anthocyanins

Summary

Summary: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.

Top Publications

  1. Pourcel L, Irani N, Koo A, Bohorquez Restrepo A, Howe G, Grotewold E. A chemical complementation approach reveals genes and interactions of flavonoids with other pathways. Plant J. 2013;74:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Because flavonoid biosynthetic genes are expressed under anthocyanin inductive conditions regardless of whether anthocyanins are formed or not, this system provides an excellent opportunity to specifically investigate the molecular ..
  2. Wang H, Fan W, Li H, Yang J, Huang J, Zhang P. Functional characterization of Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78484 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide direct evidence of anthocyanins function in the protection against oxidative stress in the sweet potato...
  3. Liu W, Lu X, He G, Gao X, Xu M, Zhang J, et al. Protective roles of Gadd45 and MDM2 in blueberry anthocyanins mediated DNA repair of fragmented and non-fragmented DNA damage in UV-irradiated HepG2 cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:21447-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Gadd45 and MDM2 were activated and transcribed instantly by UV irradiation, whereas blueberry anthocyanins (BA) decreased the gene and protein expression levels in HepG2 cells for up to 24 h, and gradually restored the ..
  4. Flamini R, Mattivi F, De Rosso M, Arapitsas P, Bavaresco L. Advanced knowledge of three important classes of grape phenolics: anthocyanins, stilbenes and flavonols. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:19651-69 pubmed publisher
    Grape is qualitatively and quantitatively very rich in polyphenols. In particular, anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives play very important roles in plant metabolism, thanks to their peculiar characteristics...
  5. Shao Y, Xu F, Sun X, Bao J, Beta T. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains at four stages of development after flowering. Food Chem. 2014;143:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Only black rice had detectable anthocyanins (26.5-174.7mg/100g)...
  6. Zhu J, Li Y, Liao J. Involvement of anthocyanins in the resistance to chilling-induced oxidative stress in Saccharum officinarum L. leaves. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2013;73:427-33 pubmed publisher
    Whether anthocyanins elevate resistance to chilling-induced oxidative stress in Saccharum officinarum L. cv Badila seedlings is investigated...
  7. Fernandes I, Marques F, de Freitas V, Mateus N. Antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of methylated metabolites of anthocyanins. Food Chem. 2013;141:2923-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins are major flavonoids in many plant foods and have been related to health promotion. In the human organism anthocyanins are metabolised to different metabolites...
  8. Wu T, Qi X, Liu Y, Guo J, Zhu R, Chen W, et al. Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice. Food Chem. 2013;141:482-7 pubmed publisher
    We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice...
  9. Lücker J, Martens S, Lund S. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1474-84 pubmed publisher
    ..exocarp turns color from green to red and then to purple due to the accumulation and extent of methylation of anthocyanins. The accumulation of transcripts encoding an O-methyltransferase was recently shown to be closely correlated ..

More Information

Publications99

  1. Seymour E, Tanone I, Urcuyo Llanes D, Lewis S, Kirakosyan A, Kondoleon M, et al. Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese rats. J Med Food. 2011;14:1511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and anthocyanins can alter the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect ..
  2. McCune L, Kubota C, Stendell Hollis N, Thomson C. Cherries and health: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Cherries, and in particular sweet cherries, are a nutritionally dense food rich in anthocyanins, quercetin, hydroxycinnamates, potassium, fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and melatonin...
  3. Cui C, Zhang S, You L, Ren J, Luo W, Chen W, et al. Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) and identification of the major anthocyanins. Food Chem. 2013;139:1-8 pubmed publisher
    The anthocyanins in the fruits of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (ACN) were extracted by 1% TFA in methanol, and then purified by X-5 resin column and C18 (SPE) cartridges. The purified anthocyanin extract (ART) from the fruits of R...
