Summary: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Yap S, Qin C, Woodman O. Effects of resveratrol and flavonols on cardiovascular function: Physiological mechanisms. Biofactors. 2010;36:350-9 pubmed publisher
    Resveratrol and flavonols are commonly found together in fruits and vegetables and, therefore, consumed in the diet...
  2. Zamora Ros R, Forouhi N, Sharp S, Gonzalez C, Buijsse B, Guevara M, et al. Dietary intakes of individual flavanols and flavonols are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in European populations. J Nutr. 2014;144:335-43 pubmed publisher
    Dietary flavanols and flavonols, flavonoid subclasses, have been recently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Europe...
  3. Lücker J, Martens S, Lund S. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1474-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the O-methyltransferase suggests that it may be a member of a distinct subclass of Type 2 bivalent metal-dependent S-adenosyl-methionine O-methyltransferases. ..
  4. Li X, Kim Y, Kim Y, Zhao S, Kim H, Chung E, et al. Differential stress-response expression of two flavonol synthase genes and accumulation of flavonols in tartary buckwheat. J Plant Physiol. 2013;170:1630-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the expression of FtFLS1/2 and the production of 3 main flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin) was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flowers and different stages of ..
  5. Verdan A, Wang H, García C, Henry W, Brumaghim J. Iron binding of 3-hydroxychromone, 5-hydroxychromone, and sulfonated morin: Implications for the antioxidant activity of flavonols with competing metal binding sites. J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105:1314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that DNA damage inhibition by flavonols with competing hydroxy-keto binding sites is primarily due to iron binding at the 3-hydroxy-keto site...
  6. Ueda K, Yoshihara M, Nakao M, Tanaka T, Sano S, Fukuzawa K, et al. Evaluation of inhibitory actions of flavonols and related substances on lysophospholipase d activity of serum autotaxin by a convenient assay using a chromogenic substrate. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flavonols, phenolic acids, free fatty acids, and N-acyltyrosines inhibited lysoPLD activity in a micromolar range...
  7. Azuma A, Yakushiji H, Koshita Y, Kobayashi S. Flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes in grape skin are differentially regulated by temperature and light conditions. Planta. 2012;236:1067-80 pubmed
    ..investigated the effects of temperature and light conditions on the biosynthesis of flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavonols) and the expression levels of related genes in an in vitro environmental experiment using detached grape berries...
  8. Stracke R, Jahns O, Keck M, Tohge T, Niehaus K, Fernie A, et al. Analysis of PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES-dependent flavonol glycoside accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana plants reveals MYB11-, MYB12- and MYB111-independent flavonol glycoside accumulation. New Phytol. 2010;188:985-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that a separate flavonol control mechanism might be at play in pollen. ..
  9. Zamora Ros R, Knaze V, Lujan Barroso L, Slimani N, Romieu I, Fedirko V, et al. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:1915-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo...

More Information


  1. Dajas F, Andres A, Florencia A, Carolina E, Felicia R. Neuroprotective actions of flavones and flavonols: mechanisms and relationship to flavonoid structural features. Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem. 2013;13:30-5 pubmed
    ..Among the six groups in which flavonoids are classified, the flavones and flavonols, based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) are the most commonly encountered ..
  2. Chirumbolo S. The role of quercetin, flavonols and flavones in modulating inflammatory cell function. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2010;9:263-85 pubmed
    ..a modulating, biphasic and regulatory action on immunity and inflammation; in this context only few flavones and flavonols have been assayed, mainly because of their chemical similarity with quercetin, so evidence reported in the ..
  3. Knaze V, Zamora Ros R, Lujan Barroso L, Romieu I, Scalbert A, Slimani N, et al. Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1095-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries. ..
  4. Britton R, Horner Glister E, Pomenya O, Smith E, Denton R, Jenkins P, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel flavonols as potential anti-prostate cancer agents. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;54:952-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1 ?M) and superior to the naturally occurring flavonols quercetin (16) and fisetin (22) (both >15 ?M)...
  5. An J, Zuo G, Hao X, Wang G, Li Z. Antibacterial and synergy of a flavanonol rhamnoside with antibiotics against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Phytomedicine. 2011;18:990-3 pubmed publisher
    ..839 log?? cfu/ml increase in killing). These results demonstrated that TR enhanced the efficacy of CAZ and LEV in vitro, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA. ..
