habitual abortion


Summary: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.

Top Publications

  1. Palomba S, Falbo A, Orio F, Russo T, Tolino A, Zullo F. Metformin hydrochloride and recurrent miscarriage in a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1511.e3-5 pubmed
    ..To report the effect of metformin treatment on a patient with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  2. Prakash A, Laird S, Tuckerman E, Li T, Ledger W. Inhibin A and activin A may be used to predict pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1758-63 pubmed
    ..To look at the role of inhibin and activin in predicting pregnancy outcome in patients with history of recurrent miscarriage...
  3. Quintero Ramos A, Valdez Vélázquez L, Hernandez G, Baltazar L, Padilla Gutiérrez J, Valle Y, et al. [Assessment of five thrombophilic genetic polymorphisms among couples with habitual abortion]. Gac Med Mex. 2006;142:95-8 pubmed
    ..study we attempted to evaluate the possible association between thrombophilic genetic polymorphisms and habitual abortion (HA). Samples from two groups of volunteers were analyzed...
  4. Rai R, Regan L. Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet. 2006;368:601-11 pubmed
  5. Diejomaoh M, Jirous J, Al Azemi M, Gupta M, Al Jaber M, Farhat R, et al. Insulin resistance in women with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage of unknown aetiology. Med Princ Pract. 2007;16:114-8 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to explore the role of insulin resistance in women with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM). Patients with > or =3 consecutive spontaneous miscarriages were classified as having RSM...
  6. Szekeres Bartho J, Balasch J. Progestagen therapy for recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update. 2008;14:27-35 pubmed
    ..In approximately 50% of the cases neither of the above can be identified. We aimed at examining the evidence on the role of progesterone in the pathophysiology of RM, and the clinical evidence on effectiveness of progestogen treatment...
  7. Anumba D, El Gelany S, Elliott S, Li T. Serum relaxin levels are reduced in pregnant women with a history of recurrent miscarriage, and correlate with maternal uterine artery Doppler indices in first trimester. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;147:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Defective implantation is a mechanism for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). We sought to determine whether the serum expression of human relaxin-2 (RLX) is impaired in women with a history of RPL...
  8. Tuckerman E, Laird S, Stewart R, Wells M, Li T. Markers of endometrial function in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: a comparison between morphologically normal and retarded endometrium. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:196-205 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine if any of these molecules or cells could be used to distinguish LPD from in-phase endometrium...
  9. Carrington B, Sacks G, Regan L. Recurrent miscarriage: pathophysiology and outcome. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;17:591-7 pubmed
    ..This article reviews new concepts in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriage, presents new outcome data and evaluates new modalities of treatment for unexplained recurrent miscarriage...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Guimarães Filho H, Mattar R, Pires C, Araujo Júnior E, Moron A, Nardozza L. Prevalence of uterine defects in habitual abortion patients attended on at a university health service in Brazil. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006;274:345-8 pubmed
    ..Assessment of the prevalence and types of uterine defects in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) through hysteroscopy (HTC)...
  2. Quenby S, Farquharson R, Young M, Vince G. Successful pregnancy outcome following 19 consecutive miscarriages: case report. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2562-4 pubmed
    ..This case report describes a patient in whom an excessive number of uterine NK cells were found. She received preconceptual prednisolone and delivered a live baby. This is a novel observation of untested significance...
  3. Carp H, Dardik R, Lubetsky A, Salomon O, Eskaraev R, Rosenthal E, et al. Prevalence of circulating procoagulant microparticles in women with recurrent miscarriage: a case-controlled study. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:191-5 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of circulating microparticles in women with recurrent pregnancy loss...
  4. Schweikert A, Rau T, Berkholz A, Allera A, Daufeldt S, Wildt L. Association of progesterone receptor polymorphism with recurrent abortions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004;113:67-72 pubmed
    ..The current study sought for polymorphisms within the progesterone receptor (PR) gene. Allele and genotype frequencies of patients with repeated abortions were compared to a control group...
  5. Quenby S, Kalumbi C, Bates M, Farquharson R, Vince G. Prednisolone reduces preconceptual endometrial natural killer cells in women with recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:980-4 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that high numbers of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage (RM) could be reduced with prednisolone...
