Summary: Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.

Top Publications

  1. Incandela L, Belcaro G, Renton S, DeSanctis M, Cesarone M, Bavera P, et al. HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides) in venous hypertensive microangiopathy: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7 Suppl 1:S7-S10 pubmed
    ..No adverse effects were observed. Venous microangiopathy was improved by HR treatment. ..
  2. Incandela L, Cesarone M, DeSanctis M, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Acerbi G. Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7 Suppl 1:S11-5 pubmed
    ..The action on edema is beneficial for the evolution of neuropathy. The effects of HR on flux, RAS, and edema are important in early stages of microangiopathy to avoid progression to clinical stages. ..
  3. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Incandela L, Geroulakos G, Griffin M, Lennox A, et al. Flight microangiopathy in medium-to-long distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7 Suppl 1:S17-20 pubmed
  4. Bruynzeel A, Abou El Hassan M, Schalkwijk C, Berkhof J, Bast A, Niessen H, et al. Anti-inflammatory agents and monoHER protect against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and accumulation of CML in mice. Br J Cancer. 2007;96:937-43 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that inflammation plays a role in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, which is strengthened by the observed DOX-induced accumulation of CML, which can be reduced by anti-inflammatory agents and monoHER. ..
  5. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Ricci A, Brandolini R, Pellegrini L, Dugall M, et al. Prevention of edema and flight microangiopathy with Venoruton (HR), (0-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides) in patients with varicose veins. Angiology. 2005;56:289-93 pubmed
    ..The higher level of flux and VAR and the reduction in edema indicate a positive effect of HR on the microcirculation. This study confirms that HR prophylaxis is effective to control flight microangiopathy associated with edema. ..
  6. Bruynzeel A, Niessen H, Bronzwaer J, van der Hoeven J, Berkhof J, Bast A, et al. The effect of monohydroxyethylrutoside on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in patients treated for metastatic cancer in a phase II study. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:1084-9 pubmed
  7. Abou El Hassan M, Kedde M, Zwiers U, Tourn E, Haenen G, Bast A, et al. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the cardioprotecting flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003;52:371-6 pubmed
    ..Under cardioprotective conditions (500 mg/kg, i.p.), the Cmax was 131 microM and the AUC(infinity) was 6.3 microM.min. These values will be considered endpoints for the clinical phase I study of monoHER. ..
  8. Abou El Hassan M, Heijn M, Rabelink M, van der Vijgh W, Bast A, Hoeben R. The protective effect of cardiac gene transfer of CuZn-sod in comparison with the cardioprotector monohydroxyethylrutoside against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in cultured cells. Cancer Gene Ther. 2003;10:270-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, a gene-therapy strategy involving overexpression of CuZn-sod to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity is not feasible with the currently available adenovirus vectors. ..
  9. Van Acker S, Kramer K, Grimbergen J, van den Berg D, van der Vijgh W, Bast A. Monohydroxyethylrutoside as protector against chronic doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Br J Pharmacol. 1995;115:1260-4 pubmed
    ..The QRS complex did not change in either group.4. It can be concluded that monoHER protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and merits further evaluation in this respect. ..

More Information


  1. Bruynzeel A, Mul P, Berkhof J, Bast A, Niessen H, van der Vijgh W. The influence of the time interval between monoHER and doxorubicin administration on the protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;58:699-702 pubmed
    ..This protective effect did not depend on the time interval between monoHER and DOX administration (P=0.345). The results indicate that in an outpatient clinical setting monoHER may be administered shortly before DOX. ..
  2. Willems A, Bruynzeel A, Kedde M, van Groeningen C, Bast A, van der Vijgh W. A phase I study of monohydroxyethylrutoside in healthy volunteers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006;57:678-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, 1,500 mg/m(2) is a feasible and safe dose to be evaluated in a phase II study to investigate the protective properties of monoHER against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in cancer patients. ..
  3. Abou El Hassan M, Verheul H, Jorna A, Schalkwijk C, van Bezu J, van der Vijgh W, et al. The new cardioprotector Monohydroxyethylrutoside protects against doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects in vitro. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:357-62 pubmed
    ..These data prompt further investigation about the possible link between doxorubicin-induced inflammatory effects and its cardiotoxicity in vivo. ..
