Summary: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.

Top Publications

  1. Huang W, Tsai S, Peng S, Lin M, Chiang J, Chiu Y, et al. Kaempferol induces autophagy through AMPK and AKT signaling molecules and causes G2/M arrest via downregulation of CDK1/cyclin B in SK-HEP-1 human hepatic cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2013;42:2069-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that kaempferol may be useful for long-term cancer prevention. ..
  2. Kang G, Lee E, Kim J, Jung J, Lim J, Kim S, et al. Downregulation of PLK-1 expression in kaempferol-induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;611:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that kaempferol-induced apoptosis by initiation of intrinsic caspase cascade and downregulation of PLK-1 expression. ..
  3. Lee K, Lee K, Jung S, Lee E, Heo Y, Bode A, et al. Kaempferol inhibits UVB-induced COX-2 expression by suppressing Src kinase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:2042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that kaempferol is a potent chemopreventive agent against skin cancer through its inhibitory interaction with Src. ..
  4. Kim J, Choi S, Cho H, Hwang H, Kim Y, Lim S, et al. Protective effects of kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta)-induced neurotoxicity in ICR mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:397-401 pubmed
    ..Taken altogether, the results reported here suggest that further investigation is warranted of the influence of kaempferol on pathways related to Alzheimer's disease. ..
  5. Marfe G, Tafani M, Indelicato M, Sinibaldi Salimei P, Reali V, Pucci B, et al. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in two different cell lines via Akt inactivation, Bax and SIRT3 activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:643-50 pubmed publisher
  6. Luo H, Rankin G, Liu L, Daddysman M, Jiang B, Chen Y. Kaempferol inhibits angiogenesis and VEGF expression through both HIF dependent and independent pathways in human ovarian cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61:554-63 pubmed publisher
  7. Filomeni G, Graziani I, De Zio D, Dini L, Centonze D, Rotilio G, et al. Neuroprotection of kaempferol by autophagy in models of rotenone-mediated acute toxicity: possible implications for Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:767-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data provide further evidence for kaempferol to be identified as an autophagic enhancer with potential therapeutic capacity. ..
  8. Calderón Montaño J, Burgos Morón E, Perez Guerrero C, Lopez Lazaro M. A review on the dietary flavonoid kaempferol. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2011;11:298-344 pubmed
    ..This information may help understand the health benefits of kaempferol-containing plants and may contribute to develop this flavonoid as a possible agent for the prevention and treatment of some diseases. ..
  9. Zhang Y, Liu D. Flavonol kaempferol improves chronic hyperglycemia-impaired pancreatic beta-cell viability and insulin secretory function. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence that kaempferol may be a naturally occurring anti-diabetic compound by protecting pancreatic beta-cell survival and function in a hostile environment that would otherwise lead to type 2 diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Park S, Sapkota K, Kim S, Kim H, Kim S. Kaempferol acts through mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/AKT to elicit protection in a model of neuroinflammation in BV2 microglial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:1008-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Kaempferol was able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory mediators through the down-regulation of TLR4, NF-?B, p38 MAPK, JNK and AKT suggesting that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  2. Barve A, Chen C, Hebbar V, Desiderio J, Saw C, Kong A. Metabolism, oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of chemopreventive kaempferol in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2009;30:356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the low F of kaempferol is attributed in part to extensive first-pass metabolism by glucuronidation and other metabolic pathways in the gut and in the liver. ..
  3. Lin M, Yu Y, Chen K, Chang W, Lee M, Yang M, et al. Kaempferol from Semen cuscutae attenuates the immune function of dendritic cells. Immunobiology. 2011;216:1103-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Chen C, Chow M, Huang W, Lin Y, Chang Y. Flavonoids inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells through activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB: structure-activity relationships. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:683-93 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results suggested that AP-1 seems to play a more significant role than NF-kappaB in the flavonoid-induced ICAM-1 inhibition. ..