  6. Salim R, Miel J, Savvas M, Lee C, Jurkovic D. A comparative study of glycodelin concentrations in uterine flushings in women with subseptate uteri, history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage and healthy controls. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;133:76-80 pubmed
    ..To compare the concentration of glycodelin in uterine flushing at the implantation window obtained from women with subseptate uteri, women with a history of recurrent first trimester miscarriage and fertile controls...
  7. Kaare M, Ulander V, Painter J, Ahvenainen T, Kaaja R, Aittomaki K. Variations in the thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor genes in couples with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:864-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in the human TM or EPCR genes are associated with an increased risk for RM...
  8. Shimada S, Kato E, Morikawa M, Iwabuchi K, Nishida R, Kishi R, et al. No difference in natural killer or natural killer T-cell population, but aberrant T-helper cell population in the endometrium of women with repeated miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:1018-24 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the natural killer (NK) cell and natural killer T (NKT) cell populations and cytokine expression of T-helper (Th) cells in the endometrium of women who suffered from unexplained repeated miscarriage (RM)...
  9. Mtiraoui N, Borgi L, Gris J, Almawi W, Mahjoub T. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A and antibodies against phospholipids in recurrent spontaneous abortion. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:1482-4 pubmed
  10. Dosiou C, Giudice L. Natural killer cells in pregnancy and recurrent pregnancy loss: endocrine and immunologic perspectives. Endocr Rev. 2005;26:44-62 pubmed
  11. Glueck C, Gogenini S, Munjal J, Tracy T, Pranikoff J, Wang P. Factor V Leiden mutation: a treatable etiology for sporadic and recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:410-6 pubmed
  12. Bianca S, Barrano B, Cutuli N, Indaco L, Ingegnosi C, Cataliotti A, et al. Recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia: who should be tested?. J Clin Pathol. 2008;61:1149-50 pubmed publisher
  13. Sugiura Ogasawara M, Ozaki Y, Kitaori T, Suzumori N, Obayashi S, Suzuki S. Live birth rate according to maternal age and previous number of recurrent miscarriages. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:314-9 pubmed publisher
    ..408 x (previous number of miscarriages), logit(p(c)) = 6.806 - 0.1130 x (age) - 0.514 x (previous number of miscarriages). The information concerning the live birth rate can be given to each patient before subsequent pregnancy. ..
  14. Aguilera C, Agustí A. [Low dose of aspirin during pregnancy]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:31-3 pubmed
  15. Ramidi G, Khan N, Glueck C, Wang P, Goldenberg N. Enoxaparin-metformin and enoxaparin alone may safely reduce pregnancy loss. Transl Res. 2009;153:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse maternal-fetal side effects were reported on enoxaparin alone or enoxaparin-metformin. Enoxaparin-metformin reduces pregnancy loss in women with PCOS-coagulation disorders and in women with coagulation disorders-thrombi. ..
  16. Quenby S, Anim Somuah M, Kalumbi C, Farquharson R, Aplin J. Different types of recurrent miscarriage are associated with varying patterns of adhesion molecule expression in endometrium. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;14:224-34 pubmed
    ..Different endometrial integrin distribution was found in women suffering different types of recurrent pregnancy loss. It is postulated that impairment of the implantation barrier contributes to recurrent fetal loss. ..
  17. Bogdanova N, Horst J, Chlystun M, Croucher P, Nebel A, Bohring A, et al. A common haplotype of the annexin A5 (ANXA5) gene promoter is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:573-8 pubmed
  18. Cocksedge K, Saravelos S, Wang Q, Tuckerman E, Laird S, Li T. Does free androgen index predict subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent miscarriage?. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:797-802 pubmed publisher
  19. Kovacheva K, Ivanov P, Konova E, Simeonova M, Komsa Penkova R. [Genetic thrombophilic defects (Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, MTHFR C677T) in women with recurrent fetal loss]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2007;46:10-6 pubmed
    ..5). Genetic thrombophilic defects are common in women with RFL and are associated with late fetal loss. This association is manifest by FVL rather than total number of defects involved. ..
  20. Carp H, Shoenfeld Y. Anti-phospholipid antibodies and infertility. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2007;32:159-61 pubmed
  21. Hajsmanová Z, Slechtová J, Sigutová P, Ulcova Gallova Z. [Long-term low molecular weight heparin protection during pregnancy for the recurrent fetal loss]. Ceska Gynekol. 2008;73:278-83 pubmed
    ..91% effectiveness of a long-term LMWH protection means in fact 43 liveborn babies delivered without any complications during pregnancy and delivery to 47 women - 30 of these women were primiparas. ..
