postpartum depression


Summary: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)

Top Publications

  1. Gibson J, McKenzie McHarg K, Shakespeare J, Price J, Gray R. A systematic review of studies validating the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in antepartum and postpartum women. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2009;119:350-64 pubmed publisher
    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression (PPD)...
  2. Kammerer M, Marks M, Pinard C, Taylor A, von Castelberg B, Künzli H, et al. Symptoms associated with the DSM IV diagnosis of depression in pregnancy and post partum. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009;12:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles...
  3. van Bussel J, Spitz B, Demyttenaere K. Depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. An exploratory study of the role of maternal antenatal orientations. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2009;12:155-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The maternal orientations have a small but significant and independent contribution in the variance of depressive symptomatology in pregnant and postpartum women. ..
  4. Jomeen J, Martin C. Reflections on the notion of post-natal depression following examination of the scoring pattern of women on the EPDS during pregnancy and in the post-natal period. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2008;15:645-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A fundamental assumption that post-natal depression has a typical pattern of comparatively higher post-natal depressive symptomology may be illusory when individual symptom profiles are explored. ..
  5. Kim J, Gordon T, La Porte L, Adams M, Kuendig J, Silver R. The utility of maternal depression screening in the third trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:509.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Unique women were identified before and after delivery who may have been missed if screening had not been performed twice. ..
  6. Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behav Dev. 2010;33:1-6 pubmed publisher
    In this paper studies are reviewed from the last decade on postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, safety practices and on early interventions...
  7. de Alencar A, Arraes L, de Albuquerque E, Alves J. Effect of kangaroo mother care on postpartum depression. J Trop Pediatr. 2009;55:36-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious public health issue...
  8. Morrow M, Smith J, Lai Y, Jaswal S. Shifting landscapes: immigrant women and postpartum depression. Health Care Women Int. 2008;29:593-617 pubmed publisher
    ..experiences reveals the critical importance of the sociocultural context of childbirth in understanding postpartum depression. We suggest that an examination of women's narratives about their experiences of postpartum depression can ..
  9. Monti F, Agostini F, Marano G, Lupi F. The course of maternal depressive symptomatology during the first 18 months postpartum in an Italian sample. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2008;11:231-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Maguire J, Mody I. GABA(A)R plasticity during pregnancy: relevance to postpartum depression. Neuron. 2008;59:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that Gabrd(+/-) and Gabrd(-/-) mice constitute a mouse model of postpartum depression that may be useful for evaluating potential therapeutic interventions.
  2. Levant B, Ozias M, Davis P, Winter M, Russell K, Carlson S, et al. Decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid content produces neurobiological effects associated with depression: Interactions with reproductive status in female rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33:1279-92 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. With the aim of determining neurobiological sequelae of decreased brain DHA content, this study examined ..
  3. Bjerke S, Vangen S, Nordhagen R, Ytterdahl T, Magnus P, Stray Pedersen B. Postpartum depression among Pakistani women in Norway: prevalence and risk factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21:889-94 pubmed publisher
    To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for postpartum depression among Pakistani women in Norway. A total of 207 pregnant Pakistani women living in Norway participated in a questionnaire study...
  4. Paulson J, Keefe H, Leiferman J. Early parental depression and child language development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2009;50:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression is a significant problem among both mothers and fathers of young children, but has a more marked impact on the father's reading to his child and, subsequently, the child's language development. ..
  5. Beydoun H, Al Sahab B, Beydoun M, Tamim H. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression among Canadian women in the Maternity Experience Survey. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20:575-83 pubmed publisher
    ..was to evaluate the effect of exposure to intimate partner violence before, during, or after pregnancy on postpartum depression in a nationally representative sample of Canadian women...
  6. Turner K, Sharp D, Folkes L, Chew Graham C. Women's views and experiences of antidepressants as a treatment for postnatal depression: a qualitative study. Fam Pract. 2008;25:450-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This should lead to greater treatment adherence and thus earlier resolution of symptoms. ..
  7. Schumacher M, Zubaran C, White G. Bringing birth-related paternal depression to the fore. Women Birth. 2008;21:65-70 pubmed publisher
    Maternal postpartum depression is a prevalent health disorder with important consequences to the family and child development...