  6. Macakova K, Mladenka P, Filipský T, Ríha M, Jahodar L, Trejtnar F, et al. Iron reduction potentiates hydroxyl radical formation only in flavonols. Food Chem. 2012;135:2584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A substantial ferric ions reduction was achieved under acidic conditions, particularly by flavonols and flavanols with the catecholic ring B...
  7. Williamson G. Possible effects of dietary polyphenols on sugar absorption and digestion. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flavonols, theaflavins, gallate esters, 5-caffeoylqunic acid and proanthocyanidins inhibit ?-amylase activity...
  8. Nagy K, Redeuil K, Bertholet R, Steiling H, Kussmann M. Quantification of anthocyanins and flavonols in milk-based food products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009;81:6347-56 pubmed publisher
  9. Miyakoshi S, Azami S, Kuzuyama T. Microbial glucosylation of flavonols by Cunninghamella echinulata. J Biosci Bioeng. 2010;110:320-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Kaemferol and some other flavonols were also glucosylated...
  10. Combet E, Lean M, Boyle J, Crozier A, Davidson D. Dietary flavonols contribute to false-positive elevation of homovanillic acid, a marker of catecholamine-secreting tumors. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dietary flavonols commonly found in foodstuff such as tomatoes, onions, and tea, interfered with the routine urinary HVA screening ..
  11. Franceschi P, Dong Y, Strupat K, Vrhovsek U, Mattivi F. Combining intensity correlation analysis and MALDI imaging to study the distribution of flavonols and dihydrochalcones in Golden Delicious apples. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed approach was used to investigate the distribution of glycosylated flavonols and dihydrochalcones in Golden Delicious apples...
  12. Perez Vizcaino F, Duarte J. Flavonols and cardiovascular disease. Mol Aspects Med. 2010;31:478-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Flavonols, and specially quercetin, are widely distributed in plants and are present in considerable amounts in fruits and vegetables...
  13. Bobe G, Albert P, Sansbury L, Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Colburn N, et al. Interleukin-6 as a potential indicator for prevention of high-risk adenoma recurrence by dietary flavonols in the polyp prevention trial. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:764-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Flavonols, which can be found in fruits and vegetables, may inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis partly by inhibiting ..
  14. Yuan C, Filippova M, Tungteakkhun S, Duerksen Hughes P, Krstenansky J. Small molecule inhibitors of the HPV16-E6 interaction with caspase 8. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:2125-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A small molecule library was screened for candidates that could inhibit E6 binding to FADD and caspase 8. Flavonols were found to possess this activity with the rank order of myricetin>morin>quercetin>kaempferol=..
  15. Wang Z, Nie Z, Zhou B, Lian X, Zhao H, Gao W, et al. Flavonols intake and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Atherosclerosis. 2012;222:270-3 pubmed publisher
    Prospective cohort are inconsistent regarding the association between flavonols intake and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  16. Guajardo Flores D, Serna Saldivar S, Gutiérrez Uribe J. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of extracted saponins and flavonols from germinated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Chem. 2013;141:1497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Genistein was related with the activity against mammary cancer cells but flavonols and group B saponins were more related with hepatic and colon cancers...
  17. Singh R, Wu B, Tang L, Liu Z, Hu M. Identification of the position of mono-O-glucuronide of flavones and flavonols by analyzing shift in online UV spectrum (lambdamax) generated from an online diode array detector. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:9384-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, glucuronide(s) of 36 flavones and flavonols were generated using an in vitro glucuronidation reaction...
  18. Flamini R, Mattivi F, De Rosso M, Arapitsas P, Bavaresco L. Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19651-69 pubmed publisher
    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics...
  19. Park S, Paik J, Ahn M, Park J, Yoon Y. Biosynthesis of plant-specific flavones and flavonols in Streptomyces venezuelae. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;20:1295-9 pubmed
    ..venezuelae system to the production of more diverse plant polyketides including flavones and flavonols. A plasmid with the synthetic codon-optimized flavone synthase I gene from Petroselium crispum was introduced to ..
  20. Lea M, Ibeh C, Deutsch J, Hamid I, desBordes C. Inhibition of growth and induction of alkaline phosphatase in colon cancer cells by flavonols and flavonol glycosides. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3629-35 pubmed
    ..work, we compared the effects of quercetin on cell proliferation and differentiation with the action of related flavonols and quercetin glycosides...