  22. Ksouri H, Mellouli F, Bejaoui M. [Antiphospholipid syndrome: pathophysiology and clinicobiological aspects]. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis. 2008;85:91-105 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis problems and clinicobiological manifestations in the light of the last international consensus statement of the classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome end this review. ..
  23. Parveen F, Faridi R, Das V, Tripathi G, Agrawal S. Genetic association of phase I and phase II detoxification genes with recurrent miscarriages among North Indian women. Mol Hum Reprod. 2010;16:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Through combined analyses we have highlighted the importance of the balance of phase I/phase II detoxification systems, in the etiology of RM. ..
  24. Kazerooni T, Asadi N, Jadid L, Kazerooni M, Ghanadi A, Ghaffarpasand F, et al. Evaluation of sperm's chromatin quality with acridine orange test, chromomycin A3 and aniline blue staining in couples with unexplained recurrent abortion. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..031) respectively. Evaluation of the sperm's quality via CMA3 and AB staining could be considered as one of the complementary tests of semen analysis for assessment of male factor in couples with spontaneous recurrent abortion. ..
  25. Gloria Bottini F, Magrini A, Amante A, Nicotra M, Bottini E. Haptoglobin phenotype and reproductive success in repeated spontaneous abortion. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;144:153-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hp may play an important role in implantation and/or embryo survival. Couples in which both partners carry the Hp2/1 phenotype have a low probability of producing a live-born infant. ..
  26. Choe J, Check J, Chern R. Septoplasty allows successful delivery in a primary aborter with six previous first trimester miscarriages. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2009;36:15-6 pubmed
    ..The case also shows that a definitive diagnosis of a bicornuate uterus by HSG and/or MRI can not be made. ..
  27. Caglayan A, Ozyazgan I, Demiryilmaz F, Ozgun M. Are heterochromatin polymorphisms associated with recurrent miscarriage?. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:774-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Lett C, Case A, Baerwald A. Matched designs--intuitively attractive, but the analysis can be problematic. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:1500-1; author reply 1501 pubmed
  29. Kist W, Janssen N, Kalk J, Hague W, Dekker G, De Vries J. Thrombophilias and adverse pregnancy outcome - A confounded problem!. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:77-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences we have identified reflect the differential impact of these confounders. These data emphasise the importance of more uniform research. ..
  30. Danowski A, de Azevedo M, de Souza Papi J, Petri M. Determinants of risk for venous and arterial thrombosis in primary antiphospholipid syndrome and in antiphospholipid syndrome with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hereditary thrombophilia is an associate of venous but not arterial thrombosis, making it cost-effective to investigate only in venous thrombosis. ..
  31. Saxena P, Misro M, Chaki S, Chopra K, Roy S, Nandan D. Is abnormal sperm function an indicator among couples with recurrent pregnancy loss?. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1854-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal sperm motility does not always ensure normal sperm function scores. ..
  32. Franssen M, Korevaar J, Tjoa W, Leschot N, Bossuyt P, Knegt A, et al. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through recurrent miscarriage. Prenat Diagn. 2008;28:408-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining cases had a different mode of ascertainment. Inherited unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal chromosome analysis are rarely ascertained through two or more miscarriages. ..
  33. Dendrinos S, Grigoriou O, Sakkas E, Makrakis E, Creatsas G. Hysteroscopy in the evaluation of habitual abortions. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008;13:198-200 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the incidence of structural uterine anomalies (SUAs) in women with habitual abortion (HA) as diagnosed by means of hysteroscopy and to study hysteroscopy's therapeutic potential with regard to that pathology...
  34. Winger E. CD57+ cells and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;58:311-4 pubmed
  35. Wong R, Favaloro E. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2008;34:295-304 pubmed publisher
  36. Tuckerman E, Laird S, Prakash A, Li T. Prognostic value of the measurement of uterine natural killer cells in the endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2208-13 pubmed
    ..3% range 1.1-41.4%) in a subsequent pregnancy. In this study numbers of uNK cells in the peri-implantation endometrium of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage did not predict subsequent pregnancy outcome. ..