  8. Wang Y, Guo X, Lau Y, Chan K, Yin L, Chen J. Psychometric evaluation of the Mainland Chinese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Int J Nurs Stud. 2009;46:813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It is hoped that with this type of cross-cultural information, the universality of the constructs of the instrument can be reliably demonstrated. ..
  9. Logsdon M, Wisner K, Hanusa B. Does maternal role functioning improve with antidepressant treatment in women with postpartum depression?. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009;18:85-90 pubmed publisher
    The ability to mother her infant is reduced in a woman with postpartum depression (PPD)...
  10. Paulson J, Bazemore S. Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2010;303:1961-9 pubmed publisher
    It is well established that maternal prenatal and postpartum depression is prevalent and has negative personal, family, and child developmental outcomes...
  11. Eisenach J, Pan P, Smiley R, Lavand homme P, Landau R, Houle T. Severity of acute pain after childbirth, but not type of delivery, predicts persistent pain and postpartum depression. Pain. 2008;140:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold increased risk of persistent pain and a 3.0-fold increased risk of postpartum depression compared to those with mild postpartum pain...
  12. Corwin E, Pajer K. The psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2008;17:1529-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression (PPD) is a potentially debilitating disorder that develops in a significant percentage of women during the first year after giving birth...
  13. Hayes D, Ta V, Hurwitz E, Mitchell Box K, Fuddy L. Disparities in self-reported postpartum depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2007. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14:765-773 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression affects 10-20% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families, and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander ..
  14. Jomeen J, Martin C. Replicability and stability of the multidimensional model of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in late pregnancy. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2007;14:319-24 pubmed
    ..The potential for development of the EPDS as a predictive screening measure of PND is likely to be optimistic because of variability in the factor structure of the instrument over the course of pregnancy and in the post-natal period. ..
  15. Matthey S, Henshaw C, Elliott S, Barnett B. Variability in use of cut-off scores and formats on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: implications for clinical and research practice. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2006;9:309-15 pubmed
  16. Leahy Warren P, McCarthy G. Postnatal depression: prevalence, mothers' perspectives, and treatments. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2007;21:91-100 pubmed
    ..Postnatal depression is a significant clinical issue for nurses providing postnatal care for mothers and is underassessed, misunderstood, and very often poorly treated. ..
  17. Dennis C, Letourneau N. Global and relationship-specific perceptions of support and the development of postpartum depressive symptomatology. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:389-95 pubmed
    A lack of social support has consistently been demonstrated to be an important modifiable risk factor for postpartum depression. As such, a greater understanding of specific support variables may assist health professionals in the ..
  18. Green K, Broome H, Mirabella J. Postnatal depression among mothers in the United Arab Emirates: socio-cultural and physical factors. Psychol Health Med. 2006;11:425-31 pubmed
    ..Results are discussed in relation to UAE and Islamic culture. ..
  19. Pitanupong J, Liabsuetrakul T, Vittayanont A. Validation of the Thai Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening postpartum depression. Psychiatry Res. 2007;149:253-9 pubmed appropriate cut-off score on the Thai Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) as a screen for postpartum depression. A prospective cohort of postpartum women at 6-8 weeks were tested using the EPDS and clinically ..
  20. Stewart D, Gagnon A, Saucier J, Wahoush O, Dougherty G. Postpartum depression symptoms in newcomers. Can J Psychiatry. 2008;53:121-4 pubmed
    To determine if postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms are more common in newcomer women than in Canadian-born women...
  21. Milgrom J, Gemmill A, Bilszta J, Hayes B, Barnett B, Brooks J, et al. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a large prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2008;108:147-57 pubmed
    ..Current depression/anxiety (and to some extent social support) may be amenable to change and can therefore be targeted for intervention. ..
  22. Lusskin S, Pundiak T, Habib S. Perinatal depression: hiding in plain sight. Can J Psychiatry. 2007;52:479-88 pubmed
    ..Early identification and treatment ofperinatal depression will minimize morbidity and mortality for the woman, the child, and the family. ..
  23. Hanlon C, Medhin G, Alem A, Araya M, Abdulahi A, Hughes M, et al. Detecting perinatal common mental disorders in Ethiopia: validation of the self-reporting questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. J Affect Disord. 2008;108:251-62 pubmed
    ..The SRQ-20 was superior to EPDS across all domains for evaluating cultural equivalence and showed validity as a dimensional measure of perinatal CMD. ..