  5. García Mediavilla V, Crespo I, Collado P, Esteller A, Sanchez Campos S, Tunon M, et al. The anti-inflammatory flavones quercetin and kaempferol cause inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and reactive C-protein, and down-regulation of the nuclear factor kappaB pathway in Chang Liver cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;557:221-9 pubmed
    ..Our data also indicate that the minor structural differences between both compounds determine differences in their inhibitory capacity. ..
  6. Lin J, Rexrode K, Hu F, Albert C, Chae C, Rimm E, et al. Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1305-13 pubmed
    ..93; p for trend = 0.04). The lower risk associated with kaempferol intake was probably attributable to broccoli consumption. These prospective data do not support an inverse association between flavonol or flavone intake and CHD risk. ..
  7. Cortes J, Perez G M, Rivas M, Zamorano J. Kaempferol inhibits IL-4-induced STAT6 activation by specifically targeting JAK3. J Immunol. 2007;179:3881-7 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal the potential use of kaempferol as a tool for selectively controlling cell responses to IL-4 and, in general, JAK3-dependent responses. ..
  8. Autore G, Rastrelli L, Lauro M, Marzocco S, Sorrentino R, Sorrentino U, et al. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression by a methanolic extract of Crescentia alata and its derived flavonols. Life Sci. 2001;70:523-34 pubmed
    ..A1 cells, whereas rutin (1) and kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (2) showed no significant activity. The MeOH extract and all of flavonoids tested did not show in vitro significant cytotoxic effect in J774.A1 macrophage cell line. ..
  9. Robin V, Irurzun A, Amoros M, Boustie J, Carrasco L. Antipoliovirus flavonoids from Psiadia dentata. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2001;12:283-91 pubmed
  10. Sergeant G, Bradley E, Thornbury K, McHale N, Hollywood M. Role of mitochondria in modulation of spontaneous Ca2+ waves in freshly dispersed interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra. J Physiol. 2008;586:4631-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that spontaneous Ca(2+) waves in urethral ICC are regulated by buffering of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) by mitochondria. ..
  11. Zhang Y, Chen A, Li M, Chen C, Yao Q. Ginkgo biloba extract kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells. J Surg Res. 2008;148:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Kaempferol may have clinical applications as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. ..
  12. Sampson L, Rimm E, Hollman P, De Vries J, Katan M. Flavonol and flavone intakes in US health professionals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1414-20 pubmed
    ..This work should facilitate the investigation of this class of dietary antioxidants as a contributor to disease prevention. ..
  13. Hung H. Inhibition of estrogen receptor alpha expression and function in MCF-7 cells by kaempferol. J Cell Physiol. 2004;198:197-208 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that modulation of ER-alpha expression and function by kaempferol may be, in part, responsible for its anti-proliferative effects seen in in vitro. ..
  14. Smith J, Luo Y. Elevation of oxidative free radicals in Alzheimer's disease models can be attenuated by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003;5:287-300 pubmed
    ..elegans, which is accelerated in the AD-associated C. elegans mutant. These results support the hypothesis of the involvement of Abeta and ROS in association with AD. ..
  15. Nakamura Y, Chang C, Mori T, Sato K, Ohtsuki K, Upham B, et al. Augmentation of differentiation and gap junction function by kaempferol in partially differentiated colon cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:665-71 pubmed
    ..In contrast, kaempferol had no effect in a tumorigenic colon cancer cell line that did not express connexin43 mRNA and was deficient in GJIC. ..
  16. Bestwick C, Milne L, Pirie L, Duthie S. The effect of short-term kaempferol exposure on reactive oxygen levels and integrity of human (HL-60) leukaemic cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1740:340-9 pubmed
    ..The relevance of induced DNA damage within a non-overtly oxidatively stressed environment to the disease preventative and therapeutic use of kaempferol is discussed. ..
  17. Shen S, Lin C, Lee H, Chien L, Chen Y. Lipopolysaccharide plus 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate induction of migration and invasion of glioma cells in vitro and in vivo: Differential inhibitory effects of flavonoids. Neuroscience. 2006;140:477-89 pubmed
    ..Kaempferol and wogonin exhibit effective inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide/12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced events, and thus possess the potential for further development. ..