  21. Kuhn B, Geisler M, Bigler L, Ringli C. Flavonols accumulate asymmetrically and affect auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:585-95 pubmed publisher
    ..rol1-2 (for repressor of lrx1) mutation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) induces aberrant accumulation of flavonols and a cell-growth phenotype in the shoot...
  22. Lijavetzky D, Ruiz García L, Cabezas J, De Andrés M, Bravo G, Ibáñez A, et al. Molecular genetics of berry colour variation in table grape. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;276:427-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, VvmybA1 is a major determinant of berry colour variation in table grape and its instability is the major cause of somatic variation for this trait. ..
  23. Torres R, Faini F, Modak B, Urbina F, Labbé C, Guerrero J. Antioxidant activity of coumarins and flavonols from the resinous exudate of Haplopappus multifolius. Phytochemistry. 2006;67:984-7 pubmed
    The antioxidant activity of eight coumarins and two flavonols isolated from Haplopappus multifolius was studied with the DPPH radical method...
  24. Miyahisa I, Funa N, Ohnishi Y, Martens S, Moriguchi T, Horinouchi S. Combinatorial biosynthesis of flavones and flavonols in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;71:53-8 pubmed
    ..the flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase and flavonol synthase genes from the plant Citrus species led to production of flavonols: kaempferol (15.1 mg/l) from tyrosine and galangin (1.1 mg/l) from phenylalanine...
  25. Owens D, Alerding A, Crosby K, Bandara A, Westwood J, Winkel B. Functional analysis of a predicted flavonol synthase gene family in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1046-61 pubmed publisher
    ..uses multiple isoforms of FLS with different substrate specificities to mediate the production of the flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol, in a tissue-specific and inducible manner...
  26. Williamson G, Manach C. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. II. Review of 93 intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81:243S-255S pubmed publisher
    ..The length of human intervention studies should be increased, to more closely reflect the long-term dietary consumption of polyphenols. ..
  27. Castillo Muñoz N, Gómez Alonso S, García Romero E, Hermosín Gutiérrez I. Flavonol profiles of Vitis vinifera red grapes and their single-cultivar wines. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:992-1002 pubmed
    The main flavonols found in seven widespread Vitis vinifera red grape cultivars include the 3-glucosides and 3-glucuronides of myricetin and quercetin and the 3-glucosides of kaempferol and isorhamnetin...
  28. Suomela J, Ahotupa M, Yang B, Vasankari T, Kallio H. Absorption of flavonols derived from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) and their effect on emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:7364-9 pubmed
    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) is a rich source of flavonols, especially isorhamnetin. Most prospective cohort studies have indicated some degree of inverse association between flavonoid intake and coronary heart disease...
  29. Lin J, Rexrode K, Hu F, Albert C, Chae C, Rimm E, et al. Dietary intakes of flavonols and flavones and coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;165:1305-13 pubmed
    Dietary flavonols and flavones are subgroups of flavonoids that have been suggested to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  30. Wang Y, Cao J, Zeng S. Involvement of P-glycoprotein in regulating cellular levels of Ginkgo flavonols: quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005;57:751-8 pubmed
    ..Transport studies of Ginkgo flavonols were performed in Caco-2 cell mono-layers...
  31. Solfanelli C, Poggi A, Loreti E, Alpi A, Perata P. Sucrose-specific induction of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:637-46 pubmed
    ..An altered induction of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, consistent with in vivo sugar modulation of mRNA accumulation, is observed in the phosphoglucomutase Arabidopsis mutant accumulating high levels of soluble sugars. ..
  32. Moreira M, Kanashiro A, Kabeya L, Polizello A, Azzolini A, Curti C, et al. Neutrophil effector functions triggered by Fc-gamma and/or complement receptors are dependent on B-ring hydroxylation pattern and physicochemical properties of flavonols. Life Sci. 2007;81:317-26 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the modulatory effect of four flavonols (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, galangin) on rabbit PMN oxidative metabolism, specifically stimulated via ..
  33. Castillo Muñoz N, Gómez Alonso S, García Romero E, Gomez M, Velders A, Hermosín Gutiérrez I. Flavonol 3-O-glycosides series of Vitis vinifera Cv. Petit Verdot red wine grapes. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the presence of quercetin 3-O-(6"-rhamnosyl)-glucoside (rutin) was also detected as a trace compound in the skins of Petit Verdot grapes. ..