  4. Petruzzellis V, Troccoli T, Candiani C, Guarisco R, Lospalluti M, Belcaro G, et al. Oxerutins (Venoruton): efficacy in chronic venous insufficiency--a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Angiology. 2002;53:257-63 pubmed
    ..Considering both noninvasive tests and clinical evaluation, oxerutins is effective in controlling chronic venous hypertension, without side effect, and with good tolerability. ..
  5. Jacobs H, van der Vijgh W, Koek G, Draaisma G, Moalin M, van Strijdonck G, et al. Characterization of the glutathione conjugate of the semisynthetic flavonoid monoHER. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1567-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of this thiol-reactive oxidation product is potentially harmful. Thus, the supposed beneficial effect of monoHER as an antioxidant may be accompanied by the formation of products with an electrophilic, toxic potential. ..
  6. van Acker F, Schouten O, Haenen G, van der Vijgh W, Bast A. Flavonoids can replace alpha-tocopherol as an antioxidant. FEBS Lett. 2000;473:145-8 pubmed
  7. Vanscheidt W, Rabe E, Naser Hijazi B, Ramelet A, Partsch H, Diehm C, et al. The efficacy and safety of a coumarin-/troxerutin-combination (SB-LOT) in patients with chronic venous insufficiency: a double blind placebo-controlled randomised study. Vasa. 2002;31:185-90 pubmed
    ..This study confirms the oedema-protective effect of SB-LOT in chronic venous insufficiency and provides a treatment option for patients who discontinue compression after a short time. ..
  8. Riccioni C, Sarcinella R, Izzo A, Palermo G, Liguori M. [Effectiveness of Troxerutin in association with Pycnogenol in the pharmacological treatment of venous insufficiency]. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2004;52:43-8 pubmed
  9. Yang G, Liu P, Qu X, Xu M, Qu Q, Wang C, et al. The simultaneous separation and determination of six flavonoids and troxerutin in rat urine and chicken plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007;856:222-8 pubmed
  10. Liu F, Xu Y, Rui L, Gao S, Dong H, Guo Q. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of troxerutin in human plasma. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20:3522-6 pubmed
    ..28%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a 300 mg troxerutin drop pill to 18 healthy volunteers. ..
  11. Sumboonnanonda K, Lertsithichai P. Clinical study of the Ginko biloba--Troxerutin-Heptaminol Hce in the treatment of acute hemorrhoidal attacks. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87:137-42 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy, compliance and safety of Ginko biloba--Troxerutin-Heptaminol Hce in the treatment of patients with acute hemorrhoidal attacks in Thailand...
  12. Alvarez Guerra M, Hannaert P, Hider H, Chiavaroli C, Garay R. Vascular permeabilization by intravenous arachidonate in the rat peritoneal cavity: antagonism by antioxidants. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;466:199-205 pubmed
    ..This rat peritoneal model can be used to evaluate the in vivo antinflammatory potential of antioxidant drugs. ..
  13. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Geroulakos G, Griffin M, Ricci A, Brandolini R, et al. Flight microangiopathy on long-haul flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with Venoruton. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2003;9:109-14 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HR is useful for reducing the increased capillary filtration and in controlling edema in patients with chronic venous disease in long-haul flights. HR is effective to control flight microangiopathy associated with edema. ..
  14. Gutierrez R, Solis R, Baez E, Martinez F. Effect on capillary permeability in rabbits of iridoids from Buddleia scordioides. Phytother Res. 2006;20:542-5 pubmed
    ..A comparison was made between the action of the iridoids and a known inhibitor of vascular permeability, troxerutin (50 mg/kg). Methylcatalpol and catalpol were found to be less effective than troxerutin. ..
  15. Abou El Hassan M, Kedde M, Zwiers U, Bast A, van der Vijgh W. The cardioprotector monoHER does not interfere with the pharmacokinetics or the metabolism of the cardiotoxic agent doxorubicin in mice. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003;51:306-10 pubmed
    ..The cardioprotection of monoHER in mice is not caused by a pharmacokinetic interaction between monoHER and doxorubicin. ..
  16. Adam B, Pentz R, Siegers C, Strubelt O, Tegtmeier M. Troxerutin protects the isolated perfused rat liver from a possible lipid peroxidation by coumarin. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:52-61 pubmed
    ..This allows the conclusion that troxerutin is a beneficial cofactor in coumarin preparations used for the therapy of chronic venous insufficiency...