  18. Silva B, Oliveira P, Dias A, Malva J. Quercetin, kaempferol and biapigenin from Hypericum perforatum are neuroprotective against excitotoxic insults. Neurotox Res. 2008;13:265-79 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that the neuroprotective action induced by quercetin and kaempferol are mainly mediated by antioxidant effects, whereas biapigenin mainly affects mitochondrial bioenergetics and calcium uptake. ..
  19. Knekt P, Kumpulainen J, Järvinen R, Rissanen H, Heliovaara M, Reunanen A, et al. Flavonoid intake and risk of chronic diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:560-8 pubmed
    ..81; 0.64, 1.02; P = 0.07) and myricetin (0.79; 0.62, 1.00; P = 0.07) intakes. The risk of some chronic diseases may be lower at higher dietary flavonoid intakes. ..
  20. Wang L, Tu Y, Lian T, Hung J, Yen J, Wu M. Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9798-804 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that flavonols, despite structural similarity, have different antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. ..
  21. Leung H, Lin C, Hour M, Yang W, Wang M, Lee H. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in human lung non-small carcinoma cells accompanied by an induction of antioxidant enzymes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007;45:2005-13 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Mn SOD protein levels, which was promoted to a new type tumor suppressor gene in several human cancer cells recently, may be an important role in kaempferol-induced H460 cell apoptosis. ..
  22. Kanakis C, Tarantilis P, Polissiou M, Diamantoglou S, Tajmir Riahi H. An overview of DNA and RNA bindings to antioxidant flavonoids. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;49:29-36 pubmed
    ..The antioxidant activity of flavonoids changes in order delphinidin>quercetin>kaempferol. The results show intercalated flavonoids can make them strong antioxidants to protect DNA from harmful free radical reactions. ..
  23. Parveen Z, Deng Y, Saeed M, Dai R, Ahamad W, Yu Y. Antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Thesium chinense Turcz extracts and its major flavonoids, kaempferol and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127:1275-9 pubmed
    ..The ethyl acetate extract and two flavonoids showed significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) and dose-dependent antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. The chloroform extract was inactive in the assay...
  24. Sharma V, Joseph C, Ghosh S, Agarwal A, Mishra M, Sen E. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells through oxidative stress. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2544-53 pubmed
  25. Ferreres F, Magalhães S, Gil Izquierdo A, Valentao P, Cabrita A, Fonseca A, et al. HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) profiling of phenolic compounds from Lathyrus cicera L. seeds. Food Chem. 2017;214:678-685 pubmed publisher
    ..The most abundant flavonols were identified as kaempferol-3-O-(2-hexosyl)hexoside-7-O-rhamnosides. The methodology used allowed to increase the knowledge on a relevant phytochemical class of seeds from L. cicera. ..
  26. Borana M, Mishra P, Pissurlenkar R, Hosur R, Ahmad B. Curcumin and kaempferol prevent lysozyme fibril formation by modulating aggregation kinetic parameters. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1844:670-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This work would provide insight into the mechanism of aggregation inhibition by these potential drug molecules. ..
  27. Meng F, Yang J, Liu T, Zhu X, Li G. Electric communication between the inner part of a cell and an electrode: the way to look inside a cell. Anal Chem. 2009;81:9168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..For the test in this work, one drug, kaempferol, and one dye molecule, methylene blue, inside the cells have been detected by the commonly used electrochemical method linear scan voltammetry, and satisfactory results have been obtained. ..
  28. Olszewska M, Kwapisz A. Metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Prunus padus L. flowers and leaves. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1115-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant linear correlation of these values to the sum of proanthocyanidins and compounds 1-6 (R²?>?0.87) showed that the listed phenolics are synergists of the tested activity. ..
  29. Medeiros K, Faustino L, Borduchi E, Nascimento R, Silva T, Gomes E, et al. Preventive and curative glycoside kaempferol treatments attenuate the TH2-driven allergic airway disease. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that GRRK treatment before or after established allergic lung disease down-regulates key asthmatic features. Therefore, GRRK has a potential clinical use for the treatment of allergic asthma. ..
