embryo loss


Summary: Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.

Top Publications

  1. Ayton P, Sneddon S, Palmer D, Rosewell I, Owen M, Young B, et al. Truncation of the Mll gene in exon 5 by gene targeting leads to early preimplantation lethality of homozygous embryos. Genesis. 2001;30:201-12 pubmed
    ..Embryos cultured in vitro progress to the 2-cell stage, but further development is arrested. The heterozygotes exhibit mild skeletal defects as well as defects in some neuroectodermal derivatives...
  2. Ogando D, Paz D, Cella M, Franchi A. The fundamental role of increased production of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-induced embryonic resorption in mice. Reproduction. 2003;125:95-110 pubmed
    ..These results show that NO fulfils a fundamental role in LPS-induced embryonic resorption...
  3. Inskeep E. Preovulatory, postovulatory, and postmaternal recognition effects of concentrations of progesterone on embryonic survival in the cow. J Anim Sci. 2004;82 E-Suppl:E24-39 pubmed
    ..Luteolytic influences of estradiol-17beta or PGF(2alpha) must be minimized early after mating and during maternal recognition of pregnancy, and high progesterone is needed during the late embryonic/early fetal period...
  4. Jauniaux E, Burton G. Pathophysiology of histological changes in early pregnancy loss. Placenta. 2005;26:114-23 pubmed
    ..Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the impact of these findings on routine histopathologic examination in first-trimester miscarriages...
  5. Berg D, van Leeuwen J, Beaumont S, Berg M, Pfeffer P. Embryo loss in cattle between Days 7 and 16 of pregnancy. Theriogenology. 2010;73:250-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Embryo loss between embryonic Days 7 and 16 (Day 0=day of IVF) in nonlactating cattle, Bos taurus, was analyzed using transfer of 2449 (in groups of 3 to 30) in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts...
  6. Ord T. The scourge: moral implications of natural embryo loss. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In what follows, I show that this claim leads directly to an unexpected and unwelcome conclusion: that natural embryo loss is one of the greatest problems of our time and that we must do almost everything in our power to prevent it...
  7. Pathak S, Kedia Mokashi N, Saxena M, D Souza R, Maitra A, Parte P, et al. Effect of tamoxifen treatment on global and insulin-like growth factor 2-H19 locus-specific DNA methylation in rat spermatozoa and its association with embryo loss. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2253-63 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the effect of tamoxifen treatment on global and insulin-like growth factor 2-H19 imprinting control region (Igf2-H19 ICR)-specific DNA methylation in rat spermatozoa and analyze its association with postimplantation loss...
  8. Gil Villa A, Cardona Maya W, Agarwal A, Sharma R, Cadavid A. Role of male factor in early recurrent embryo loss: do antioxidants have any effect?. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:565-71 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate whether increasing antioxidant intake in men with high levels of DNA damage or lipid peroxidation improves gestational results in couples with history of recurrent embryo loss.
  9. Kleinridders A, Pogoda H, Irlenbusch S, Smyth N, Koncz C, Hammerschmidt M, et al. PLRG1 is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis during vertebrate development and tissue homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results of this study identify PLRG1 as a critical nuclear regulator of p53-dependent cell cycle progression and apoptosis during both embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis...

More Information


  1. Laissue P, Burgio G, L hôte D, Renault G, Marchiol Fournigault C, Fradelizi D, et al. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci responsible for embryonic lethality in mice assessed by ultrasonography. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The short chromosomal intervals related to the phenotypes will facilitate the study of a restricted number of candidate genes which are potentially dysregulated in patients affected by RSA...
  2. Burstyn Cohen T, Heeb M, Lemke G. Lack of protein S in mice causes embryonic lethal coagulopathy and vascular dysgenesis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2942-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that ProS is a pleiotropic anticoagulant with aPC-independent activities and highlight new roles for ProS in vascular development and homeostasis...