  17. Cesarone M, Incandela L, DeSanctis M, Belcaro G, Griffin M, Ippolito E, et al. Treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension with HR (Paroven, Venoruton; 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides): a clinical, prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-ranging trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7 Suppl 1:S21-4 pubmed
    ..1 (1.2). In group C (placebo) there was no change. The decrease in the score in the groups of patients was correlated with the variation in edema and CFR. HR is effective in venous edema and hypertension. Its effects are dose-related. ..
  18. Grotz K, Henneicke von Zepelin H, Kohnen R, Al Nawas B, Bockisch A, Kutzner J, et al. [Prospective double-blind study of prophylaxis of radioxerostomia with Coumarin/Troxerutine in patients with head and neck cancer]. Strahlenther Onkol. 1999;175:397-403; discussion 404 pubmed
    ..Sialometry seems not suitable for the assessment of early radiation effects. ..
  19. Belcaro G, Cesarone M, Bavera P, Ricci A, Renton S, Leon M, et al. HR (Venoruton1000, Paroven, 0-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides) vs. Daflon 500 in chronic venous disease and microangiopathy: an independent prospective, controlled, randomized trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7:139-45 pubmed
    ..Venous microangiopathy was improved by the treatment with Venoruton. The comparison with Daflon indicates that HR is comparatively more effective both on microcirculatory parameters and on signs and symptoms. ..
  20. Jacobs H, Bast A, Peters G, van der Vijgh W, Haenen G. The semisynthetic flavonoid monoHER sensitises human soft tissue sarcoma cells to doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via inhibition of nuclear factor-?B. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:437-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that reduction of doxorubicin-induced NF-?B activation by monoHER, which sensitises cancer cells to apoptosis, is involved in the chemosensitising effect of monoHER in human liposarcoma cells. ..
  21. Vogt G, Puho E, Czeizel A. A population-based case-control study of isolated ocular coloboma. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2005;12:191-7 pubmed
    ..3% (2/46) of cases. An association was found between the isolated ocular coloboma and hydroxyethylrutoside treatment (adjusted POR with 95% CI: 5.4, 2.2-12.9)...
  22. Yang X, Wang F, Hu S. The electrochemical oxidation of troxerutin and its sensitive determination in pharmaceutical dosage forms at PVP modified carbon paste electrode. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006;52:8-13 pubmed
    ..0 x 10(-9)mol/L was obtained for 5 min accumulation at open circuit (S/N=3). This proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of troxerutin in pharmaceutical dosage forms and satisfying results had been obtained. ..
  23. Abou El Hassan M, Kedde M, Bast A, van der Vijgh W. Determination of monohydroxyethylrutoside in heart tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001;757:191-6 pubmed
    ..3%. Analyzing sample duplicates in a mirror image sequence could compensate for the influence of this gradual decrease. The small sample volume allowed one to measure monoHER in the hearts of mice. ..
  24. Akbulut B. Calcium dobesilate and oxerutin: effectiveness of combination therapy. Phlebology. 2010;25:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations have to be confirmed in larger series with objective tests. Changes of quality of life after a combination therapy might also be of interest. ..
  25. Paput L, Banhidy F, Czeizel A. Association of drug treatments in pregnant women with the risk of external ear congenital abnormalities in their offspring: a population-based case-control study. Congenit Anom (Kyoto). 2011;51:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a higher risk of multiple ear abnormalities was found in children born to mothers with treatment of hydroxyethylrutosidea or antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. ..
  26. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Brandolini R, Di Renzo A, Bavera P, Dugall M, et al. The LONFLIT4-Venoruton Study: a randomized trial--prophylaxis of flight-edema in venous patients. Angiology. 2003;54:137-42 pubmed
    ..The combined evaluation of the edema score is significantly favorable for patients treated with Venoruton. No deep vein thrombosis or superficial vein thrombosis was observed in this study. ..
  27. Di Carlo A, Passi S, Ippolito F, Candiani C. Free radical scavenger activity of rutosides. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2002;50:701-7 pubmed
    ..At mM concentrations, HRs display a significant antilipoperoxidative activity due to their notable scanvenging activity against HO.; moreover these actions are concentration-dependent. ..
  28. Elangovan P, Pari L. Ameliorating effects of troxerutin on nickel-induced oxidative stress in rats. Redox Rep. 2013;18:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..w. Histopathological studies also supported the above findings. Thus, we conclude that troxerutin preserved the histo-architecture and ameliorated stress markers in the liver tissue of Ni-intoxicated rats. ..