  4. Qi T, Song S, Ren Q, Wu D, Huang H, Chen Y, et al. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1795-814 pubmed publisher
  5. Xie X, Li S, Zhang R, Zhao J, Chen Y, Zhao Q, et al. The bHLH transcription factor MdbHLH3 promotes anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in response to low temperature in apples. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:1884-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the molecular mechanism by which MdbHLH3 regulates LT-induced anthocyanin accumulation and fruit colouration in apple. ..
  6. Falginella L, Castellarin S, Testolin R, Gambetta G, Morgante M, Di Gaspero G. Expansion and subfunctionalisation of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylases in the grapevine lineage. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:562 pubmed publisher
    ..F3'Hs) competitively control the synthesis of delphinidin and cyanidin, the precursors of blue and red anthocyanins. In most plants, F3'5'H genes are present in low-copy number, but in grapevine they are highly redundant...
  7. Petroni K, Tonelli C. Recent advances on the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in reproductive organs. Plant Sci. 2011;181:219-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins represent the major red, purple, violet and blue pigments in many flowers and fruits. They attract pollinators and seed dispersers and defend plants against abiotic and biotic stresses...
  8. Jimenez A, Lisa Santamaría P, García Marino M, Escribano Bailon M, Rivas Gonzalo J, Revuelta J. The biological activity of the wine anthocyanins delphinidin and petunidin is mediated through Msn2 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010;10:858-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Above all, the anthocyanins delphinidin 3-glucoside and petunidin 3-glucoside were found to improve significantly the growth rate of S...
  9. Kovinich N, Saleem A, Rintoul T, Brown D, Arnason J, Miki B. Coloring genetically modified soybean grains with anthocyanins by suppression of the proanthocyanidin genes ANR1 and ANR2. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:757-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This report identifies the suppression of PA genes to be a novel approach for engineering pigmentation in soybean grains...
  10. Shim S, Kim J, Choi C, Kim C, Park K. Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma. J Med Food. 2012;15:818-23 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases...
  11. Kim C, Cho M, Choi Y, Kim J, Kim Y, Kim Y, et al. Identification and characterization of seed-specific transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in black rice. J Appl Genet. 2011;52:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..While these genes require further validation, the results here underline the potential use of the new microarray and provide valuable insight into anthocyanin pigment production in rice. ..
  12. Fournier Level A, Hugueney P, Verri s C, This P, Ageorges A. Genetic mechanisms underlying the methylation level of anthocyanins in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:179 pubmed publisher
    ..The integration of QTL mapping and molecular approaches enabled a better understanding of how variation in gene expression and catalytic efficiency of the resulting enzyme may influence the grape anthocyanin profile...
  13. Lowry D, Sheng C, Lasky J, Willis J. Five anthocyanin polymorphisms are associated with an R2R3-MYB cluster in Mimulus guttatus (Phrymaceae). Am J Bot. 2012;99:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Botanists have long been interested in the reasons for genetic variation among individuals, populations, and species of plants. The anthocyanin pathway is ideal for studying the evolution of such phenotypic variation...
  14. Fernandes I, Nave F, Gonçalves R, de Freitas V, Mateus N. On the bioavailability of flavanols and anthocyanins: flavanol-anthocyanin dimers. Food Chem. 2012;135:812-8 pubmed publisher
    The bioavailability of flavanols, anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments like flavanol-anthocyanin dimers already reported to occur in food products is a major unsolved issue...
  15. Mallery S, Budendorf D, Larsen M, Pei P, Tong M, Holpuch A, et al. Effects of human oral mucosal tissue, saliva, and oral microflora on intraoral metabolism and bioactivation of black raspberry anthocyanins. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:1209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequent studies have confirmed that anthocyanins are key contributors to BRB's chemopreventive effects...
  16. Kim S, Chung M, Ha T, Choi H, Jang S, Kim S, et al. Neuroprotective effects of black soybean anthocyanins via inactivation of ASK1-JNK/p38 pathways and mobilization of cellular sialic acids. Life Sci. 2012;90:874-82 pubmed publisher
    To investigate neuroprotective effects of three major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and petunidin-3-O-glucoside) isolated from the black soybean (Glycine max L.) cv...