  3. Pereira M, Mason P, Szczesny R, Maddukuri L, Dziwura S, Jedrzejczak R, et al. Interaction of human SUV3 RNA/DNA helicase with BLM helicase; loss of the SUV3 gene results in mouse embryonic lethality. Mech Ageing Dev. 2007;128:609-17 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the SUV3 protein is required in mammalian development and in somatic cells participates in genome maintenance through interaction with other genome fidelity housekeepers...
  4. Ross J, Ashworth M, White F, Johnson G, Ayoubi P, DeSilva U, et al. Premature estrogen exposure alters endometrial gene expression to disrupt pregnancy in the pig. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4761-73 pubmed
  5. Diskin M, Murphy J, Sreenan J. Embryo survival in dairy cows managed under pastoral conditions. Anim Reprod Sci. 2006;96:297-311 pubmed
    ..It appears that the extent of early embryo loss is greater (up to 20% points greater) in the modern high-producing dairy cow and that a much higher proportion ..
  6. Humblot P. Use of pregnancy specific proteins and progesterone assays to monitor pregnancy and determine the timing, frequencies and sources of embryonic mortality in ruminants. Theriogenology. 2001;56:1417-33 pubmed
    ..Such studies may help to define practical measures to suppress or lower the negative effects of risks factors on fertility...
  7. Li B, Liu H, Dai L, Lu J, Yang Z, Huang L. The early embryo loss caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may be related to the accumulation of this compound in the uterus. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;21:301-6 pubmed
    ..TCDD level in the uterus was equal to levels in the liver, but lower than the fat tissue. These results suggest that TCDD sensitivity might be attributed its local accumulation in the uterus...
  8. Ashworth M, Ross J, Hu J, White F, Stein D, DeSilva U, et al. Expression of porcine endometrial prostaglandin synthase during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy, and following endocrine disruption of pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:1007-15 pubmed
  9. Xie Y, Wang F, Zhong W, Puscheck E, Shen H, Rappolee D. Shear stress induces preimplantation embryo death that is delayed by the zona pellucida and associated with stress-activated protein kinase-mediated apoptosis. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:45-55 pubmed
    ..Lower shear stresses might induce sufficient mitogen-activated protein kinase 8/9 phosphorylation that would slow growth or cause premature differentiation if the zona pellucida were not intact...
  10. Gangloff Y, Mueller M, Dann S, Svoboda P, Sticker M, Spetz J, et al. Disruption of the mouse mTOR gene leads to early postimplantation lethality and prohibits embryonic stem cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9508-16 pubmed
    ..Moreover, mTOR(-/-) embryos display a lesion in inner cell mass proliferation, consistent with the inability to establish embryonic stem cells from mTOR(-/-) embryos...
  11. Wu L, de Bruin A, Saavedra H, Starovic M, Trimboli A, Yang Y, et al. Extra-embryonic function of Rb is essential for embryonic development and viability. Nature. 2003;421:942-7 pubmed
  12. Ye X, Hama K, Contos J, Anliker B, Inoue A, Skinner M, et al. LPA3-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signalling in embryo implantation and spacing. Nature. 2005;435:104-8 pubmed
    ..These data identify LPA3 receptor-mediated signalling as having an influence on implantation, and further indicate linkage between LPA signalling and prostaglandin biosynthesis...
  13. Bultman S, Gebuhr T, Yee D, La Mantia C, Nicholson J, Gilliam A, et al. A Brg1 null mutation in the mouse reveals functional differences among mammalian SWI/SNF complexes. Mol Cell. 2000;6:1287-95 pubmed
    ..In addition, Brg1 heterozygotes are predisposed to exencephaly and tumors. These results provide evidence that biochemically similar chromatin-remodeling complexes have dramatically different functions during mammalian development...
