world, is a good source of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins in the buckwheat flour reduced nitrous acid producing nitric oxide (NO) when the flour was suspended in acidified ..
  42. Bladé C, Arola L, Salvadó M. Hypolipidemic effects of proanthocyanidins and their underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:37-59 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins are the most abundant polyphenols in human diets. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that proanthocyanidins protect against cardiovascular diseases...
  43. Cote J, Caillet S, Doyon G, Sylvain J, Lacroix M. Analyzing cranberry bioactive compounds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50:872-88 pubmed publisher
    ..responsible for its brilliant red color, and other secondary plant metabolites (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acid derivatives)...
  44. Chung W, Miranda C, Stevens J, Maier C. Hop proanthocyanidins induce apoptosis, protein carbonylation, and cytoskeleton disorganization in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells via reactive oxygen species. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:827-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins (PCs) have been shown to suppress the growth of diverse human cancer cells and are considered as promising additions to the arsenal of chemopreventive phytochemicals...
  45. Li B, Li X, Cai Q, Gao H, Cheng M, Zhang J, et al. Induction of lactadherin mediates the apoptosis of endothelial cells in response to advanced glycation end products and protective effects of grape seed procyanidin B2 and resveratrol. Apoptosis. 2011;16:732-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting lactadherin with antioxidant could be translated into clinical application in the fighting against DM complications. ..
  46. Rzeppa S, Von Bargen C, Bittner K, Humpf H. Analysis of Flavan-3-ols and procyanidins in food samples by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:10594-603 pubmed publisher
    ..The suitability of this new method was demonstrated by the determination of recovery rates being 90% or higher. Use of this method allowed the determination of patterns and concentrations of PCs in 55 food samples. ..
  47. Pallarés V, Calay D, Cedó L, Castell Auví A, Raes M, Pinent M, et al. Additive, antagonistic, and synergistic effects of procyanidins and polyunsaturated fatty acids over inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide. Nutrition. 2012;28:447-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could lead to in vivo studies that may yield novel preventive or palliative nutritional treatments for obesity, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. ..
  48. Akagi T, Ikegami A, Tsujimoto T, Kobayashi S, Sato A, Kono A, et al. DkMyb4 is a Myb transcription factor involved in proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in persimmon fruit. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:2028-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that contribute to the protection of the plant and also to the taste of the fruit, mainly through astringency...
  49. Esatbeyoglu T, Wray V, Winterhalter P. Dimeric procyanidins: screening for B1 to B8 and semisynthetic preparation of B3, B4, B6, And B8 from a polymeric procyanidin fraction of white willow bark (Salix alba). J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:7820-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction mixtures of the semisynthesis were successfully fractionated with high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and dimeric procyanidins B3, B4, B6, and B8 were obtained on a preparative scale...
  50. Sugaya K, Igarashi M, Kojima Y, Tsubata M, Nagaoka I. Evaluation of the effect of flavangenol on serum lipid peroxide levels and development of atherosclerosis in spontaneously hyperlipidemic B6.KOR-Apoeshl mice. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:33-8 pubmed publisher
  51. Gentile C, Allegra M, Angileri F, Pintaudi A, Livrea M, Tesoriere L. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut extract inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-? ..
  52. Feghali K, Feldman M, La V, Santos J, Grenier D. Cranberry proanthocyanidins: natural weapons against periodontal diseases. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5728-35 pubmed publisher
    Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) is known to have a beneficial effect on several aspects of human health. Proanthocyanidins (PACs), the most abundant flavonoids extracted from red cranberry fruits, have been reported to possess ..
  53. Pinzon Arango P, Liu Y, Camesano T. Role of cranberry on bacterial adhesion forces and implications for Escherichia coli-uroepithelial cell attachment. J Med Food. 2009;12:259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..were grown in tryptic soy broth supplemented with either light cranberry juice cocktail (L-CJC) or cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs). Growth of E...