  17. Vignolini S, Davey M, Bateman R, Rudall P, Moyroud E, Tratt J, et al. The mirror crack'd: both pigment and structure contribute to the glossy blue appearance of the mirror orchid, Ophrys speculum. New Phytol. 2012;196:1038-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Several physical and biochemical processes interact to produce the striking and much-discussed optical effects in these flowers, but the blue colour is not produced by structural means and is not iridescent...
  18. Falginella L, Di Gaspero G, Castellarin S. Expression of flavonoid genes in the red grape berry of 'Alicante Bouschet' varies with the histological distribution of anthocyanins and their chemical composition. Planta. 2012;236:1037-51 pubmed
    ..In the pericarp, anthocyanins formed membrane-encased spherical coalescences that gradually enlarged and were shuttled into the vacuolar ..
  19. Lee S, Jeong H, Kim D, Sohn E, Kim M, Kim D, et al. Enhancement of HIV-1 Tat fusion protein transduction efficiency by bog blueberry anthocyanins. BMB Rep. 2010;43:561-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated the effect of bog blueberry anthocyanins (BBA) on protein transduction efficiency and found that BBA enhanced the transduction efficiencies of Tat-SOD ..
  20. Li J, Kang M, Kim J, Kim J, Kang S, Lim S, et al. Purple corn anthocyanins retard diabetes-associated glomerulosclerosis in mesangial cells and db/db mice. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51:961-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Purple corn has been classified as a functional food and is rich in anthocyanins exerting potential disease-preventive activities...
  21. Guo H, Li D, Ling W, Feng X, Xia M. Anthocyanin inhibits high glucose-induced hepatic mtGPAT1 activation and prevents fatty acid synthesis through PKC?. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:908-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which anthocyanin regulates lipogenesis and thereby inhibits hepatic steatosis, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in diabetes and related steatotic liver diseases. ..
  22. Hui C, Bin Y, Xiaoping Y, Long Y, Chunye C, Mantian M, et al. Anticancer activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:1128-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins widely present in human diet and have a variety of health effects. This study investigates the anticancer effects of an anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (AEBR) on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
  23. Gou J, Felippes F, Liu C, Weigel D, Wang J. Negative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by a miR156-targeted SPL transcription factor. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..through an important metabolic pathway that leads to the production of diverse secondary metabolites, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, and proanthocyanidins...
  24. Kaspar K, Park J, Brown C, Mathison B, Navarre D, Chew B. Pigmented potato consumption alters oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in men. J Nutr. 2011;141:108-11 pubmed publisher
    Pigmented potatoes contain high concentrations of antioxidants, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids...
  25. Bornsek S, Ziberna L, Polak T, Vanzo A, Ulrih N, Abram V, et al. Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cells. Food Chem. 2012;134:1878-84 pubmed publisher
    Berry anthocyanins have pronounced health effects, even though they have a low bioavailability. The common mechanism underlying health protection is believed to relate to antioxidant activity...
  26. Azuma A, Yakushiji H, Koshita Y, Kobayashi S. Flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes in grape skin are differentially regulated by temperature and light conditions. Planta. 2012;236:1067-80 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the effects of temperature and light conditions on the biosynthesis of flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavonols) and the expression levels of related genes in an in vitro environmental experiment using ..
  27. Zhang Y, Butelli E, De Stefano R, Schoonbeek H, Magusin A, Pagliarani C, et al. Anthocyanins double the shelf life of tomatoes by delaying overripening and reducing susceptibility to gray mold. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea is dependent specifically on the accumulation of anthocyanins, which alter the spreading of the ROS burst during infection...