  37. Liu Z, Wang X, Wang Y, Li Y, Gao J, Yu X. [Effects of heparin and anticardiolipin antibodies positive serum from patients with recurrent pregnancy loss on proliferation of BeWo cells]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;42:749-52 pubmed
    ..Through this direct effect on biological behaviour of the trophoblastic cell, it will lead to recurrent pregnancy loss, whereas heparin can increase the ratio of pregnancy by reversing such effects in those patients. ..
  38. Carter J, Soper D, Goetzl L, Van Dorsten J. Abdominal cerclage for the treatment of recurrent cervical insufficiency: laparoscopy or laparotomy?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:111.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..0). Operative laparoscopy is a safe and effective alternative to laparotomy for the placement of abdominal cerclage. ..
  39. El Far M, El Sayed I, El Motwally A, Hashem I, Bakry N. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and oxidant status are essential participating factors in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45:879-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, the level of TNF-alpha apparently contributes to the pathogenesis of URSA. ..
  40. Shimada S, Takeda M, Nishihira J, Kaneuchi M, Sakuragi N, Minakami H, et al. A high dose of intravenous immunoglobulin increases CD94 expression on natural killer cells in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:301-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01) increased after the therapy (58.8 +/- 21.4% versus 71.0 +/- 17.6%). Mechanisms of possible efficacy of HIVIg therapy for RSA may include enhancement of CD94 expression and subsequent suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity. ..
  41. Rand J, Wu X, Quinn A, Taatjes D. The annexin A5-mediated pathogenic mechanism in the antiphospholipid syndrome: role in pregnancy losses and thrombosis. Lupus. 2010;19:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of aPL-mediated mechanisms for thrombosis and pregnancy complications may open new paths towards addressing this disorder with targeted treatments and mechanistic assays. ..
  42. Pabon M, Lopez Gatius F, Garcia Ispierto I, Bech Sabat G, Nogareda C, Almeria S. Chronic Neospora caninum infection and repeat abortion in dairy cows: a 3-year study. Vet Parasitol. 2007;147:40-6 pubmed
    ..The present data reinforce the idea that annual serological screening for Neospora can be an effective and rapid method of detecting N. caninum infection, such that control measures can be established at the farm level...
  43. Meroni P, Gerosa M, Raschi E, Scurati S, Grossi C, Borghi M. Updating on the pathogenic mechanisms 5 of the antiphospholipid antibodies-associated pregnancy loss. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2008;34:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As a whole, these findings do suggest that aPL may induce a defective placentation by acting at different levels without involving necessarily thrombotic events. ..
  44. Bromer J, Aldad T, Taylor H. Defining the proliferative phase endometrial defect. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..1 vs. 9.6 mm, respectively). Endometrial development follows a predictable pattern, with a plateau in growth at cycle day 9. Diseases associated with infertility manifest a proliferative phase defect that can be recognized clinically. ..
  45. Fertl K, Bergner A, Beyer R, Klapp B, Rauchfuss M. Levels and effects of different forms of anxiety during pregnancy after a prior miscarriage. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;142:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, pregnancy-related fear may have a negative impact on the course of pregnancy and delivery. Thus, interventions to reduce pregnancy-related fear are highly recommended. ..
  46. Mo D, Saravelos S, Metwally M, Makris M, Li T. Treatment of recurrent miscarriage and antiphospholipid syndrome with low-dose enoxaparin and aspirin. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19:216-20 pubmed
    ..The findings in this study suggest that there is a case for randomized controlled trials to compare low-dose (20 mg) enoxaparin with higher doses. ..
  47. Aléssio A, Siqueira L, de Carvalho E, Barini R, Mansur A, Hoehr N, et al. Estrogen receptor alpha and beta gene polymorphisms are not risk factors for recurrent miscarriage in a Brazilian population. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2008;14:180-5 pubmed
    ..A difference in the prevalence of ESR polymorphisms was observed, according to ethnic origin. ESR polymorphisms could not be considered a risk factor for RM. ..
  48. De Grazia E, Di Pace M, Caruso A, Catalano P, Cimador M. Different types of intestinal atresia in identical twins. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:2301-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These occurrences may suggest that they were either the consequence of linkage of 2 genes or a pleiotropic expression of a single gene responsible for such rare conditions. ..