  24. Dennis C, Chung Lee L. Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review. Birth. 2006;33:323-31 pubmed
    Despite the well-documented risk factors and health consequences of postpartum depression, it often remains undetected and untreated...
  25. Su K, Chiu T, Huang C, Ho M, Lee C, Wu P, et al. Different cutoff points for different trimesters? The use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory to screen for depression in pregnant Taiwanese women. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007;29:436-41 pubmed
    ..We suggest that more studies with larger sample sizes be performed to confirm if there exist different cutoff points in detecting depression for different trimesters of gestation. ..
  26. Leigh B, Milgrom J. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry. 2008;8:24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide clinical direction suggesting that early identification and treatment of perinatal depression is important. ..
  27. Wisner K, Chambers C, Sit D. Postpartum depression: a major public health problem. JAMA. 2006;296:2616-8 pubmed
  28. Pedersen C, Johnson J, Silva S, Bunevicius R, Meltzer Brody S, Hamer R, et al. Antenatal thyroid correlates of postpartum depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:235-45 pubmed
    ..nearly significantly lower total thyroxine concentrations at 38 weeks of pregnancy in women with higher postpartum depression ratings...
  29. Moses Kolko E, Wisner K, Price J, Berga S, Drevets W, Hanusa B, et al. Serotonin 1A receptor reductions in postpartum depression: a positron emission tomography study. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:685-92 pubmed
    ..Postsynaptic 5HT1A receptor binding in postpartum depression was reduced 20%-28% relative to controls, with most significant reductions in anterior cingulate and ..
  30. Figueiredo B, Pacheco A, Costa R. Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period in adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2007;10:103-9 pubmed
    To study prevalence as well as risk factors for pregnancy and postpartum depression in a sample of adolescent and adult Portuguese mothers...
  31. Baggaley R, Ganaba R, Filippi V, Kere M, Marshall T, Sombie I, et al. Detecting depression after pregnancy: the validity of the K10 and K6 in Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1225-9 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that K10 and K6 are reasonably valid measures of depression among postpartum women in Burkina Faso and can be used as relatively cheap tools for estimating prevalence of postnatal depression in developing countries. ..
  32. Diaz M, Le H, Cooper B, MUNOZ R. Interpersonal factors and perinatal depressive symptomatology in a low-income Latina sample. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2007;13:328-36 pubmed
    ..These findings also have implications for targeting social support and marital quality in preventive interventions for perinatal depression in Latinas. ..
  33. Goyal D, Gay C, Lee K. Patterns of sleep disruption and depressive symptoms in new mothers. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2007;21:123-9 pubmed
    ..For new mothers, a complaint of trouble falling asleep (delayed sleep onset latency) may be the most relevant screening question in relation to their risk for postpartum depression.
  34. Dietz P, Williams S, Callaghan W, Bachman D, Whitlock E, Hornbrook M. Clinically identified maternal depression before, during, and after pregnancies ending in live births. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:1515-20 pubmed
    ..Approximately one in seven women was identified with and treated for depression during 39 weeks before through 39 weeks after pregnancy, and more than half of these women had recurring indicators for depression. ..
  35. Gonidakis F, Rabavilas A, Varsou E, Kreatsas G, Christodoulou G. A 6-month study of postpartum depression and related factors in Athens Greece. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49:275-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression (PPD) affects women in various sociocultural environments around the world during a sensitive period of their lives...
  36. Mechakra Tahiri S, Zunzunegui M, Seguin L. Self-rated health and postnatal depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers in Québec. Women Health. 2007;45:1-17 pubmed
    ..Canadian- born mothers integrated mental health into their assessment of overall health status, however, depressive symptoms among minority immigrant mothers were common, and their determinants warrant further research. ..
  37. Lee D, Chung T. Postnatal depression: an update. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;21:183-91 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, prevention and treatment of perinatal depression. The latest development in research and practice related to this condition are also highlighted. ..