  28. Prasad S, Phromnoi K, Yadav V, Chaturvedi M, Aggarwal B. Targeting inflammatory pathways by flavonoids for prevention and treatment of cancer. Planta Med. 2010;76:1044-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review describes various flavones, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavones, anthocyanins, and chalcones derived from fruits, vegetables, legumes, spices, and nuts that can suppress the proinflammatory ..
  29. Streisfeld M, Liu D, Rausher M. Predictable patterns of constraint among anthocyanin-regulating transcription factors in Ipomoea. New Phytol. 2011;191:264-74 pubmed publisher
  30. Wang L, Kuo C, Cho S, Seguin C, Siddiqui J, Stoner K, et al. Black raspberry-derived anthocyanins demethylate tumor suppressor genes through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in colon cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The anthocyanins (ACs) in black raspberries are responsible, at least in part, for their cancer-inhibitory effects...
  31. Li X, Thwe A, Park N, Suzuki T, Kim S, Park S. Accumulation of phenylpropanoids and correlated gene expression during the development of tartary buckwheat sprouts. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:5629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..HPLC) analysis revealed that increasing the culture time did not affect the accumulation of flavonoids or anthocyanins. However, light contributed the production of anthocyanins in Hokkai T10 sprouts...
  32. Guo H, Liu G, Zhong R, Wang Y, Wang D, Xia M. Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  33. Andersen Ø, Jordheim M, Byamukama R, Mbabazi A, Ogweng G, Skaar I, et al. Anthocyanins with unusual furanose sugar (apiose) from leaves of Synadenium grantii (Euphorbiaceae). Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1558-63 pubmed publisher
    Four anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-(2''-(5'''-(E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-apiofuranosyl)-beta-xylopyranoside)-5-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-(2''-(5'''-(E-p-coumaroyl)-beta-apiofuranosyl)-beta-xylopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(2''-(5'''-(E-..
  34. Edirisinghe I, Banaszewski K, Cappozzo J, Sandhya K, Ellis C, Tadapaneni R, et al. Strawberry anthocyanin and its association with postprandial inflammation and insulin. Br J Nutr. 2011;106:913-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Postprandial changes in plasma anthocyanins, their metabolites, insulin, glucose and inflammatory markers were assessed for 6 h...
  35. De Rosso M, Tonidandel L, Larcher R, Nicolini G, Ruggeri V, Dalla Vedova A, et al. Study of anthocyanic profiles of twenty-one hybrid grape varieties by liquid chromatography and precursor-ion mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2012;732:120-9 pubmed publisher
    The anthocyanins of 21 hybrid red varieties produced by crossing V. vinifera, V. riparia, V. labrusca, V. lincecumii and V. rupestris species, the profiles for which have not yet been reported, were studied...
  36. Zhang B, Kang M, Xie Q, Xu B, Sun C, Chen K, et al. Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect ? cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:537-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Chinese bayberry is one of six Myrica species native to China, and we demonstrated here that anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract (CBE) protect pancreatic ? cells (INS-1) against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-..
  37. Sharma M, Cortés Cruz M, Ahern K, McMullen M, Brutnell T, Chopra S. Identification of the pr1 gene product completes the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of maize. Genetics. 2011;188:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The cloning and characterization of pr1 completes the molecular identification of all genes encoding structural enzymes of the anthocyanin pathway of maize...
  38. Hwang Y, Choi J, Han E, Kim H, Wee J, Jung K, et al. Purple sweet potato anthocyanins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells and obese mice. Nutr Res. 2011;31:896-906 pubmed publisher
    Purple sweet potato is a functional food rich in anthocyanins that possess disease-preventive properties. Anthocyanins are known to possess potent antidiabetic properties...
  39. Tamura S, Tsuji K, Yongzhen P, Ohnishi Kameyama M, Murakami N. Six new acylated anthocyanins from red radish (Raphanus sativus). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:1259-62 pubmed
    Six new acylated anthocyanins (1-6) were isolated along with the three known congeners (7-9) from the fresh roots of red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated by our group...