  29. Banhidy F, Acs N, Puho E, Czeizel A. Varicose veins of lower extremities in pregnant women and birth outcomes. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2010;18:161-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, VVLE in pregnant women does not associate with obvious hazard for their fetuses. ..
  30. Furfaro A, Menini S, Patriarca S, Pesce C, Odetti P, Cottalasso D, et al. HNE-dependent molecular damage in diabetic nephropathy and its possible prevention by N-acetyl-cysteine and oxerutin. Biofactors. 2005;24:291-8 pubmed
    ..These data attest to a role of glycoxidative and lipoxidative damage in diabetes-dependent damage of the kidney, and indicate that specific antioxidants can prevent or attenuate diabetic nephropathy. ..
  31. Perera N, Liolitsa D, Iype S, Croxford A, Yassin M, Lang P, et al. Phlebotonics for haemorrhoids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD004322 pubmed publisher
    ..However methodological limitations were encountered. In order to enhance our conclusion further, more robust clinical trials which take into account these limitations will need to be performed in the future. ..
  32. Belcaro G, Rosaria Cesarone M, Ledda A, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Ricci A, et al. O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides systemic and local treatment in chronic venous disease and microangiopathy: an independent prospective comparative study. Angiology. 2008;59 Suppl 1:7S-13S pubmed publisher
    ..05). No adverse effects, tolerability problems, or compliance issues are noted. These results indicate an important role of HR in the treatment and control of CVI and venous microangiopathy. ..
  33. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Vinciguerra G, Ricci A, et al. Venoruton vs Daflon: evaluation of effects on quality of life in chronic venous insufficiency. Angiology. 2006;57:131-8 pubmed
    ..The comparison with D+H indicates that oxerutins is comparatively more effective on Ve-QOL and on signs/symptoms of CVI. ..
  34. Siegers C, Syed Ali S, Tegtmeier M. Aescin and troxerutin as a successful combination for the treatment of inner ear perfusion disturbances. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..05. With pentoxyfyllin hearing is also improved, although to a lesser degree. Both drugs are well tolerated, major adverse drug effects are not observed with either treatment. ..
  35. Guo X, Shuang S, Wang X, Dong C, Pan J, Aboul Enein H. Comparative study on the inclusion behaviour of cyclodextrin derivatives with venoruton and rutin by thin layer chromatography. Biomed Chromatogr. 2004;18:559-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, the thermodynamic parameters (Delta H, Delta S) for the formation of complexes were obtained from the van't Hoff equation, displaying the enthalpy-entropy compensation effect. ..
  36. Cesarone M, Belcaro G, Pellegrini L, Ledda A, Di Renzo A, Vinciguerra G, et al. HR, 0-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides, in comparison with diosmin+hesperidin in chronic venous insufficiency and venous microangiopathy: an independent, prospective, comparative registry study. Angiology. 2005;56:1-8 pubmed
    ..The comparison with D+H indicates that HR is comparatively more effective both on microcirculatory parameters and on signs/symptoms of CVI. ..
  37. Lefevre T, Toscani S, Picquart M, Dugué J. Crystallization of water in multilamellar vesicles. Eur Biophys J. 2002;31:126-35 pubmed
    ..This evidence could be, at least qualitatively, related to an increase of membrane pressure on interstitial water subsequent to bulk water crystallization. ..
  38. Squadrito F, Altavilla D, Oliaro Bosso S. Double-blind, randomized clinical trial of troxerutin-carbazochrome in patients with hemorrhoids. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2000;4:21-4 pubmed
    ..Treatments were safe and well tolerated either at a local or systemic level. ..
  39. Grotz K, Wüstenberg P, Kohnen R, Al Nawas B, Henneicke von Zepelin H, Bockisch A, et al. Prophylaxis of radiogenic sialadenitis and mucositis by coumarin/troxerutine in patients with head and neck cancer--a prospective,randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2001;39:34-9 pubmed
    ..05). The results suggest that coumarin/troxerutine have a favourable effect in the treatment of radiogenic sialadenitis and mucositis. ..
  40. Sergeev N. [Complex treatment of venous trophic ulcers of the lower extremities]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2007;166:24-7 pubmed
  41. Lund F, Qian Z, Schiötz J, Tillgren C. Limb salvage instead of amputation in 10 cases of nonreconstructible "end-point ischemia" treated with i.v. hydroxyethylrutosides plus oral anticoagulation. Angiology. 2002;53:391-8 pubmed
    ..7 years. Because side effects are rare and there is a rapid alleviation of rest pain, it may be possible to give the HR infusions safely on an ambulatory basis in the out-patient department. ..