  30. Ürményi F, Saraiva G, Casanova L, Matos A, de Magalhães Camargo L, Romanos M, et al. Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Flavonoids and a New Kaempferol Triglycoside from the Medicinal Plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Chem Biodivers. 2016;13:1707-1714 pubmed publisher
    ..0 μg/ml; SI > 22.2 and EC50  = 36.2 μg/ml; SI > 5.5, respectively) activities, suggesting the contribution of additional substances to the antiviral activity. ..
  31. Filomeni G, Desideri E, Cardaci S, Graziani I, Piccirillo S, Rotilio G, et al. Carcinoma cells activate AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy as survival response to kaempferol-mediated energetic impairment. Autophagy. 2010;6:202-16 pubmed
    ..Experiments performed with another carcinoma cell line yielded the same results, suggesting for kaempferol a unique mechanism of action. ..
  32. He D, Rong L, Qin M, Liu H. [Determination of the content of the main components of flavonoids compounds in raw malt, torrefied malt and ustulate malt]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2012;35:1747-51 pubmed
    ..The content of flavonoids in raw malt and torrefied malt are significantly affected by sprouting and processing, and significance differences are presented among different varieties. ..
  33. Fu Q, Liu J, Zhang C, Zhou Y, Zhang G, Ma D, et al. Separation and identification of flavonoids from fistular onion stalk (Allium fisturosum L. var. Caespitosum Makio). J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2010;30:255-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the spectral data, they were structurally identified as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, astragalin, and 3-O-beta-D(2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-glucopyranosides of kaempferol. ..
  34. Xiang Z, Wang G, Huang L, Heng L, Li X. A new ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside from Isodon japonica var. glaucocalyx. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15:574-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR techniques such as HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY experiments and comparison with the literature data. ..
  35. Bredsdorff L, Obel T, Dethlefsen C, Tjønneland A, Schmidt E, Rasmussen S, et al. Urinary flavonoid excretion and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a nested case-control study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Except for kaempferol and daidzein, there were no significant associations between the urinary excretion of flavonoids and risk of ACS. A lack of relations may be a result of the use of short-term exposure measures. ..
  36. Shih T, Young T, Lee H, Hsieh C, Hu O. Protective effects of kaempferol on isoniazid- and rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity. AAPS J. 2013;15:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of kaempferol's utility as an adjuvant for preventing CYP2E1-mediated hepatotoxicity induced by drugs such as INH and RIF. ..
  37. Jung C, Lee J, Park J, Cho B, Sim S, Kim C. Flavonols attenuate the immediate and late-phase asthmatic responses to aerosolized-ovalbumin exposure in the conscious guinea pig. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Fisetin demonstrated the greatest inhibition of sRaw, whereas morin had lesser effects. These results indicate that the lower the molecular weight, the greater the anti-asthmatic activities of these compounds. ..
  38. Qu Q, Zhang L, Bao H, Zhang J, You X, Wang J. [Chemical constituents of flavonoids from flowers of Koelreuteria paniculata]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2011;34:1716-9 pubmed
    ..Nine compounds are isolated for the first time from flowers of Koelreuteria paniculata. Compounds IV, V, VI and IX are isolated from this genus for the first time. ..
  39. Ferreres F, Grosso C, Gil Izquierdo A, Valentão P, Andrade P. Phenolic compounds from Jacaranda caroba (Vell.) A. DC.: approaches to neurodegenerative disorders. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;57:91-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the value of J. caroba as a source of health-promoting antioxidants and antidepressant compounds. ..
  40. Zheng L, Zhu L, Zhao M, Shi J, Li Y, Yu J, et al. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters. AAPS J. 2016;18:1289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs). ..
  41. Luo H, Jiang B, Li B, Li Z, Jiang B, Chen Y. Kaempferol nanoparticles achieve strong and selective inhibition of ovarian cancer cell viability. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:3951-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations had superior effects compared with kaempferol alone in reducing cancer cell viability. ..