  34. Kumar N, Bhandari P, Singh B, Bari S. Antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for phenolics-based fingerprinting of Rose species: Rosa damascena, Rosa bourboniana and Rosa brunonii. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009;47:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinct similarities were observed in the relative distribution of polyphenolic compounds among the three species. The dominance of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides was observed in all the three species...
  35. Woodman O, Chan E. Vascular and anti-oxidant actions of flavonols and flavones. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004;31:786-90 pubmed
    1. Flavonols and flavones are plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that are commonly consumed in the diet...
  36. Justino G, Rodrigues M, Florêncio M, Mira L. Structure and antioxidant activity of brominated flavonols and flavanones. J Mass Spectrom. 2009;44:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These locally formed metabolites may also interact with signaling cascades involving cytokines and regulatory transcription factors, thus playing a role in inflammation and in the regulation of immune response. ..
  37. Dubber M, Sewram V, Mshicileli N, Shephard G, Kanfer I. The simultaneous determination of selected flavonol glycosides and aglycones in Ginkgo biloba oral dosage forms by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005;37:723-31 pubmed
    ..All Ginkgo products investigated were found to contain varying amounts of target analytes. ..
  38. Bao J, Cai Y, Sun M, Wang G, Corke H. Anthocyanins, flavonols, and free radical scavenging activity of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) extracts and their color properties and stability. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2327-32 pubmed
    Characterization of anthocyanins and flavonols and radical scavenging activity assays of extracts from four Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) varieties with different fruit colors were carried out...
  39. Zapata Torres G, Opazo F, Salgado C, Munoz J, Krautwurst H, Mascayano C, et al. Effects of natural flavones and flavonols on the kinase activity of Cdk5. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:416-20 pubmed
    ..and 6-methoxyluteolin were the most potent Cdk5 complex inhibitors within this series, while the common flavonols kaempferol and quercetin showed intermediate behavior...
  40. Hou Y, Aboukhatwa M, Lei D, Manaye K, Khan I, Luo Y. Anti-depressant natural flavonols modulate BDNF and beta amyloid in neurons and hippocampus of double TgAD mice. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:911-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that ginkgo flavonols quercetin and kaempferol stimulates depression-related signaling pathways involving brain-derived neurotrophic ..
  41. Woodman O, Meeker W, Boujaoude M. Vasorelaxant and antioxidant activity of flavonols and flavones: structure-activity relationships. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005;46:302-9 pubmed
    ..the structure-activity relationships regarding vascular and antioxidant activity of a range of synthetic flavonols and flavones with 3 or fewer hydroxyl (OH) or methoxyl substitutions...
  42. Tohge T, Nishiyama Y, Hirai M, Yano M, Nakajima J, Awazuhara M, et al. Functional genomics by integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing an MYB transcription factor. Plant J. 2005;42:218-35 pubmed
    ..The functional genomics approach through the integration of metabolomics and transcriptomics presented here provides an innovative means of identifying novel gene functions involved in plant metabolism. ..
  43. Wang S, Thomas C, Dusting G, Woodman O, May C. 3',4'-Dihydroxyflavonol improves post-ischaemic coronary endothelial function following 7days reperfusion in sheep. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;624:31-7 pubmed publisher
  44. Kim J, Shin K, Ko J, Ahn J. Glucosylation of flavonols by Escherichia coli expressing glucosyltransferase from rice (Oryza sativa). J Biosci Bioeng. 2006;102:135-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, RF5 could be defined as a flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase. E. coli cells expressing RF5 effectively converted 100 microM of kaempferol and quercetin into their corresponding glucosides. ..
  45. Zhang Q, Zhao X, Wang Z. Flavones and flavonols exert cytotoxic effects on a human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell line (OE33) by causing G2/M arrest and inducing apoptosis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2042-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study, cytotoxic effects of structurally related flavones and flavonols on a human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell line (OE33) were compared, and the molecular mechanisms responsible ..
  46. Laabich A, Manmoto C, Kuksa V, Leung D, Vissvesvaran G, Karliga I, et al. Protective effects of myricetin and related flavonols against A2E and light mediated-cell death in bovine retinal primary cell culture. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:154-65 pubmed
    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of flavonols, namely myricetin and structurally related quercetin and kaempferol against A2E and blue light-induced photoreceptors death in primary retinal cell cultures...