  42. Kessler M, Ubeaud G, Walter T, Sturm F, Jung L. Free radical scavenging and skin penetration of troxerutin and vitamin derivatives. J Dermatolog Treat. 2002;13:133-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, this association can improve skin care products for preventing free radical-mediated damage. ..
  43. de Schenquer D, Schenquer N. Serum immunoglobulins, IL-1beta, IL-2, and IFN-gamma gamma level in patients with lymphedema treated with ortho-beta-hydroxy-ethyl rutosides (HR). Arch Med Res. 2001;32:129-35 pubmed
    ..After HR treatment, their improvement was reflected by the favorable effect regarding the previously mentioned alterations. O-beta-hydroxy-ethyl rutosides are effective both clinically and immunologically. ..
  44. Scallon C, Bell Syer S, Aziz Z. Flavonoids for treating venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD006477 pubmed publisher
    ..There was also a possibility of publication bias. ..
  45. Belcaro G, Nicolaides A. Natural drugs in vascular medicine: new observations. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2002;7 Suppl 1:S1 pubmed
  46. Gonzalez Covarrubias V, Kalabus J, Blanco J. Inhibition of polymorphic human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) by the cardioprotectant flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethyl rutoside (monoHER). Pharm Res. 2008;25:1730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The cardioprotectant monoHER inhibits CBR1 activity. CBR1 V88I genotype status and the type of anthracycline substrate dictate the inhibition of CBR1 activity. ..
  47. Lu J, Wu D, Zheng Y, Hu B, Cheng W, Zhang Z, et al. Troxerutin counteracts domoic acid-induced memory deficits in mice by inhibiting CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?-mediated inflammatory response and oxidative stress. J Immunol. 2013;190:3466-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, troxerutin is recommended as a potential candidate for the prevention and therapeutic treatment of cognitive deficits resulting from excitotoxic brain damage and other brain disorders. ..
  48. Basile M, Gidaro S, Pacella M, Biffignandi P, Gidaro G. Parenteral troxerutin and carbazochrome combination in the treatment of post-hemorrhoidectomy status: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase IV study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2001;17:256-61 pubmed
    ..5 mg is effective, well tolerated and superior to placebo in improving hemorrhoidal and post-surgical symptoms during the five days following surgery. ..
  49. Titapant V, Indrasukhsri B, Lekprasert V, Boonnuch W. Trihydroxyethylrutosides in the treatment of hemorrhoids of pregnancy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 2001;84:1395-400 pubmed
    ..Only one mild transient side effect was reported in the HR group and there were no drug-related problems in the pregnancies, delivery or the babies. ..
  50. Vinothkumar R, Vinoth Kumar R, Sudha M, Viswanathan P, Balasubramanian T, Nalini N. Modulatory effect of troxerutin on biotransforming enzymes and preneoplasic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rat colon carcinogenesis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;96:15-26 pubmed publisher
    ..w. Thus troxerutin could be considered as a good chemopreventive agent against the formation of preneoplastic lesions in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. ..
  51. Roland I, Bougelet C, Ninane N, Arnould T, Michiels C, Remacle J. Effect of hydroxyethylrutosides on hypoxial-induced neutrophil adherence to umbilical vein endothelium. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998;12:375-81 pubmed
  52. Fan S, Zhang Z, Zheng Y, Lu J, Wu D, Shan Q, et al. Troxerutin protects the mouse kidney from d-galactose-caused injury through anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest troxerutin could attenuate renal injury induced by D-gal probably through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. ..
  53. Gohel M, Davies A. Pharmacological treatment in patients with C4, C5 and C6 venous disease. Phlebology. 2010;25 Suppl 1:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacotherapy should be part of a range of treatment options in the modern management of patients with chronic venous disorders. ..
  54. El Hassan M, Kedde M, Bast A, van der Vijgh W. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001;752:115-21 pubmed
    ..To compensate for this decrease, sample duplicates were analysed in a mirror image sequence. ..
  55. Ezzat T, van den Broek M, Davies N, Dejong C, Bast A, Malago M, et al. The flavonoid monoHER prevents monocrotaline-induced hepatic sinusoidal injury in rats. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..001). MonoHER had no effect on in vitro proliferation of colorectal cancer cells when used either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin. MonoHER prevented MCT induced portal hypertension and hepatic injury in rats. ..