  14. Kaneda M, Okano M, Hata K, Sado T, Tsujimoto N, Li E, et al. Essential role for de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in paternal and maternal imprinting. Nature. 2004;429:900-3 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both Dnmt3a and Dnmt3L are required for methylation of most imprinted loci in germ cells, but also suggest the involvement of other factors...
  15. DeYoung R, Baker J, Cado D, Winoto A. The orphan steroid receptor Nur77 family member Nor-1 is essential for early mouse embryogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47104-9 pubmed
    ..Abnormal expression of a number of early developmental markers and defects in growth or distribution of emerging mesoderm cells were also detected. These data suggest that Nor-1 plays a crucial role in gastrulation...
  16. Ono R, Nakamura K, Inoue K, Naruse M, Usami T, Wakisaka Saito N, et al. Deletion of Peg10, an imprinted gene acquired from a retrotransposon, causes early embryonic lethality. Nat Genet. 2006;38:101-6 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Peg10 is critical for mouse parthenogenetic development and provides the first direct evidence of an essential role of an evolutionarily conserved retrotransposon-derived gene in mammalian development...
  17. Wanderling S, Simen B, Ostrovsky O, Ahmed N, Vogen S, Gidalevitz T, et al. GRP94 is essential for mesoderm induction and muscle development because it regulates insulin-like growth factor secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3764-75 pubmed
    ..The data identify insulin-like growth factor II as one developmentally important protein whose production depends on the activity of GRP94. ..
  18. Hang C, Yang J, Han P, Cheng H, Shang C, Ashley E, et al. Chromatin regulation by Brg1 underlies heart muscle development and disease. Nature. 2010;466:62-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Nishimura M, Umeda K, Suwa M, Furuoka H, Nishikawa Y. CCR5 Is Involved in Interruption of Pregnancy in Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii during Early Pregnancy. Infect Immun. 2017;85: pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection. These results suggested that CCR5 signaling is involved in embryo loss in T...
  20. Rajaei S, Mirahmadian M, Jeddi Tehrani M, Tavakoli M, Zonoobi M, Dabbagh A, et al. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 on cytokine production by endometrial cells of women with repeated implantation failure. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the minimal differential immunoregulatory effect of vitamin D(3) on endometrial cells from RIF and control women, it may be suggested that circulating levels of maternal vitamin D(3) be the subject of further investigation. ..
  21. Kaufmann D, Yagen B, Minert A, Wlodarczyk B, Finnell R, Schurig V, et al. Evaluation of the antiallodynic, teratogenic and pharmacokinetic profile of stereoisomers of valnoctamide, an amide derivative of a chiral isomer of valproic acid. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..2S,3S)-VCD is more potent and less embryotoxic than (2R,3S)-VCD and thus, has a potential to become a candidate for development as a new drug for treating neuropathic pain. ..
  22. Nair R, Khanna A, Singh K. Role of inflammatory proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in pathophysiology of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Placenta. 2013;34:824-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report predicting the role of inflammatory molecules S100A8 & S100A9 in REPL. It opens a new perspective for understanding significance of S100A8 and S100A9 in pregnancy maintenance and outcome. ..
  23. Wang X, Wu T, Hu Y, Marcinkiewicz M, Qi S, Valderrama Carvajal H, et al. Pno1 tissue-specific expression and its functions related to the immune responses and proteasome activities. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46093 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the large complexes it associates with remains to be identified, but it is certain that they are not mature proteasomes or ribosomes. ..
  24. Yin Z, Pringle D, Jones G, Kelly K, Kirschner L. Differential role of PKA catalytic subunits in mediating phenotypes caused by knockout of the Carney complex gene Prkar1a. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1786-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that both developmental and tumor phenotypes caused by Prkar1a mutation result from excess PKA activity due to PKA-Ca. ..