  49. Wang Q, Li T, Wu Y, Cocksedge K, Fu Y, Kong Q, et al. Reappraisal of peripheral NK cells in women with recurrent miscarriage. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:814-9 pubmed
    ..The number of previous miscarriages did not appear to have an impact on the number of NK cells. In conclusion, there appears to be limited value in the routine measurement of peripheral NK cells in women with recurrent miscarriage. ..
  50. Stephenson M, Kutteh W. Evaluation and management of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007;50:132-45 pubmed
    ..Management must be evidence-based; unproven treatments should be avoided. If no factor is identified, many couples will still eventually have a successful pregnancy outcome with supportive therapy alone...
  51. Bick R. Antiphospholipid syndrome in pregnancy. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2008;22:107-20, vii pubmed publisher
    ..It presents the outcomes of the author's protocol and those of others in treating women who have antiphospholipid syndrome and who have suffered recurrent miscarriages...
  52. Choi Y, Kwak Kim J. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in recurrent spontaneous abortions: a comprehensive review. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;60:91-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine gene polymorphism studies in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are reviewed to provide comprehensive understanding and a direction for the future investigation...
  53. Adams M. Novel considerations in the pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome: involvement of the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2008;34:251-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews current evidence that suggests changes and/or interference to the major pathway of blood coagulation may represent a novel mechanism that contributes to the development of APS...
  54. Vu J, Meyer C, Porto S. Persistent low levels of beta-hCG in a patient with recurrent pregnancy loss. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:518-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of women with persistent low levels of beta-hCG have undergone potentially harmful treatments despite no evidence of pregnancy or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia...
  55. Seremak Mrozikiewicz A, Drews K, Kurzawinska G, Barlik M, Mrozikiewicz P. [The connection between Arg353Gln polymorphism of coagulation factor VII and recurrent miscarriages]. Ginekol Pol. 2009;80:8-13 pubmed
    ..In recent years much attention has been paid to the possibly significant role of the activity differences of factor VII (FVII) in the etiology of recurrent miscarriages...
  56. Fischer J, Colls P, Escudero T, Munne S. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) improves pregnancy outcome for translocation carriers with a history of recurrent losses. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:283-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocation carriers with three or more pregnancy losses reduces loss rates...
  57. Perrin A, Delobel B, Andrieux J, Gosset P, Gueganic N, Petit F, et al. Molecular cytogenetic analysis by genomic hybridization to determine the cause of recurrent miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2075.e3-6 pubmed publisher
  58. Bagheri M, Abdi Rad I, Omrani M, Nanbaksh F. Polymorphisms of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene in Iranian Azeri Turkish women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2010;13:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we could not find any association between ACE (D/D, I/D and I/I) gene polymorphisms and RPL...
  59. Di Micco P, D uva M, Strina I, De Placido G, Di Fiore R, Quaranta S, et al. Recurrent pregnancy loss and thrombophilia. Clin Lab. 2007;53:309-14 pubmed
    ..This review will be focused on the recent knowledge between thrombophilia, hypercoagulable state, RPL, VTE and future perspectives...
  60. Hill G, Nochy D. Antiphospholipid syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:2461-4 pubmed
  61. van den Heuvel M, Peralta C, Hatta K, Han V, Clark D. Decline in number of elevated blood CD3(+) CD56(+) NKT cells in response to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment correlates with successful pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;58:447-59 pubmed
    ..In mouse models of pregnant failure, NKT cells appear to be important. However, a mouse model may only be pertinent to a subset of patients, as recurrent pregnancy failure is a heterogenous group...
  62. Thum M, Bhaskaran S, Abdalla H, Ford B, Sumar N, Bansal A. Prednisolone suppresses NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro in women with a history of infertility and elevated NK cell cytotoxicity. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;59:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the effect of prednisolone on NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro environment and also to compare the effect of prednisolone versus immunoglobulin-G (IVIG) on NK cell cytotoxicity using in vitro co-culture with K562 cells...
  63. Karvela M, Papadopoulou S, Tsaliki E, Konstantakou E, Hatzaki A, Florentin Arar L, et al. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in recurrent spontaneous abortions. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:349-52 pubmed publisher
  64. Meza Espinoza J, Anguiano L, Rivera H. Chromosomal abnormalities in couples with reproductive disorders. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2008;66:237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in couples with reproductive disorders...