  56. Schmeck Lindenau H, Naser Hijazi B, Becker E, Henneicke von Zepelin H, Schnitker J. Safety aspects of a coumarin-troxerutin combination regarding liver function in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003;41:193-9 pubmed
    ..This evaluation contributes to safety data of SB-LOT in man. LFT elevation is transient and the low risk of the SB-LOT therapy to increase LFT value can be limited when risk factors are considered. ..
  57. Frick R. Three treatments for chronic venous insufficiency: escin, hydroxyethylrutoside, and Daflon. Angiology. 2000;51:197-205 pubmed
    Escin, hydroxyethylrutoside (HR), and Daflon have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)...
  58. Quijano C, Abalos E. Conservative management of symptomatic and/or complicated haemorrhoids in pregnancy and the puerperium. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;:CD004077 pubmed
    ..The most commonly used approaches, such as dietary modifications and local treatments, were not properly evaluated during pregnancy and the puerperium. ..
  59. Jankūnas V, Rimdeika R, Pilipaityte L. Treatment of the leg ulcers by skin grafting. Medicina (Kaunas). 2004;40:429-33 pubmed
    ..We came to the conclusions that skin graft transplantation is efficient in treatment of trophic venous leg ulcers larger than 50 cm2 and cures the trophic leg ulcers of vein origin completely in 2-3 weeks for 64.81% patients. ..
  60. Turner R, Fowler S, Berg K. Treatment of the common cold with troxerutin. APMIS. 2004;112:605-11 pubmed
    ..Based on this preliminary study, the possibility that the rutosides might provide a safe and effective treatment for rhinorrhea in the common cold deserves systematic evaluation. ..
  61. Schoemaker J, Bousema M, Zijlstra H, van der Horst F. Treatment of erythropoietic protoporphyria with hydroxyethylrutosides. Dermatology. 1995;191:36-8 pubmed
    ..No adverse effects were observed. These results encourage the set-up of a more systematic, placebo-controlled study of the protective effects of hydroxyethylrutosides in EPP. ..
  62. van de Vijver D, Walley T, Petri H. Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome as diagnosed in UK primary care. Sleep Med. 2004;5:435-40 pubmed
    ..These data are largely consistent with a lack of awareness of RLS among PCPs in the UK in the period studied. ..
  63. Jacobs H, Peters R, den Hartog G, van der Vijgh W, Bast A, Haenen G. Identification of the metabolites of the antioxidant flavonoid 7-mono-O-(?-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside in mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these metabolites might contribute to the observed protection of monoHER against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. ..
  64. Elangovan P, Jalaludeen A, Ramakrishnan R, Pari L. Protective Effect of Troxerutin on Nickel-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Wistar Rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2016;35:133-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that Txn could prevent oxidative damage and testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental animals. ..
  65. Jacobs H, Moalin M, Bast A, van der Vijgh W, Haenen G. An essential difference between the flavonoids monoHER and quercetin in their interplay with the endogenous antioxidant network. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13880 pubmed publisher
    ..The advantage of monoHER is that it can safely channel the reactivity of radicals into the antioxidant network where the reactivity is completely neutralized. ..
  66. Jacobs H, Moalin M, van Gisbergen M, Bast A, van der Vijgh W, Haenen G. An essential difference in the reactivity of the glutathione adducts of the structurally closely related flavonoids monoHER and quercetin. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51:2118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that even structurally comparable flavonoids behave differently, which will be reflected in the biological effects of these flavonoids. ..
  67. Lu J, Wu D, Hu B, Zheng Y, Zhang Z, Wang Y. NGF-Dependent activation of TrkA pathway: A mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of troxerutin in D-galactose-treated mice. Brain Pathol. 2010;20:952-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, administration of troxerutin to D-gal-injected mice attenuated cognitive impairment and brain oxidative stress through the activation of NGF/TrkA signaling pathway. ..
  68. Kendall S, Towart R, Michel C. Effects of hydroxyethylrutosides on the permeability of microvessels in the frog mesentery. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:199-206 pubmed
    ..None of the other component flavonoids was effective in restoring Lp under these conditions. ..