  25. Muttukrishna S, Swer M, Suri S, Jamil A, Calleja Agius J, Gangooly S, et al. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18041 pubmed publisher
  26. Gard J, Givens M, Marley M, Galik P, Riddell K, Edmondson M, et al. Intrauterine inoculation of seronegative heifers with bovine viral diarrhea virus concurrent with transfer of in vivo-derived bovine embryos. Theriogenology. 2010;73:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the quantity of BVDV associated with bovine embryos after in vitro exposure can result in viremia and seroconversion of seronegative recipients after transfer into the uterus during diestrus. ..
  27. Arnold S, Hofmann U, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Pivotal roles for eomesodermin during axis formation, epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition and endoderm specification in the mouse. Development. 2008;135:501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our experiments establish that Eomes is a key regulator of anteroposterior axis formation, EMT and definitive endoderm specification in the mouse. ..
  28. Wlodarczyk B, Zhu H, Finnell R. Mthfr gene ablation enhances susceptibility to arsenic prenatal toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;275:22-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal genotype contributes to the sensitivity of As embryotoxicity in the Mthfr mouse model. The fetal genotype, however, does not appear to affect the reproductive outcome after in utero As exposure. ..
  29. Glueck C, Pranikoff J, Khan N, Riaz K, Chavan K, Raj P, et al. High factor XI, recurrent pregnancy loss, enoxaparin. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2828-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Three of the 5 women with high factor XI and recurrent pregnancy loss, with 19 previous pregnancy losses and 0 live births, were given enoxaparin during 5 subsequent pregnancies, and had 6 term live births and 1 miscarriage. ..
  30. Fragouli E, Katz Jaffe M, Alfarawati S, Stevens J, Colls P, Goodall N, et al. Comprehensive chromosome screening of polar bodies and blastocysts from couples experiencing repeated implantation failure. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:875-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Blastocyst analysis was associated with high pregnancy rates, suggesting that comprehensive chromosome screening may assist patients with repeated implantation failure capable of producing blastocysts in achieving pregnancies. ..
  31. Yin G, Li C, Shan B, Wang W, Chen H, Zhong Y, et al. Insufficient peroxiredoxin-2 expression in uterine NK cells obtained from a murine model of abortion. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:773-81 pubmed publisher
    The CBA/J × DBA/2 mouse mating combination is prone to spontaneous embryo loss, in contrast to the MHC-identical CBA/J × BALB/c mating combination, which yields successful pregnancies...
  32. Wen F, Tynan J, Cecena G, Williams R, Múnera J, Mavrothalassitis G, et al. Ets2 is required for trophoblast stem cell self-renewal. Dev Biol. 2007;312:284-99 pubmed
    ..Thus Ets2 contributes to the regulation of multiple genes important for maintaining the undifferentiated state of TS cells and as candidate signals for embryonic development. ..
  33. Maehara M, Matsunari H, Honda K, Nakano K, Takeuchi Y, Kanai T, et al. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:133 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the HFV method is an extremely effective method for preserving cryosensitive embryos such as porcine in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived morulae...
  34. Pathak S, Saxena M, D Souza R, Balasinor N. Disrupted imprinting status at the H19 differentially methylated region is associated with the resorbed embryo phenotype in rats. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2010;22:939-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate transmission of methylation errors at the Igf2-H19 locus through the paternal germline to the subsequent generation, emphasising the role of paternal factors during embryogenesis. ..
  35. Ramidi G, Khan N, Glueck C, Wang P, Goldenberg N. Enoxaparin-metformin and enoxaparin alone may safely reduce pregnancy loss. Transl Res. 2009;153:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse maternal-fetal side effects were reported on enoxaparin alone or enoxaparin-metformin. Enoxaparin-metformin reduces pregnancy loss in women with PCOS-coagulation disorders and in women with coagulation disorders-thrombi. ..
  36. Christensen K, Deng L, Leung K, Arning E, Bottiglieri T, Malysheva O, et al. A novel mouse model for genetic variation in 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase exhibits disturbed purine synthesis with impacts on pregnancy and embryonic development. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:3705-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional investigation of the impact of synthetase polymorphisms on human pregnancy is warranted. ..
