hellp syndrome


Summary: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.

Top Publications

  1. Prusac I, Zekic Tomas S, Roje D. Apoptosis, proliferation and Fas ligand expression in placental trophoblast from pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome or pre-eclampsia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011;90:1157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective study. University hospital in Croatia. Placentae from women with HELLP syndrome (n=10), PE (n=10) and normal pregnancies (n=10)...
  2. Wada Y, Sakamaki Y, Kobayashi D, Ajiro J, Moro H, Murakami S, et al. HELLP syndrome, multiple liver infarctions, and intrauterine fetal death in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome. Intern Med. 2009;48:1555-8 pubmed
    We report a case of HELLP syndrome, multiple liver infarctions, and intrauterine fetal death in a woman in the 17th week of pregnancy with SLE and APS who had been in remission on a regimen of low-dose prednisolone and aspirin...
  3. Sep S, Smits L, Prins M, Spaanderman M, Peeters L. Simple prepregnant prediction rule for recurrent early-onset hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:80-7 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to develop a simple clinically useful prediction rule for early-onset recurrent preeclampsia and/or HELLP syndrome. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and/or HELLP, enrolled between 1996 and 2007, and a subsequent ..
  4. Muetze S, Leeners B, Ortlepp J, Kuse S, Tag C, Weiskirchen R, et al. Maternal factor V Leiden mutation is associated with HELLP syndrome in Caucasian women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..gt;A mutation and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C >T polymorphism in women with HELLP syndrome and in their fetuses from the same index pregnancy...
  5. Cali U, Cavkaytar S, Sirvan L, Danisman N. Placental apoptosis in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, and HELLP syndrome: an immunohistochemical study with caspase-3 and bcl-2. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2013;40:45-8 pubmed
    To examine the placental expression of caspase-3 and bcl-2 in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, IUGR, and HELLP syndrome.
  6. Benedetto C, Marozio L, Tancredi A, Picardo E, Nardolillo P, Tavella A, et al. Biochemistry of HELLP syndrome. Adv Clin Chem. 2011;53:85-104 pubmed
    The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis (H), elevated liver (EL) enzymes, and low platelet (LP) count that occurs in 0.2-0...
  7. Habli M, Eftekhari N, Wiebracht E, Bombrys A, Khabbaz M, How H, et al. Long-term maternal and subsequent pregnancy outcomes 5 years after hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:385.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with a history of HELLP are at increased risk for preeclampsia and HELLP as well as long-term morbidities as depression and chronic hypertension. Gestational age at the onset of HELLP could be a predictor for long-term outcome. ..
  8. Makinde O, Adegoke O, Adediran I, Ndububa D, Adeyemi A, Owolabi A, et al. HELLP syndrome: the experience at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;29:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 26 (76.5%) of the patients were unbooked, six (17.6%) of the 34 cases developed HELLP syndrome. Four (33%) of the 12 eclamptics developed HELLP syndrome, while only one (10%) of the cases of imminent ..
  9. Curiel Balsera E, Prieto Palomino M, Muñoz Bono J, Ruiz de Elvira M, Galeas J, Quesada García G. [Analysis of maternal morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to Obstetric Intensive Care with severe preeclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome]. Med Intensiva. 2011;35:478-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 262 patients admitted due to severe preeclampsia, eclampsia or HELLP syndrome. Descriptive analysis of the population and complications in the ICU and hospital mortality...

More Information


  1. Koopmans C, Bijlenga D, Groen H, Vijgen S, Aarnoudse J, Bekedam D, et al. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia after 36 weeks' gestation (HYPITAT): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374:979-988 pubmed publisher
    ..outcome was a composite measure of poor maternal outcome--maternal mortality, maternal morbidity (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pulmonary oedema, thromboembolic disease, and placental abruption), progression to severe hypertension or ..
  2. Buimer M, Keijser R, Jebbink J, Wehkamp D, van Kampen A, Boer K, et al. Seven placental transcripts characterize HELLP-syndrome. Placenta. 2008;29:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..in gene expression between placental tissue obtained from normotensive pregnant women and women with PE and HELLP syndrome. Firstly, comparison of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression profiles of 28 weeks' control placenta (available ..