  40. Hwang Y, Choi J, Yun H, Han E, Kim H, Kim J, et al. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and reducing COX-2 and iNOS expression. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49:93-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins of the purple sweet potato exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities via a multitude of biochemical mechanisms...
  41. Wei Y, Hu F, Hu G, Li X, Huang X, Wang H. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in relation to anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarp of Litchi chinensis Sonn. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19455 pubmed publisher
    ..Zero-red pericarp from either immature or CPPU treated fruits appeared to be lacking in anthocyanins due to the absence of UFGT expression...
  42. Wei X, Wang D, Yang Y, Xia M, Li D, Li G, et al. Cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside improves obesity and triglyceride metabolism in KK-Ay mice by regulating lipoprotein lipase activity. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:1006-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying mechanism is found to be partly related to the activation of LPL in plasma and skeletal muscle, and inhibition of LPL in adipose tissue following the activation of pAMPK. ..
  43. Cassidy A, Mukamal K, Liu L, Franz M, Eliassen A, Rimm E. High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women. Circulation. 2013;127:188-96 pubmed publisher
    ..from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI...
  44. Zou T, Wang D, Guo H, Zhu Y, Luo X, Liu F, et al. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from mulberry and identification of anthocyanins in extract using HPLC-ESI-MS. J Food Sci. 2012;77:C46-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruits, vegetables, and plants. This study aims to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions of anthocyanins from mulberry (M. atropurpurea Roxb...
  45. Ziberna L, Lunder M, Moze S, Vanzo A, Tramer F, Passamonti S, et al. Acute cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects of bilberry anthocyanins in ischemia-reperfusion injury: beyond concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2010;10:283-94 pubmed publisher
    ..reported to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, little is known about acute direct effects of bilberry anthocyanins on whole mammalian heart under ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) conditions...
  46. Sankhari J, Thounaojam M, Jadeja R, Devkar R, Ramachandran A. Anthocyanin-rich red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) extract attenuates cardiac and hepatic oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet. J Sci Food Agric. 2012;92:1688-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the present study provides the first scientific evidence for a protective role of ARCE against ATH diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia and cardiac and hepatic oxidative stress. ..
  47. Min B, McClung A, Chen M. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C117-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application. ..
  48. Speciale A, Canali R, Chirafisi J, Saija A, Virgili F, Cimino F. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside protection against TNF-?-induced endothelial dysfunction: involvement of nuclear factor-?B signaling. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:12048-54 pubmed publisher
  49. Montefiori M, Espley R, Stevenson D, Cooney J, Datson P, Saiz A, et al. Identification and characterisation of F3GT1 and F3GGT1, two glycosyltransferases responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-fleshed kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Plant J. 2011;65:106-118 pubmed publisher
    Much of the diversity of anthocyanins is due to the action of glycosyltransferases, which add sugar moieties to anthocyanidins...
  50. Gatica Arias A, Farag M, Stanke M, Matousek J, Wessjohann L, Weber G. Flavonoid production in transgenic hop (Humulus lupulus L.) altered by PAP1/MYB75 from Arabidopsis thaliana L. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemical analysis revealed higher levels of anthocyanins, rutin, isoquercitin, kaempferol-glucoside, kaempferol-glucoside-malonate, desmethylxanthohumol, xanthohumol, ?-..
  51. Choi J, Hwang Y, Choi C, Chung Y, Jeong H. Anti-fibrotic effects of the anthocyanins isolated from the purple-fleshed sweet potato on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine administration in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:3137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that AF administration can effectively improve liver fibrosis caused by DMN, and may be used as a therapeutic option and preventive measure against hepatic fibrosis. ..
  52. Glińska S, Gabara B. The effects of the anthocyanin-rich extract from red cabbage leaves on Allium cepa L. root tip cell ultrastructure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:93-8 pubmed publisher
  53. Li Y, Mao K, Zhao C, Zhao X, Zhang H, Shu H, et al. MdCOP1 ubiquitin E3 ligases interact with MdMYB1 to regulate light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis and red fruit coloration in apple. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1011-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism by which light controls anthocyanin accumulation and red fruit coloration in apple and even other plant species. ..