  69. Abou El Hassan M, Rabelink M, van der Vijgh W, Bast A, Hoeben R. A comparative study between catalase gene therapy and the cardioprotector monohydroxyethylrutoside (MonoHER) in protecting against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:2140-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, the use of monoHER proves more suitable for the prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity than catalase gene transfer employing adenovirus vectors. ..
  70. De Celle T, Heeringa P, Strzelecka A, Bast A, Smits J, Janssen B. Sustained protective effects of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside in an in vivo model of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion. Eur J Pharmacol. 2004;494:205-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that monoHER exerts a sustained cardioprotective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury and prevents deterioration of cardiac contractility. ..
  71. Maurya D, Balakrishnan S, Salvi V, Nair C. Protection of cellular DNA from gamma-radiation-induced damages and enhancement in DNA repair by troxerutin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;280:57-68 pubmed
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    ..The acceleration effect increased as the chain length of the acyl donors decreased from C(13) to C(4). ..
  73. Maurya D, Salvi V, Krishnan Nair C. Radioprotection of normal tissues in tumor-bearing mice by troxerutin. J Radiat Res. 2004;45:221-8 pubmed
    ..The results revealed that troxerutin could preferentially protect normal tissues against radiation-induced damages in tumor-bearing animals. ..
  74. Ping X, Junqing J, Junfeng J, Enjin J. Radioprotective effects of troxerutin against gamma irradiation in mice liver. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012;88:607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results collectively indicate that troxerutin is an effective radioprotective agent. ..
  75. De Franceschi L, Turrini F, Honczarenko M, Ayi K, Rivera A, Fleming M, et al. In vivo reduction of erythrocyte oxidant stress in a murine model of beta-thalassemia. Haematologica. 2004;89:1287-98 pubmed
    ..Antioxidant therapy reverses several indicators of oxidant damage in vivo. These promising antioxidant effects of monoHER should be investigated further. ..
  76. Jacobs H, Koek G, Peters R, Moalin M, Tack J, van der Vijgh W, et al. Differences in pharmacological activities of the antioxidant flavonoid monoHER in humans and mice are caused by variations in its metabolic profile. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90:852-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds to the growing appreciation of flavonoid metabolites as bioactive compounds. ..
  77. Chen Q, Yu Z, Sun H, Yu J, Wei M. [Effect of troxerutin and cerebroproptein hydrolysate injection on platelet aggregation and thrombosis]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2011;19:193-6 pubmed
    ..61 ± 22.07%, which is 2.5 times as much as that with 100 µg/ml aspirin. It is concluded that the TCHI has antiaggregative and antithrombotic activity effects against platelet aggregation and thrombosis. ..
  78. Bast A, Kaiserova H, den Hartog G, Haenen G, van der Vijgh W. Protectors against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity: flavonoids. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2007;23:39-47 pubmed
    ..From a study in human volunteers, we conclude that an intravenous dose of 1500 mg/m(2) of 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside is feasible and is safe to be investigated as protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. ..
  79. Belcaro G, Cesarone M, Ledda A, Cacchio M, Ruffini I, Ricci A, et al. 5-Year control and treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension and diabetic microangiopathy using O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides: a prospective comparative clinical registry. Angiology. 2008;59 Suppl 1:14S-20S pubmed publisher
    ..The prevention of ulcerations with HR is another important observation. The effects of HR seem to be partially dose related, and tolerability and compliance are good. ..
  80. Arsene S, Vierron E, Le Lez M, Herault B, Gruel Y, Pisella P, et al. Conversion from nonischemic to ischemic retinal vein occlusion: prediction by venous velocity on color Doppler imaging. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:1009-16 pubmed
    ..To identify color Doppler imaging (CDI) parameters and other prognostic factors of a conversion from nonischemic to ischemic retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in a large population with a long follow-up...
  81. Peamkrasatam S, Sriwatanakul K, Kiyotani K, Fujieda M, Yamazaki H, Kamataki T, et al. In vivo evaluation of coumarin and nicotine as probe drugs to predict the metabolic capacity of CYP2A6 due to genetic polymorphism in Thais. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2006;21:475-84 pubmed
    ..Nicotine is a better probe according to its specificity, while coumarin is still valuable to be used for a routine CYP2A6 phenotyping since the test employs a non-invasive method. ..
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    ..The different doses of the study medication were safe and well tolerated. Mono-3'-HQ and mono-4'-HQ are therefore new bioanalytic and pharmacokinetic markers for Venoruton. ..