  47. Nöthlings U, Murphy S, Wilkens L, Henderson B, Kolonel L. Flavonols and pancreatic cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2007;166:924-31 pubmed
    Only a few prospective studies have investigated flavonols as risk factors for cancer, none of which has included pancreatic cancer. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention particularly important...
  48. Stracke R, De Vos R, Bartelniewoehner L, Ishihara H, Sagasser M, Martens S, et al. Metabolomic and genetic analyses of flavonol synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana support the in vivo involvement of leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase. Planta. 2009;229:427-45 pubmed publisher
    Flavonol synthase (FLS) (EC-number, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of flavonols into dihydroflavonols, is part of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway...
  49. Kim J, Liu L, Guo W, Meydani M. Chemical structure of flavonols in relation to modulation of angiogenesis and immune-endothelial cell adhesion. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17:165-76 pubmed
    ..Four flavonols - myricetin (M), quercetin (Q), kaempferol (K) and galangin (G), all with different numbers of hydroxyl moieties ..
  50. Lian T, Wang L, Lo Y, Huang I, Wu M. Fisetin, morin and myricetin attenuate CD36 expression and oxLDL uptake in U937-derived macrophages. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1781:601-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of CD36 by flavonols was mediated by interference with PPARgamma activation thus counteracting the deleterious autoamplification loop ..
  51. Shimmyo Y, Kihara T, Akaike A, Niidome T, Sugimoto H. Flavonols and flavones as BACE-1 inhibitors: structure-activity relationship in cell-free, cell-based and in silico studies reveal novel pharmacophore features. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:819-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We firstly revealed novel pharmacophore features of flavonoids by using cell-free, cell-based and in silico docking studies. These results contribute to the development of new BACE-1 inhibitors for the treatment of AD. ..
  52. Geng P, Zhang R, Aisa H, He J, Qu K, Zhu H, et al. Fast profiling of the integral metabolism of flavonols in the active fraction of Gossypium herbaceam L. using liquid chromatography/multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21:1877-88 pubmed
    ..Fifty-eight flavonols comprising mixed sulfate, methyl, glucuronide and glycoside derivatives of quercetin or kaempferol were detected,..
  53. Bouriche H, Salavei P, Lessig J, Arnhold J. Differential effects of flavonols on inactivation of alpha1-antitrypsin induced by hypohalous acids and the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;459:137-42 pubmed
    ..The flavonols rutin, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol inhibited the inactivation of alpha1-antitrypsin by HOCl and HOBr ..
  54. Zhang Q, Zhao X, Wang Z. Cytotoxicity of flavones and flavonols to a human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (KYSE-510) by induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:797-807 pubmed publisher
    In this study, cytotoxic effects of structurally related flavones and flavonols on a human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (KYSE-510) were determined, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their cytotoxic effects were ..
  55. Mehrtens F, Kranz H, Bednarek P, Weisshaar B. The Arabidopsis transcription factor MYB12 is a flavonol-specific regulator of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1083-96 pubmed
    ..reverse transcription-PCR using these mutant plants showed MYB12 to be a transcriptional regulator of CHALCONE SYNTHASE and FLAVONOL SYNTHASE in planta, the gene products of which are indispensable for the biosynthesis of flavonols.
  56. Dai F, Miao Q, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu Z. Protective effects of flavonols and their glycosides against free radical-induced oxidative hemolysis of red blood cells. Life Sci. 2006;78:2488-93 pubmed
    ..used as a model to study the free radical-induced damage of biological membranes and the protective effect of flavonols and their glycosides (FOHs), i.e...
  57. Routaboul J, Kerhoas L, Debeaujon I, Pourcel L, Caboche M, Einhorn J, et al. Flavonoid diversity and biosynthesis in seed of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2006;224:96-107 pubmed
    ..Wild type seed contained more than 26 different flavonoids belonging to flavonols (mono and diglycosylated quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives) and flavan-3-ols (epicatechin ..
  58. Jiang F, Guo N, Dusting G. Modulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase expression and function by 3',4'-dihydroxyflavonol in phagocytic and vascular cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324:261-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that suppression of NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide accumulation may contribute to the cytoprotective actions of DiOHF during ischemia-reperfusion injury. ..
  59. Hou L, Zhou B, Yang L, Liu Z. Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonols and their glycosides. Chem Phys Lipids. 2004;129:209-19 pubmed
    Antioxidative effects of the flavonols and their glycosides, i.e...