  42. Sugahara M, Nakanishi J, Katsuta Y. Kaempferol enhanced the intracellular thioredoxin system in normal cultured human keratinocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:1701-3 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, kaempferol and quercetin increased the activity of thioredoxin reductase in normal human keratinocytes. ..
  43. Deng S, Deng Z, Fan Y, Shan B, Xiong D. [Spectroscopic investigation on the interaction between astragalin from lotus leaf and DNA]. Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2010;30:476-80 pubmed
    ..AST could be intercalated into DNA and displaced the NR from the NR-DNA complex. It was showed that AST from lotus leaf could combine with DNA in the mode of intercalation. ..
  44. Trapero A, Ahrazem O, Rubio Moraga A, Jimeno M, Gomez M, Gomez Gomez L. Characterization of a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the formation of kaempferol and quercetin sophorosides in Crocus sativus. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:1335-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal the involvement of UGT707B1 in the biosynthesis of flavonol-3-O-sophorosides and how significant changes in flavonoid homeostasis can be caused by the overproduction of a flavonoid-conjugating enzyme...
  45. Li C, Du H, Wang L, Shu Q, Zheng Y, Xu Y, et al. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of tree peony (Paeonia section moutan) yellow flowers. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:8496-503 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is valuable for elucidation of phenolic composition in tree peony flowers and for further utilization of them as functional food and medicine materials...
  46. Takahama U, Hirota S. Effects of starch on nitrous acid-induced oxidation of kaempferol and inhibition of ?-amylase-catalysed digestion of starch by kaempferol under conditions simulating the stomach and the intestine. Food Chem. 2013;141:313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The different effects of kaempferol were discussed to be due to the difference in binding sites of kaempferol between amylose and amylopectin. From the present study, dual-function of kaempferol became apparent in the digestive tract. ..
  47. Lee T, Chiang Y, Chen C, Chen P, Lee C. A new flavonol galloylrhamnoside and a new lignan glucoside from the leaves of Koelreuteria henryi Dummer. J Nat Med. 2009;63:209-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The scavenging effect of 1-8 and 20 on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was examined. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 20 showed more potent activity than that of trolox. ..
  48. Gupta R, Mathur M, Bajaj V, Katariya P, Yadav S, Kamal R, et al. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera in experimental diabetes. J Diabetes. 2012;4:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of methanol extracts of M. oleifera pods (MOMtE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic albino rats...
  49. Yang L, Takai H, Utsunomiya T, Li X, Li Z, Wang Z, et al. Kaempferol stimulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription and new bone formation. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:1342-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that kaempferol increased BSP gene transcription mediated through inverted CCAAT, CRE, and FRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter, and could induce osteoblast activities in the early stage of bone formation. ..
  50. Loscalzo L, Wasowski C, Marder M. Neuroactive flavonoid glycosides from Tilia petiolaris DC. extracts. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1453-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The above results demonstrate the occurrence of neuroactive flavonoid glycosides in Tilia. ..
  51. Zabela V, Sampath C, Oufir M, Moradi Afrapoli F, Butterweck V, Hamburger M. Pharmacokinetics of dietary kaempferol and its metabolite 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in rats. Fitoterapia. 2016;115:189-197 pubmed publisher
    ..Both compounds are rapidly eliminated, so that effective concentrations at the site of action do not appear to be reached. At present, it is not clear how the anxiolytic-like effects reported for the compounds can be explained. ..
  52. Beekmann K, De Haan L, Actis Goretta L, van Bladeren P, Rietjens I. Effect of Glucuronidation on the Potential of Kaempferol to Inhibit Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64:1256-63 pubmed publisher
  53. Das A, Majumder D, Saha C. Correlation of binding efficacies of DNA to flavonoids and their induced cellular damage. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2017;170:256-262 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of Cu also increases cellular damage as recorded by comet assay. ..
  54. Gupta P, Sharma U, Gupta P, Siripurapu K, Maurya R. Evolvosides C–E, flavonol-4'-O-triglycosides from evolvulus alsinoides and their anti-stress activity [corrected]. Bioorg Med Chem. 2013;21:1116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 3 and 6 were also found to be effective in normalizing most of these stress parameters, whereas compounds 4 and 5 were ineffective in normalizing most of these effects...