  65. Amin A, Shaaban O, Bediawy M. N-acetyl cysteine for treatment of recurrent unexplained pregnancy loss. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:722-6 pubmed
    ..047, RR 1.98, 95% CI 1.3-4.0). In conclusion, NAC is a well-tolerated drug that could be a potentially effective treatment in patients with unexplained RPL...
  66. Qiu Y, Wang L, Zhang L, Yang D, Zhang A, Yu J. [Analysis of sperm chromosomal abnormalities and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile males]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2008;25:681-5 pubmed
    ..To investigate changes in sperm chromosome and sperm DNA integrity of infertile males...
  67. Kurzawinska G, Seremak Mrozikiewicz A, Drews K, Barlik M, Mrozikiewicz P. [Inherited thrombophilia as the reason of recurrent miscarriges in the first trimester of pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol. 2009;80:657-63 pubmed
  68. Edlow A, Srinivas S, Elovitz M. Second-trimester loss and subsequent pregnancy outcomes: What is the real risk?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:581.e1-6 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to determine whether second-trimester pregnancy loss was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous preterm birth or recurrent second-trimester loss in a subsequent pregnancy...
  69. Fawzy M, Shokeir T, El Tatongy M, Warda O, El Refaiey A, Mosbah A. Treatment options and pregnancy outcome in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:33-8 pubmed
    ..To compare the use of enoxaparin alone with combination therapy of prednisone, aspirin and progesterone in the treatment of women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (IRM) in terms of live births and pregnancy outcome...
  70. Zammiti W, Mtiraoui N, Finan R, Almawi W, Mahjoub T. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and lymphotoxin alpha haplotypes in idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:1903-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the contribution of the -238G/A and -308G/A tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, and +252A/G lymphotoxin (LT) alpha gene polymorphisms to idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (RM)...
  71. Carp H. Recurrent miscarriage: genetic factors and assessment of the embryo. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10:229-31 pubmed
  72. Carp H, Meroni P, Shoenfeld Y. Autoantibodies as predictors of pregnancy complications. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008;47 Suppl 3:iii6-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a large meta-analysis of published trials is required in order to determine the prevalence of each particular autoantibody and different combinations of antibodies in different forms of reproductive failure...
  73. Hanna C, Bretherick K, Gair J, Fluker M, Stephenson M, Robinson W. Telomere length and reproductive aging. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1206-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Rate of reproductive aging may be related to rate of biological aging. Thus, indicators of aging, such as short telomere length, may be more frequent in women with a history suggestive of premature reproductive senescence...
  74. Firouzabadi R, Ghasemi N, Rozbahani M, Tabibnejad N. Association of p53 polymorphism with ICSI/IVF failure and recurrent pregnancy loss. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;49:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations in the p53 gene are among the most common genetic changes in human cancers. Several polymorphisms of the p53 tumour suppressor gene have been associated with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)...
  75. Jaskowski T, Wilson A, Hill H, Branch W, Tebo A. Autoantibodies against phosphatidylserine, prothrombin and phosphatidylserine-prothrombin complex: identical or distinct diagnostic tools for antiphospholipid syndrome?. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;410:19-24 pubmed publisher
  76. Baban R. Oxidative stress in recurrent pregnancy loss women. Saudi Med J. 2010;31:759-63 pubmed
    ..To investigate biochemical changes in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and vitamin E in recurrent pregnancy loss women, and compare these with healthy pregnant, and non-pregnant women...
  77. Leclerc D, Rozen R. [Molecular genetics of MTHFR: polymorphisms are not all benign]. Med Sci (Paris). 2007;23:297-302 pubmed
    ..We describe here the complex structure of the MTHFR gene, summarize the current state of knowledge on rare and common mutations in MTHFR and discuss some relevant findings in a mouse model for MTHFR deficiency...
  78. Zamani A, Durakbasi Dursun H, Acar A. A new heritable fragile site at 15q13 in a three-generation family. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007;116:252-5 pubmed
    ..This didn't change under folate deficiency...