  37. Lucock M, Glanville T, Yates Z, Walker J, Furst J, Simpson N. Solar cycle predicts folate-sensitive neonatal genotypes at discrete phases of the first trimester of pregnancy: a novel folate-related human embryo loss hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2012;79:210-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited data is provided to support the hypothesis that the solar cycle predicts folate-related human embryo loss: 379 neonates born at latitude 54°N between 1998 and 2000 were examined for three folate-sensitive, epigenome-..
  38. Gasperowicz M, Surmann Schmitt C, Hamada Y, Otto F, Cross J. The transcriptional co-repressor TLE3 regulates development of trophoblast giant cells lining maternal blood spaces in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2013;382:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, formation of the different types of maternal blood spaces by different TGC subtypes is regulated by distinct molecular mechanisms. ..
  39. Jiang P, Zhao A, Bao S, Xiao S, Xiong M. Expression of chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4(+) T cells in CBA/JxDBA/2 mouse model, selectively induced by IL-4 and IL-10, regulates the embryo resorption rate. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1917-21 pubmed
    ..The pregnancy immune tolerance may be induced through selective induction of CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR3 expressions by IL-4 together with IL-10. ..
  40. Adams D, Baldock R, Bhattacharya S, Copp A, Dickinson M, Greene N, et al. Bloomsbury report on mouse embryo phenotyping: recommendations from the IMPC workshop on embryonic lethal screening. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:571-9 pubmed publisher
  41. Kumagai T, Tanaka M, Yokoyama M, Sato T, Shinkai T, Furukawa K. Early lethality of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase V-mutant mice by growth retardation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:456-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5, probably due to hematopoietic and/or placental defects. ..
  42. Beltman M, Forde N, Lonergan P, Crowe M. Altered endometrial immune gene expression in beef heifers with retarded embryos. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2013;25:966-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that small disturbances in the expression of immune genes in the endometrium on Day 7 after oestrus can have detrimental effects on embryo survival. ..
  43. Samaan G, Yugo D, Rajagopalan S, Wall J, Donnell R, Goldowitz D, et al. Foxn3 is essential for craniofacial development in mice and a putative candidate involved in human congenital craniofacial defects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;400:60-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate a role for the FOXN3 gene in the etiology of craniofacial defects in humans. ..
  44. Golas A, Lech T, Janula M, Bederska D, Lenartowicz M, Styrna J. Semen quality parameters and embryo lethality in mice deficient for Trp53 protein. Reprod Biol. 2011;11:250-63 pubmed
    ..Also, mutant female and male newborns were underrepresented in the litters of the heterozygous breeding pairs. ..
  45. Alalaf S. Bemiparin versus low dose aspirin for management of recurrent early pregnancy losses due to antiphospholipd antibody syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:641-7 pubmed publisher
  46. Kanu N, Penicud K, Hristova M, Wong B, Irvine E, Plattner F, et al. The ATM cofactor ATMIN protects against oxidative stress and accumulation of DNA damage in the aging brain. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:38534-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ATMIN mediates ATM activation by oxidative stress, and thereby ATMIN protects the aging brain by preventing accumulation of DNA damage. ..
  47. Luchetti C, Miko E, Szekeres Bartho J, Paz D, Motta A. Dehydroepiandrosterone and metformin modulate progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and cytokines in early pregnant mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;111:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that hyperandrogenization induces embryo resorption in early pregnancy diminishing PIBF in implantation sites, having a pro-inflammatory effect. Metformin is able to prevent such effects. ..
  48. Koide Y, Kiyota T, Tonganunt M, Pinkaew D, Liu Z, Kato Y, et al. Embryonic lethality of fortilin-null mutant mice by BMP-pathway overactivation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of fortilin in the very early stages of development is required for the survival of embryos. Abnormalities in the fortilin gene may be associated with early pregnancy loss. ..