  38. Nakku J, Nakasi G, Mirembe F. Postpartum major depression at six weeks in primary health care: prevalence and associated factors. Afr Health Sci. 2006;6:207-14 pubmed
    ..There is indication for routine screening of at risk women in the peri-natal period to avoid, recognize and manage postpartum psychiatric morbidity and its consequence on mothers and their developing children. ..
  39. Panthangi V, West P, Savoy Moore R, Geeta M, Reickert E. Is seasonal variation another risk factor for postpartum depression?. J Am Board Fam Med. 2009;22:492-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in the first 6 months after delivery in 10% to 20% of mothers. Despite the availability of screening tools, there is a general consensus that PPD is under-diagnosed...
  40. Séjourné N, Denis A, Theux G, Chabrol H. [The role of some psychological, psychosocial and obstetrical factors in the intensity of postpartum blues]. Encephale. 2008;34:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Baby blues can result in postpartum depression. Hence it appears important to explore in more details the clinical background related to the intensity of ..
  41. Marcus S. Depression during pregnancy: rates, risks and consequences--Motherisk Update 2008. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;16:e15-22 pubmed
    ..Numerous tools including the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale can be used to screen for depression during pregnancy and postpartum...
  42. Buultjens M, Robinson P, Liamputtong P. A holistic programme for mothers with postnatal depression: pilot study. J Adv Nurs. 2008;63:181-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pilot programme was well accepted and could easily be used by midwives, maternal and child health nurses and other appropriately trained allied health professionals. ..
  43. Yozwiak J. Postpartum depression and adolescent mothers: a review of assessment and treatment approaches. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2010;23:172-8 pubmed
    b>Postpartum depression (PPD) affects a significant proportion of adolescent mothers. Adolescence presents unique challenges that may make the young mother more vulnerable than her adult counterparts to PPD...
  44. Song J, Park B. [The changing pattern of physical and psychological health, and maternal adjustment between primiparas who used and those who did not use Sanhujori facilities]. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2010;40:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Postpartum depression and childcare stress at 4-6 weeks were significantly higher than those of the other postpartum periods, ..
  45. Brummelte S, Galea L. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care. Horm Behav. 2016;77:153-66 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important ..
  46. Masmoudi J, Tabelsi S, Charfeddine F, Ben Ayed B, Guermazzi M, Jaoua A. [Study of the prevalence of postpartum depression among 213 Tunisian parturients]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008;36:782-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was done at CHU Hédi Chaker in Sfax, Tunisia. For tracking postpartum depression, we used the Arab version of Edinburgh Postnatal Scale Depression (EPDS)...
  47. Mounts K. Screening for maternal depression in the neonatal ICU. Clin Perinatol. 2009;36:137-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Postpartum depression is common in women with infants in the neonatal ICU. Maternal depression can affect infant health and development adversely...
  48. Kim B, Wang H, Son J, Kim C, Joo Y. Bipolarity in depressive patients without histories of diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the use of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire for detecting bipolarity. Compr Psychiatry. 2008;49:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..3% (n = 17), bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (1-3 days brief hypomania). Postpartum depression (relative risk [RR] [95% confidence interval {CI}], 2.00 [1.23-3.24]), early age of onset (RR [95% CI], 1...
  49. Taylor A, Glover V, Marks M, Kammerer M. Diurnal pattern of cortisol output in postnatal depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:1184-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Bowen A, Stewart N, Baetz M, Muhajarine N. Antenatal depression in socially high-risk women in Canada. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63:414-6 pubmed publisher
    ..On a positive note, the present study suggests that exercise may mediate antenatal depression. ..
  51. Rychnovsky J, Hunter L. The relationship between sleep characteristics and fatigue in healthy postpartum women. Womens Health Issues. 2009;19:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unclear whether the age-old advice to "nap when your baby naps" is effective in reducing postpartum fatigue. ..
  52. Kim P, Strathearn L, Swain J. The maternal brain and its plasticity in humans. Horm Behav. 2016;77:113-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Third, we discuss abnormal changes in the maternal brain related to psychopathology (i.e., postpartum depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse) and potential brain remodeling associated with ..
  53. Nourollahpour Shiadeh M, Rostami A, Pearce B, Gholipourmalekabadi M, Newport D, Danesh M, et al. The correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and prenatal depression in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;35:1829-1835 pubmed
    ..The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to evaluate the depression symptom severity in study participants...