  79. Micheloud D, Sarmiento E, Teijeiro R, Jensen J, Rodríguez Molina J, Fernandez Cruz E, et al. Hypocomplementemia in the absence of autoantibodies in women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2007;35:90-4 pubmed
    ..We established the prevalence of hypocomplementemia without circulating autoantibodies in women with recurrent PL...
  80. Rinehart J. Recurrent implantation failure: definition. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2007;24:284-7 pubmed
    ..An attempt to define recurrent implantation failure...
  81. Dendrinos S, Kalogirou I, Makrakis E, Theodoridis T, Mahmound E, Christopoulou Cokkinou V, et al. Safety and effectiveness of tinzaparin sodium in the management of recurrent pregnancy loss. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2007;34:143-5 pubmed
    ..To assess the safety and efficacy of tinzaparin sodium for the management of recurrent pregnancy loss...
  82. Nielsen H, Andersen A, Kolte A, Christiansen O. A firstborn boy is suggestive of a strong prognostic factor in secondary recurrent miscarriage: a confirmatory study. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:907-11 pubmed publisher
    ..To test our previously generated hypothesis that women with secondary recurrent miscarriages with a firstborn boy have a poorer pregnancy prognosis than those with a firstborn girl...
  83. Ostojic S, Pereza N, Volk M, Kapovic M, Peterlin B. Genetic predisposition to idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion: contribution of genetic variations in IGF-2 and H19 imprinted genes. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;60:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As genomic imprinting plays a critical role in the development of placenta and embryo, our aim was to evaluate the possible role of variations in IGF-2 and H19 imprinted genes as factors of predisposition for RSA...
  84. Stephenson M. Parental translocations and need for preimplantation genetic diagnosis? Distorting effects of ascertainment bias and the need for information-rich families. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:891-2; author reply 892-3 pubmed publisher
  85. Hapangama D, Turner M, Drury J, Martin Ruiz C, von Zglinicki T, Farquharson R, et al. Endometrial telomerase shows specific expression patterns in different types of reproductive failure. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:416-24 pubmed
  86. Ayadurai T, Muniandy S, Omar S. Thrombophilia investigation in Malaysian women with recurrent pregnancy loss. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009;35:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the consensus that thrombophilia is rare among Asians and laboratory investigations is irrelevant. We therefore investigated Malaysian women with RPL for thrombophilia abnormalities...
  87. Bhattacharya S, Townend J, Bhattacharya S. Recurrent miscarriage: Are three miscarriages one too many? Analysis of a Scottish population-based database of 151,021 pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;150:24-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the risk of further miscarriage or preterm delivery in women with a history of miscarriages in previous pregnancies, adjusting for maternal age and smoking...
  88. Bellver J, Meseguer M, Muriel L, García Herrero S, Barreto M, Garda A, et al. Y chromosome microdeletions, sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm oxidative stress as causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion of unknown etiology. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:1713-21 pubmed publisher
  89. Ulander V, Stefanovic V, Masuda J, Suzuki K, Hiilesmaa V, Kaaja R. Plasma levels of annexins IV and V in relation to antiphospholipid antibody status in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. Thromb Res. 2007;120:865-70 pubmed
    ..The aim of our study was to define plasma concentrations of circulating annexins IV and V at the beginning of pregnancy among women with a history of RM, and in connection to their aPL antibody status...
  90. Topalidou M, Effraimidou S, Farmakiotis D, Papadakis E, Papaioannou G, Korantzis I, et al. Low protein Z levels, but not the intron F G79A polymorphism, are associated with unexplained pregnancy loss. Thromb Res. 2009;124:24-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present case-control study was designed in order to investigate the association between plasma protein Z (PZ) levels, the intron F G79A polymorphism and unexplained pregnancy loss...
  91. Clark D. Cell-surface CD200 may predict efficacy of paternal mononuclear leukocyte immunotherapy in treatment of human recurrent pregnancy loss. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;61:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data emphasize an important role of expression of the CD200 tolerance-signaling molecule on cells used to prevent abortions both in mice and humans...
  92. Morales Machín A, Borjas Fajardo L, Quintero J, Zabala W, Alvarez F, Delgado W, et al. [C677T polymorphism of the methylentetrahydrofolate reductase gene as risk factor in women with recurrent abortion]. Invest Clin. 2009;50:327-33 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in allele frequency between these two groups. The data presented in this study fail to support the relationship between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk in women with RA...