  60. Cai Y, Xing J, Sun M, Zhan Z, Corke H. Phenolic antioxidants (hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins) identified by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS from Rosa chinensis flowers. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:9940-8 pubmed
    ..A total of 36 known and unknown phenolics were identified as hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins, mainly including gallotannins (mono-, di-, or trigalloylglucopyranosides), ellagitannins, ..
  61. Gamberucci A, Konta L, Colucci A, Giunti R, Magyar J, Mandl J, et al. Green tea flavonols inhibit glucosidase II. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;72:640-6 pubmed
    ..The possible interference of tea catechins with the glycoprotein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum should be considered as a potential mechanism of their dietary or pharmacological effects. ..
  62. Wang L, Tu Y, Lian T, Hung J, Yen J, Wu M. Distinctive antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:9798-804 pubmed
    The antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of flavonols have been suggested to be structure-related...
  63. Yang R, Wei X, Gao F, Wang L, Zhang H, Xu Y, et al. Simultaneous analysis of anthocyanins and flavonols in petals of lotus (Nelumbo) cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2009;1216:106-12 pubmed publisher
    A fast and reliable HPLC method for the simultaneous separation of anthocyanins and flavonols in lotus petals was developed based on the study of four candidate solvent systems...
  64. Mattivi F, Guzzon R, Vrhovsek U, Stefanini M, Velasco R. Metabolite profiling of grape: Flavonols and anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:7692-702 pubmed
    b>Flavonols are products of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, which also give rise to anthocyanins and condensed tannins in grapes. We investigated their presence in the berry skins of 91 grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L...
  65. Merzlyak M, Melø T, Naqvi K. Effect of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols on chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra in apple fruit: signature analysis, assessment, modelling, and relevance to photoprotection. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..have been identified, and linear models for non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins, carotenoids, and flavonols via chlorophyll fluorescence measurements are put forward...
  66. Yonekura Sakakibara K, Tohge T, Matsuda F, Nakabayashi R, Takayama H, Niida R, et al. Comprehensive flavonol profiling and transcriptome coexpression analysis leading to decoding gene-metabolite correlations in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2160-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of 15 newly identified and eight known flavonols were deduced by LC-MS profiling of these mutants...
  67. Zhang J, Subramanian S, Stacey G, Yu O. Flavones and flavonols play distinct critical roles during nodulation of Medicago truncatula by Sinorhizobium meliloti. Plant J. 2009;57:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicated that flavones might act as internal inducers of rhizobial nod genes, and that flavonols might act as auxin transport regulators during nodulation...
  68. Larmo P, Yang B, Hurme S, Alin J, Kallio H, Salminen E, et al. Effect of a low dose of sea buckthorn berries on circulating concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and flavonols in healthy adults. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological studies indicate beneficial effects of flavonoids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk...
  69. Vallejo F, Tomás Barberan F, Ferreres F. Characterisation of flavonols in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) by liquid chromatography-uV diode-array detection-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2004;1054:181-93 pubmed
    ..In addition, several less complex glucosides based on the same aglycones have been identified. The effect of sugar substitution and acylation on chromatographic mobility and ESI ionisation and fragmentation are discussed. ..
  70. Jeong H, Ryu Y, Park S, Kim J, Kwon H, Kim J, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitory activities of flavonols isolated from Rhodiola rosea roots and their in vitro anti-influenza viral activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:6816-23 pubmed publisher
    Five flavonols (3, 5, and 9-11) were isolated from Rhodiola rosea, and compared with commercially available flavonoids (1, 2, 4, 6-8, and 12-14) to facilitate analysis of their structure-activity relationship (SAR)...
  71. Si D, Wang Y, Zhou Y, Guo Y, Wang J, Zhou H, et al. Mechanism of CYP2C9 inhibition by flavones and flavonols. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:629-34 pubmed publisher
    ..6-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, baicalein, apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein, and wogonin) and flavonols (galangin, fisetin, kaempferol, morin, and quercetin)...
  72. Dubber M, Kanfer I. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of selected flavonols in Ginkgo biloba solid oral dosage forms. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2004;7:303-9 pubmed
    ..3%) at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min. The limits of quantitation for the flavonols were 2.76, 0.77, 1.11, 1.55 and 1...