  49. Elias M, Pronovost S, Cahill K, Beckerle M, Kadrmas J. A crucial role for Ras suppressor-1 (RSU-1) revealed when PINCH and ILK binding is disrupted. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this work highlights the existence of redundant mechanisms in adhesion complex assembly that support integrin function in vivo. ..
  50. Suh Y, Yoshimoto Furusawa A, Weih K, Tessarollo L, Roche K, Mackem S, et al. Deletion of SNAP-23 results in pre-implantation embryonic lethality in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18444 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Thus these data reveal a critical role for SNAP-23 during embryogenesis. ..
  51. Welser J, Rooney J, Cohen N, Gurpur P, Singer C, Evans R, et al. Myotendinous junction defects and reduced force transmission in mice that lack alpha7 integrin and utrophin. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that the alpha7beta1 integrin, dystrophin, and utrophin complexes act in a concerted manner to maintain the structural and functional integrity of skeletal muscle...
  52. Ricketts T, McGoldrick P, Fratta P, de Oliveira H, Kent R, Phatak V, et al. A nonsense mutation in mouse Tardbp affects TDP43 alternative splicing activity and causes limb-clasping and body tone defects. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e85962 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the Tardbp(Q101X) mutant mice are a useful tool for the dissection of TDP43 protein regulation, effects on splicing, embryonic development and neuromuscular phenotypes. These mice are freely available to the community. ..
  53. Cochery Nouvellon E, Chauleur C, Demattei C, Mercier E, Fabbro Peray P, Mares P, et al. The A6936G polymorphism of the endothelial protein C receptor gene is associated with the risk of unexplained foetal loss in Mediterranean European couples. Thromb Haemost. 2009;102:656-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Data confirm that the relationship between thrombophilias and pregnancy loss varies according to ethnicity and loss type...
  54. Davis L, Murr A, Best D, Fraites M, Zorrilla L, Narotsky M, et al. The effects of prenatal exposure to atrazine on pubertal and postnatal reproductive indices in the female rat. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;32:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, it is unlikely that environmental exposure comparable to the high dose would be encountered...
  55. Kahn M. Blood is thicker than lymph. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:23-6 pubmed
  56. Fraccaroli L, Grasso E, Hauk V, Cortelezzi M, Calo G, Perez Leiros C, et al. Defects in the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/VPAC system during early stages of the placental-maternal leucocyte interaction impair the maternal tolerogenic response. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;170:310-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Because RSA patients displayed defects in the VIP/VPAC system, this neuropeptide could be a promising candidate for diagnostic biomarker or surrogate biomarker for recurrent spontaneous abortions...
  57. Baker V, Luke B, Brown M, Alvero R, Frattarelli J, Usadi R, et al. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting probability of pregnancy and live birth with in vitro fertilization: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1410-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate factors predictive of clinical pregnancy and of pregnancy loss from assisted reproductive technology (ART) using data from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database for 2004-2006...
  58. Sedano Balbás S, Lyons M, Cleary B, Murray M, Gaffney G, Maher M. Acquired activated protein C resistance, thrombophilia and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a study performed in an Irish cohort of pregnant women. J Pregnancy. 2011;2011:232840 pubmed publisher
    ..Thrombophilic mutations amongst our acquired APCR pregnant women cohort are relatively common but do not appear to exert a severe undue adverse effect on pregnancy...
  59. Khatib H, Monson R, Schutzkus V, Kohl D, Rosa G, Rutledge J. Mutations in the STAT5A gene are associated with embryonic survival and milk composition in cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The G allele of SNP12195 was also associated with low embryonic survival, making this SNP an attractive candidate for progeny testing programs in dairy cattle...