  3. Stewart M, Brazis P, Guier C, Thota S, Wilson S. Purtscher-like retinopathy in a patient with HELLP syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:886-7 pubmed
    ..revealed elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia, and evidence of intravascular coagulation consistent with HELLP syndrome. Despite the successful delivery of a healthy baby, the patient developed permanent visual loss...
  4. Hulstein J, van Runnard Heimel P, Franx A, Lenting P, Bruinse H, Silence K, et al. Acute activation of the endothelium results in increased levels of active von Willebrand factor in hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:2569-75 pubmed
    ..Activation of the endothelium is thought to play a key role in pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Activation of endothelial cells may lead to release of von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, which are ..
  5. Cho F, Chen S, Kan Y, Lee T, Wang J. Successful management of a pregnant woman with HELLP syndrome, pulmonary edema, postpartum hemorrhage and acute renal failure, using early hemodialysis, intravenous immunoglobulin and noninvasive monitoring: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:661-3 pubmed
    b>HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) with medical complications is a major cause of maternal mortality in pregnancy. A vicious cycle may occur without expeditious delivery and proper management...
  6. Vidaeff A, Yeomans E. Corticosteroids for the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP): what evidence?. Minerva Ginecol. 2007;59:183-90 pubmed
    ..administration, either antepartum or postpartum, does not improve the outcome of pregnancies affected by HELLP syndrome. The risks associated with such an approach, especially in fetuses manifesting growth restriction and absent ..
  7. Hupuczi P, Rigó B, Sziller I, Szabo G, Szigeti Z, Papp Z. Follow-up analysis of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21:519-22 pubmed
    In this study, we investigated the course of subsequent pregnancies in patients with HELLP syndrome and the development of chronic maternal diseases...
  8. Balogh A, Pozsgay J, Matkó J, Dong Z, Kim C, Várkonyi T, et al. Placental protein 13 (PP13/galectin-13) undergoes lipid raft-associated subcellular redistribution in the syncytiotrophoblast in preterm preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:156.e1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..placental protein 13 (PP13) localization in relation to cytoskeleton and lipid rafts in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Placental cryosections from patients with preeclampsia and HELLP, and controls were stained for PP13, actin, ..
  9. van Rijn B, Franx A, Steegers E, de Groot C, Bertina R, Pasterkamp G, et al. Maternal TLR4 and NOD2 gene variants, pro-inflammatory phenotype and susceptibility to early-onset preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1865 pubmed publisher
    ..domain 2 (NOD2), that impair the inflammatory response to endotoxin, are related to preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. We determined five common mutations in TLR4 (D299G and T399I) and NOD2 (R702W, G908R and L1007fs) in 340 ..
  10. Sziller I, Babula O, Hupuczi P, Nagy B, Rigo B, Szabo G, et al. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) codon 54 gene polymorphism protects against development of pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and pre-eclampsia-associated intrauterine growth restriction. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:281-5 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to test the association between an MBL polymorphism and pre-eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and IUGR...
  11. Abildgaard U, Heimdal K. Pathogenesis of the syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP): a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;166:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This review concerns the pathogenetic mechanisms of HELLP syndrome with an emphasis on differences between HELLP and early onset PE. The syndromes show a familial tendency...
  12. Stenczer B, Molvarec A, Szabo G, Szarka A, Fügedi G, Szijártó J, et al. Circulating levels of thrombospondin-1 are decreased in HELLP syndrome. Thromb Res. 2012;129:470-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to determine, whether its circulating levels are altered in preeclampsia and in HELLP syndrome. We enrolled 45 pregnant women with early-, 43 with late-onset preeclampsia, 21 with HELLP-syndrome, 45 with ..
  13. Beucher G, Simonet T, Dreyfus M. [Management of the HELLP syndrome]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008;36:1175-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolution of those parameters is a major prognostic factor. With the HELLP syndrome, maternal morbidity is dramatically increased compared to isolated preeclampsia with complications such as ..
  14. Chhabra S, Qureshi A, Datta N. Perinatal outcome with HELLP/partial HELLP complicating hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. An Indian rural experience. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26:531-3 pubmed
    ..87 (106 in term cases and 352.94 in pre-term). All the eight women with the full HELLP syndrome had labour induced, the PMR in these cases was 500...