  54. Fornal S, Shi X, Chai C, Encina A, Irar S, Capellades M, et al. ZmMYB31 directly represses maize lignin genes and redirects the phenylpropanoid metabolic flux. Plant J. 2010;64:633-44 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of repression of lignin biosynthesis, transgenic plants redirect carbon flux towards the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Thus, ZmMYB31 can be considered a good candidate for the manipulation of lignin biosynthesis in ..
  55. Liu Y, Song X, Han Y, Zhou F, Zhang D, Ji B, et al. Identification of anthocyanin components of wild Chinese blueberries and amelioration of light-induced retinal damage in pigmented rabbit using whole berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:356-63 pubmed publisher
    Studies suggest that the consumption of berry fruits rich in anthocyanins may have beneficial effects on improving visual function...
  56. Matsuba Y, Sasaki N, Tera M, Okamura M, Abe Y, Okamoto E, et al. A novel glucosylation reaction on anthocyanins catalyzed by acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase in the petals of carnation and delphinium. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3374-89 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences suggested that other plant species are likely to have similar acyl-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferases...
  57. Liu X, Chuang Y, Chiou C, Chin D, Shen F, Yeh K. Methylation effect on chalcone synthase gene expression determines anthocyanin pigmentation in floral tissues of two Oncidium orchid cultivars. Planta. 2012;236:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Dollp, a natural somatoclone derived from tissue culture of Gower Ramsey, with a yellow perianth without red anthocyanins in floral tissues...
  58. Zhu W, Jia Q, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Xia M. The anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside, a flavonoid, increases hepatic glutathione synthesis and protects hepatocytes against reactive oxygen species during hyperglycemia: Involvement of a cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:314-27 pubmed publisher
  59. Yang Y, Andrews M, Hu Y, Wang D, Qin Y, Zhu Y, et al. Anthocyanin extract from black rice significantly ameliorates platelet hyperactivity and hypertriglyceridemia in dyslipidemic rats induced by high fat diets. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:6759-64 pubmed publisher
  60. Paixão J, Dinis T, Almeida L. Dietary anthocyanins protect endothelial cells against peroxynitrite-induced mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and Bax nuclear translocation: an in vitro approach. Apoptosis. 2011;16:976-89 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins have received increasing attention because of their relatively high intake in humans and wide range of potential health-promoting effects, including anti-atherogenic properties...
  61. Min S, Ryu S, Kim D. Anti-inflammatory effects of black rice, cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glycoside, and its metabolites, cyanidin and protocatechuic acid. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:959-66 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, if BR is orally administered, its main constituent, C3G, may be metabolized to cyanidin and/or PA, which express potent anti-inflammatory effects by regulating NF-kappaB and MAPK activation. ..
  62. Ochoa Villarreal M, Vargas Arispuro I, Islas Osuna M, Gonzalez Aguilar G, Martínez Téllez M. Pectin-derived oligosaccharides increase color and anthocyanin content in Flame Seedless grapes. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:1928-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that PDOs can be used to improve fruit quality aspects such as berry skin color. ..
  63. Poulose S, Fisher D, Larson J, Bielinski D, Rimando A, Carey A, et al. Anthocyanin-rich açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) fruit pulp fractions attenuate inflammatory stress signaling in mouse brain BV-2 microglial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:1084-93 pubmed publisher
    ..açai pulp was fractionated using solvents with different polarities and analyzed using HPLC for major anthocyanins and other phenolics...
  64. Ziberna L, Lunder M, Tramer F, Drevensek G, Passamonti S. The endothelial plasma membrane transporter bilitranslocase mediates rat aortic vasodilation induced by anthocyanins. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;23:68-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins, a sub-class of flavonoids, induce endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase and consequently increasing production of the vasorelaxant agent nitric oxide...