  55. Vishnu Prasad C, Suma Mohan S, Banerji A, Gopalakrishnapillai A. Kaempferitrin inhibits GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:39-43 pubmed publisher
  56. Fiorentino A, Ricci A, D Abrosca B, Golino A, Izzo A, Pascarella M, et al. Kaempferol glycosides from Lobularia maritima and their potential role in plant interactions. Chem Biodivers. 2009;6:204-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioassay data, analyzed by a multivariate approach, and grouping the compounds on the basis of the number of sugar units and the nature of carbohydrates present in the disaccharide moiety, indicate a structure-activity relationship. ..
  57. Ding A, Zhang L, Zhao X, Li X. [Dynamic change of flavonoids' content in various extent of cortex moutan carbonisatum]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:965-8 pubmed
    ..The overall trend is that high temperature and long time lead to the lower of the content of flavonoids. This provides a basis data for the further study on the hemostatic mechanism and quality control of CMC. ..
  58. Onkokesung N, Reichelt M, van Doorn A, Schuurink R, Dicke M. Differential Costs of Two Distinct Resistance Mechanisms Induced by Different Herbivore Species in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2016;170:891-906 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, different mechanisms of herbivore-induced resistance come with different costs, and a functional WRKY70 transcription factor is required for the induction of low-cost resistance. ..
  59. Loizzo M, Pugliese A, Bonesi M, Tenuta M, Menichini F, Xiao J, et al. Edible Flowers: A Rich Source of Phytochemicals with Antioxidant and Hypoglycemic Properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64:2467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..8 and 11.3 ?g/mL, respectively. These findings support the consumption of edible flowers as functional foods and their use as sources of natural antioxidants by the food industry. ..
  60. Wang L, Jiang M, Xu S, Sun Q, Zeng G, Zhou Y. Two acylated flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Quercus dentata. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1597-9 pubmed
  61. Sanganahalli B, Herman P, Hyder F, Kannurpatti S. Mitochondrial functional state impacts spontaneous neocortical activity and resting state FMRI. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63317 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that increased or decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacities lead to diminished resting state modes of brain functional connectivity. ..
  62. Xie D, Li Y, Zhao L, Ding G, Yuan S, Xu J, et al. [Study on chemical constituents from leaves of Naudea officinalis]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2011;36:1037-9 pubmed
    ..Among these compounds, 2, 3, 4 are isolated from the leaves of Naudea officinalis for the first time. ..
  63. Bertelli D, Papotti G, Bortolotti L, Marcazzan G, Plessi M. ¹H-NMR simultaneous identification of health-relevant compounds in propolis extracts. Phytochem Anal. 2012;23:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that it is possible to efficiently use ¹H-NMR, coupled with appropriate spectral analytical tools, for the simultaneous detection of phenolic compounds in complex matrices. ..
  64. Gong J, Shin D, Han S, Kim J, Kang Y. Kaempferol suppresses eosionphil infiltration and airway inflammation in airway epithelial cells and in mice with allergic asthma. J Nutr. 2012;142:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, dietary kaempferol is effective in ameliorating allergic and inflammatory airway diseases through disturbing NF-?B signaling. ..
  65. Kim S, Hwang K, Choi K. Treatment with kaempferol suppresses breast cancer cell growth caused by estrogen and triclosan in cellular and xenograft breast cancer models. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;28:70-82 pubmed publisher
  66. Fang R, Jing H, Chai Z, Zhao G, Stoll S, Ren F, et al. Design and characterization of protein-quercetin bioactive nanoparticles. J Nanobiotechnology. 2011;9:19 pubmed publisher
    ..BSA exhibits the most remarkable abilities of loading, controlled release, and antioxidant protection of active drugs, indicating that such type of bionanoparticles is very promising in the field of bionanotechnology. ..