  15. Hertig A, Fort J, Lefevre G, Chabbert Buffet N, Uzan M, Rondeau E, et al. Soluble endoglin in preeclamptic patients with or without HELLP syndrome. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202:594.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Although recent literature findings demonstrated a role of sEng in the pathophysiology of HELLP syndrome in animal models, we found that, at the time of delivery, sEng was not specifically elevated in preeclamptic ..
  16. Nagy B, Varkonyi T, Molvarec A, Lazar L, Hupuczi P, Than N, et al. Leptin gene (TTTC)(n) microsatellite polymorphism in pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:1033-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5%; severe pre-eclamptic 58.3%; HELLP syndrome 52.6%). We detected a higher frequency of the II/II genotype in HELLP syndrome patients (32...
  17. Peng W, Nakaii M, Matsushima T, Asakura H. Atypical case of reversible posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome associated with puerperal HELLP syndrome. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:269-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Cases of postpartum RPLS without involvement of posterior brain regions after eclampsia complicated by HELLP syndrome are very rare. Patients with RPLS do not always show typical manifestations.
  18. Das C, Srivastava D, Debnath J, Ramchandran V, Pal S, Sahni P. Endovascular management of hepatic hemorrhage and subcapsular hematoma in HELLP syndrome. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2007;26:244-5 pubmed
    ..We present a 22-year-old lady in whom liver rupture was noted on emergency caesarian section and later confirmed on contrast-enhanced CT scan. She gradually recovered following selective hepatic angiography and embolization...
  19. Clark E, Silver R, Branch D. Do antiphospholipid antibodies cause preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome?. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007;9:219-25 pubmed
    ..Current evidence does not justify inclusion of preeclampsia as a major criterion for APS, but preeclampsia could reasonably be included as a secondary or minor criterion in diagnosis when a patient has other clinical features of APS. ..
  20. Than N, Abdul Rahman O, Magenheim R, Nagy B, Fule T, Hargitai B, et al. Placental protein 13 (galectin-13) has decreased placental expression but increased shedding and maternal serum concentrations in patients presenting with preterm pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Virchows Arch. 2008;453:387-400 pubmed publisher
    ..of the syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane was stronger in both term and preterm pre-eclampsia and HELLP syndrome than in controls...
  21. Mihu D, Costin N, Mihu C, Seicean A, Ciortea R. HELLP syndrome - a multisystemic disorder. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007;16:419-24 pubmed
    b>HELLP syndrome is a multisystemic disorder with an incidence of 0.17-0.85% of all pregnancies. Its etiopathogenesis is not completely understood...
  22. Haram K, Svendsen E, Abildgaard U. The HELLP syndrome: clinical issues and management. A Review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9:8 pubmed publisher
    The HELLP syndrome is a serious complication in pregnancy characterized by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count occurring in 0.5 to 0.9% of all pregnancies and in 10-20% of cases with severe preeclampsia...
  23. Koyama S, Tomimatsu T, Kanagawa T, Sawada K, Tsutsui T, Kimura T, et al. Spinal subarachnoid hematoma following spinal anesthesia in a patient with HELLP syndrome. Int J Obstet Anesth. 2010;19:87-91 pubmed publisher
    A case of subarachnoid hematoma following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with HELLP syndrome is reported...
  24. Cavkaytar S, Ugurlu E, Karaer A, Tapisiz O, Danisman N. Are clinical symptoms more predictive than laboratory parameters for adverse maternal outcome in HELLP syndrome?. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86:648-51 pubmed
    To determine the risk factors for adverse maternal outcome among women with HELLP syndrome. Sixty-one pregnancies with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome diagnosed antenatally were reviewed between ..
  25. Fang C, Fremeaux Bacchi V, Liszewski M, Pianetti G, Noris M, Goodship T, et al. Membrane cofactor protein mutations in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), fatal Stx-HUS, C3 glomerulonephritis, and the HELLP syndrome. Blood. 2008;111:624-32 pubmed
    ..Both the R69W and A304V MCP mutations were deficient in their ability to control the alternative pathway of complement activation on a cell surface, illustrating the importance of modeling transmembrane proteins in situ...
  26. Grgic O, Radakovic B, Barisic D. Hyperreactio luteinalis could be a risk factor for development of HELLP syndrome: case report. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2008.e13-6 pubmed publisher
    ..woman with ovarian torsion in 13 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and HELLP syndrome. Laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy due to the ovarian torsion and cesarean section (CS) due to the ..