  65. Montilla E, Hillebrand S, Butschbach D, Baldermann S, Watanabe N, Winterhalter P. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:9899-904 pubmed publisher
    ..The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements...
  66. Kim S, Park M, Woo H, Tharmalingam N, Lee G, Rhee K, et al. Inhibitory effects of anthocyanins on secretion of Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9:838-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins have been studied as potential antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori...
  67. González Barrio R, Edwards C, Crozier A. Colonic catabolism of ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and raspberry anthocyanins: in vivo and in vitro studies. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:1680-8 pubmed publisher
    Red raspberries contain principally anthocyanins and ellagitannins...
  68. Brockington S, Walker R, Glover B, Soltis P, Soltis D. Complex pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales. New Phytol. 2011;190:854-64 pubmed
    Carotenoids and flavonoids including anthocyanins are the predominant pigments in flowering plants, where they play important roles in pollination, seed dispersal, protection against stress and signalling...
  69. Wessinger C, Rausher M. Lessons from flower colour evolution on targets of selection. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:5741-9 pubmed publisher
    ..physiological, ignore differences among traits within categories and in doing so overlook important factors determining the relative importance of regulatory and functional mutations...
  70. Lei M, Zhu C, Liu Y, Karthikeyan A, Bressan R, Raghothama K, et al. Ethylene signalling is involved in regulation of phosphate starvation-induced gene expression and production of acid phosphatases and anthocyanin in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2011;189:1084-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the roles of ethylene in the regulation of plant responses to Pi starvation and will help us to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying these responses. ..
  71. Thoppil R, Bhatia D, Barnes K, Háznagy Radnai E, Hohmann J, Darvesh A, et al. Black currant anthocyanins abrogate oxidative stress through Nrf2- mediated antioxidant mechanisms in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2012;12:1244-57 pubmed
    ..The current study aims to elucidate the underlying antioxidant mechanisms of black currant anthocyanins implicated in the previously observed chemopreventive effects against experimental hepatocarcinogenesis...
  72. Ohno S, Hosokawa M, Kojima M, Kitamura Y, Hoshino A, Tatsuzawa F, et al. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia. Planta. 2011;234:945-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias. ..
  73. Ju J, Yoon H, Park H, Kim M, Shin H, Park K, et al. Anti-obesity and antioxidative effects of purple sweet potato extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. J Med Food. 2011;14:1097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study shows that PSP extract has antilipogenic, anti-inflammatory, and lipolytic effects on adipocytes and has radical scavenging and reducing activity. ..
  74. Lin Wang K, Micheletti D, Palmer J, Volz R, Lozano L, Espley R, et al. High temperature reduces apple fruit colour via modulation of the anthocyanin regulatory complex. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1176-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), concentrations of fruit anthocyanins are lower under hot climatic conditions...
  75. He J, Giusti M. Anthocyanins: natural colorants with health-promoting properties. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2010;1:163-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins are flavonoids in fruits and vegetables that render them vivid red to blue...
  76. Paixão J, Dinis T, Almeida L. Malvidin-3-glucoside protects endothelial cells up-regulating endothelial NO synthase and inhibiting peroxynitrite-induced NF-kB activation. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;199:192-200 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoid constituents of fruits and vegetables and several epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of these compounds protect against several diseases, including vascular disorders...
  77. Kovinich N, Saleem A, Arnason J, Miki B. Functional characterization of a UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase from the seed coat of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Phytochemistry. 2010;71:1253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Merr.) accumulate red (cyanidin-), blue (delphinidin-), purple (petunidin-), and orange (pelargonidin-based) anthocyanins almost exclusively as 3-O-glucosides; however, the responsible enzyme has not been identified...
  78. Edirisinghe I, Banaszewski K, Cappozzo J, McCarthy D, Burton Freeman B. Effect of black currant anthocyanins on the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in vitro in human endothelial cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:8616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The individual (and combined) effects of the major anthocyanins present in black currant juice samples with and without vitamin C were investigated and compared to the effects ..