  67. Ke M, Hu X, Ouyang J, Dai B, Xu Y. The effect of astragalin on the VEGF production of cultured Müller cells under high glucose conditions. Biomed Mater Eng. 2012;22:113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that astragalin decreased the overexpression of VEGF in Müller cells and alleviated the effects caused by high glucose. Thus, astragalin has promising application in preventing and treating DR caused by DM. ..
  68. Guo H, Ren F, Zhang L, Zhang X, Yang R, Xie B, et al. Kaempferol induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:2791-800 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that kaempferol may be used as a potential chemopreventive treatment strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. ..
  69. Cazarolli L, Folador P, Pizzolatti M, Mena Barreto Silva F. Signaling pathways of kaempferol-3-neohesperidoside in glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle. Biochimie. 2009;91:843-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the PI3K - GSK-3 pathway and MAPK - PP1 pathway are involved in the stimulatory kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside effect on glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle. ..
  70. Bernaert N, Wouters D, De Vuyst L, De Paepe D, De Clercq H, Van Bockstaele E, et al. Antioxidant changes of leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) during spontaneous fermentation of the white shaft and green leaves. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:2146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the nutritional relevance of fermentation, which hold promise as a stabilization technique. ..
  71. Ge Y, Li M, Mei Z, Yang G. Two new flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Elaeagnus pungens. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013;15:1073-9 pubmed publisher
  72. Pisonero Vaquero S, Garcia Mediavilla M, Jorquera F, Majano P, Benet M, Jover R, et al. Modulation of PI3K-LXR?-dependent lipogenesis mediated by oxidative/nitrosative stress contributes to inhibition of HCV replication by quercetin. Lab Invest. 2014;94:262-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data suggest that oxidative/nitrosative stress blockage and subsequent modulation of PI3K-LXR?-mediated lipogenesis might contribute to the inhibitory effect of quercetin on HCV replication. ..
  73. Ramiro Cortés Y, Guemez Gamboa A, Moran J. Reactive oxygen species participate in the p38-mediated apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation and staurosporine in cerebellar granule neurons. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1373-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that apoptosis induced by both K5 and staurosporine is dependent on p38 activation, which is mediated by ROS. In addition, p38 activation by staurosporine induces a further production of ROS through NOX activation. ..
  74. Xiao J, Sun G, Sun B, Wu Y, He L, Wang X, et al. Kaempferol protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Toxicology. 2012;292:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidated the potential of kaempferol as a promising reagent for treating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and may have implications in the long-term clinical usefulness of DOX. ..
  75. Shen C, Cheng J, Lay H, Wu S, Ni C, Teng C, et al. Cytotoxic apigenin derivatives from Chrysopogon aciculatis. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:198-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines including MCF-7, H460, HT-29, and CEM. ..
  76. Sakaguchi K, Kitajima J, Iwashina T. Kaempferol tri- and tetraglycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivar. Nat Prod Commun. 2012;7:173-4 pubmed
    ..The chemical structures of the isolated glycosides were established by UV, LC-MS, characterization of acid hydrolysates, and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy...
  77. Liao S, Li Y, Zhang L, Wang Z, Chen T, Huang Y, et al. UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis of compounds extracted by cardiac h9c2 cell from Polygonum orientale. Phytochem Anal. 2013;24:25-35 pubmed publisher
  78. Rho H, Ghimeray A, Yoo D, Ahn S, Kwon S, Lee K, et al. Kaempferol and kaempferol rhamnosides with depigmenting and anti-inflammatory properties. Molecules. 2011;16:3338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we conclude that the 3-hydroxyl group of kaempferol is an important pharmacophore and that additional rhamnose moieties affect the biological activity negatively. ..
  79. Ahn B, Kim B, Jeon Y, Lee E, Lim Y, Ahn J. Formation of flavone di-O-glucosides using a glycosyltransferase from Bacillus cereus. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:387-90 pubmed
    ..Kaempferol was the most effective substrate tested. Based on HPLC, LC/MS, and NMR analyses of the reaction products, we conclude that BcGT-3 can be used for the synthesis of kaempferol 3,7-O-diglucose. ..