  60. Takai R, Hayashi S, Kiyokawa J, Iwata Y, Matsuo S, Suzuki M, et al. Collaborative work on evaluation of ovarian toxicity. 10) Two- or four-week repeated dose studies and fertility study of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in female rats. J Toxicol Sci. 2009;34 Suppl 1:SP111-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, for a repeated-dose toxicity study, a 2-week administration period is sufficient to detect ovarian toxicity caused by DEHP...
  61. Gris J. LMWH have no place in recurrent pregnancy loss: debate-against the motion. Thromb Res. 2011;127 Suppl 3:S110-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This is not the real clinical target for LMWHs, which still has to be fully investigated...
  62. Li H, Wada E, Wada K. Maternal administration of the herbal medicine toki-shakuyaku-san promotes fetal growth and placental gene expression in normal mice. Am J Chin Med. 2013;41:515-29 pubmed publisher
    ..No obvious changes were observed in the expression of these genes after longer-term maternal TSS treatment...
  63. Zhong X, Shi W, Ma A, Gong X, Zhai X, Zhang T, et al. Effects of Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma atractylodis on LPS-induced abortion and the uterine IL-10 contents in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2008;36:141-8 pubmed
    ..The study indicates that the anti-abortive effects of PXF and the combination of Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma atractylodis are closely related to up-regulation of the Th2 cytokine IL-10 at the maternal fetal interface...
  64. Park D, Xiang A, Mao F, Zhang L, Di C, Liu X, et al. Nestin is required for the proper self-renewal of neural stem cells. Stem Cells. 2010;28:2162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that nestin is important for the proper survival and self-renewal of NSCs, and that this function is surprisingly uncoupled from nestin's structural involvement in the cytoskeleton...
  65. Miro F, Vidal E, Balasch J. Increased live birth rate in twin pregnancies resulting from embryo assistance. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119:44-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate why the live birth rate per implanted embryo is higher in twin than in singleton pregnancies...
  66. Burdan F, Szumilo J, Klepacz R. Maternal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an important factor affecting prenatal development. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;28:239-44 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, decrease in fetal length has been the only sign of toxicity found after exposure to selective COX-2 inhibitor (DFU). The aim of the study was to evaluate maternal effects on selected developmental abnormalities...
  67. Toib A, Zhang H, Broekelmann T, Hyrc K, Guo Q, Chen F, et al. Cardiac specific ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) overexpression results in embryonic lethality. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the K(ATP) channel may have an important physiological role during early cardiac development. ..
  68. Sazhenova E, Lebedev I. [Epimutations of the KCNQ1OT1 imprinting center of chromosome 11 in early human embryo lethality]. Genetika. 2008;44:1609-16 pubmed
  69. Diskin M, Waters S, Parr M, Kenny D. Pregnancy losses in cattle: potential for improvement. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2016;28:83-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In cattle, the major component of embryo loss occurs in the first 16 days following breeding (Day 0), with emerging evidence of greater losses before Day 8 ..
  70. Mao C, Wang M, Luo B, Wey S, Dong D, Wesselschmidt R, et al. Targeted mutation of the mouse Grp94 gene disrupts development and perturbs endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10852 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, from analysis of microarray database and immunohistochemical staining, we present predictions where GRP94 may play an important role in specific adult organ homeostasis and function...
  71. Clark R, Lerman S, Cox E, Gristwood W, White T. Developmental toxicity of artesunate in the rat: comparison to other artemisinins, comparison of embryotoxicity and kinetics by oral and intravenous routes, and relationship to maternal reticulocyte count. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2008;83:397-406 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimalarial, artesunate, is teratogenic and embryolethal in rats, with peak sensitivity on Days 10 and 11 postcoitum (pc)...
  72. Agerholm I, Kølvraa S, Cruger D, Berg C, Bruun Petersen G, Ziebe S. Resumption of mitosis in frozen-thawed embryos is not related to the chromosomal constitution. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:1649-55 pubmed
    ..In addition, to evaluate the correlation among the three parameters of resumption of mitosis after thaw, postthaw blastomere loss, and multinucleation...
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