  79. Gutha L, Casassa L, Harbertson J, Naidu R. Modulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes and anthocyanins due to virus infection in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:187 pubmed publisher
    ..The reddish-purple color of symptomatic leaves may be due to the accumulation of anthocyanins and could reflect an up-regulation of genes involved in their biosynthesis. ..
  80. Piberger H, Oehme A, Hofmann C, Dreiseitel A, Sand P, Obermeier F, et al. Bilberries and their anthocyanins ameliorate experimental colitis. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:1724-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Bilberries contain approximately 10% of anthocyanins (ACs), which have anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties...
  81. Park N, Li X, Suzuki T, Kim S, Woo S, Park C, et al. Differential expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and anthocyanin accumulation in tartary buckwheat cultivars 'Hokkai t8' and 'Hokkai t10'. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the anthocyanin concentration was higher in 'Hokkai T10' than in 'Hokkai T8'; however, naringenin chalcone, a flavonoid, was absent from 'Hokkai T10' seedlings based on fluorescence microscopy. ..
  82. Smith S, Wang S, Rausher M. Functional evolution of an anthocyanin pathway enzyme during a flower color transition. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:602-12 pubmed publisher
  83. Chagn D, Lin Wang K, Espley R, Volz R, How N, Rouse S, et al. An ancient duplication of apple MYB transcription factors is responsible for novel red fruit-flesh phenotypes. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:225-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Both MYB10 and MYB110a have conserved function in some cultivars, but they differ in their expression pattern and response to fruit maturity...
  84. Luo Q, Mittal A, Jia F, Rock C. An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;80:117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by TAS4 and miR828 in higher plants is evolutionarily significant and consistent with the evolution of TAS4 since the dicot-monocot divergence. ..
  85. Hsu C, Shih Y, Lin B, Chiu C, Lin C. Inhibitory effect and mechanisms of an anthocyanins- and anthocyanidins-rich extract from purple-shoot tea on colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3686-92 pubmed publisher
    ..catechins of purple-shoot tea extract (PTE) were significantly higher than that of ordinary tea, especially the anthocyanins (surpassed by 135-fold) and anthocyanidins (surpassed by 3.5-fold)...
  86. Zhang B, Hu Z, Zhang Y, Li Y, Zhou S, Chen G. A putative functional MYB transcription factor induced by low temperature regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple kale (Brassica Oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor). Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Total anthocyanin analysis showed that the amount of anthocyanins in the purple kale was up to 1.73 mg g(-1) while no anthocyanin was detected in the white kale...
  87. Zhang Z, Li X, Chu Y, ZHANG M, Wen Y, Duan C, et al. Three types of ultraviolet irradiation differentially promote expression of shikimate pathway genes and production of anthocyanins in grape berries. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2012;57:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Correspondently, UV-B and UV-C irradiation increased the content of various anthocyanins in the 11-week grapes, but UV-A did not...
  88. Zhu Y, Xia M, Yang Y, Liu F, Li Z, Hao Y, et al. Purified anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelial function via NO-cGMP activation in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Clin Chem. 2011;57:1524-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Anthocyanins have been shown to improve endothelial function in animal models. However, whether these compounds have similar beneficial effects in humans is largely unknown.
  89. Kang M, Li J, Kim J, Gong J, Kwak S, Park J, et al. Purple corn anthocyanins inhibit diabetes-associated glomerular monocyte activation and macrophage infiltration. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Purple corn utilized as a daily food is rich in anthocyanins exerting disease-preventive activities as a functional food...
  90. Mulabagal V, Keller W, Calderón A. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials and capsules by Q-TOF liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:1289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Arecaceae) fruits and their dietary supplements are gaining much popularity internationally. Anthocyanins and their aglycons are responsible for the dense color of açaí fruit and are associated with a wide spectrum ..