  27. Vigil De Gracia P. Maternal deaths due to eclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;104:90-4 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate maternal deaths associated with eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and the concurrence of these conditions...
  28. Asherson R, Galarza Maldonado C, Sanin Blair J. The HELLP syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies, and syndromes. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27:1-4 pubmed
  29. Nagy B, Savli H, Molvarec A, Varkonyi T, Rigó B, Hupuczi P, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms in HELLP syndrome patients determined by quantitative real-time PCR and melting curve analyses. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;389:126-31 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF polymorphisms were studied in preeclampsia, but not in HELLP syndrome. Therefore, we decided to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of VEGF G+405C, C-460T and C-2578A ..
  30. Yokota H, Miyamoto K, Yokoyama K, Noguchi H, Uyama K, Oku M. Spontaneous acute subdural haematoma and intracerebral haemorrhage in patient with HELLP syndrome: case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009;151:1689-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of the acute subdural haematoma and a caesarean section, were performed, during which a diagnosis of HELLP syndrome with disseminated intravascular coagulation was made...
  31. Osmanagaoglu M, Erdoğan I, Zengin U, Bozkaya H. Comparison between HELLP syndrome, chronic hypertension, and superimposed preeclampsia on chronic hypertension without HELLP syndrome. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:481-5 pubmed
    To compare perinatal outcome of patients with HELLP syndrome to that of patients with chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia on chronic hypertension without HELLP syndrome...
  32. Isler C, Magann E, Rinehart B, Terrone D, Bass J, Martin J. Dexamethasone compared with betamethasone for glucocorticoid treatment of postpartum HELLP syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;80:291-7 pubmed
    ..A prospective, mixed randomized/non-randomized clinical investigation of patients with postpartum HELLP syndrome. Treatment with either dexamethasone or betamethasone was continued until there was evidence of disease ..
  33. Stepan H, Leo C, Purz S, Hockel M, Horn L. Placental localization and expression of the cell death factors BNip3 and Nix in preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and HELLP syndrome. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;122:172-6 pubmed
    ..Placental tissue was sampled from 10 pregnancies each with preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, IUGR and gestational age-matched controls...
  34. Vigil De Gracia P. Pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with HELLP syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001;72:17-23 pubmed
    ..Retrospective descriptive study of patients with pre-eclampsia-eclampsia complicated by HELLP syndrome that occurred over a 3-year period in Panama...
  35. Weinstein L. Syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count: a severe consequence of hypertension in pregnancy. 1982. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:859; discussion 860 pubmed
  36. Parnas M, Sheiner E, Shoham Vardi I, Burstein E, Yermiahu T, Levi I, et al. Moderate to severe thrombocytopenia during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;128:163-8 pubmed
    ..However, the adverse outcome is specifically attributed to preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and rare causes, while the perinatal outcome of GT and ITP is basically favorable...
  37. Karumanchi S, Maynard S, Stillman I, Epstein F, Sukhatme V. Preeclampsia: a renal perspective. Kidney Int. 2005;67:2101-13 pubmed
  38. Murphy M, Ayazifar M. Permanent visual deficits secondary to the HELLP syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005;25:122-7 pubmed
    ..In nearly all cases of preeclampsia or eclampsia, visual deficits are reversible. The superimposition of the HELLP syndrome may create more neurologic damage...
  39. Soh Y, Yasuhi I, Nakayama D, Ishimaru T. A case of postpartum cerebellar infarction with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2002;53:240-2 pubmed
    ..A 39-year-old Japanese primipara had postpartum HELLP syndrome soon after cesarean section at term. Several hours later, she developed cerebellar infarction which was fatal...
  40. Osmanagaoglu M, Osmanagaoglu S, Ulusoy H, Bozkaya H. Maternal outcome in HELLP syndrome requiring intensive care management in a Turkish hospital. Sao Paulo Med J. 2006;124:85-9 pubmed
    ..Our purpose was to determine maternal outcome in pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count) that required intensive care management...
  41. Le Thi Thuong D, Tieulie N, Costedoat N, Andreu M, Wechsler B, Vauthier Brouzes D, et al. The HELLP syndrome in the antiphospholipid syndrome: retrospective study of 16 cases in 15 women. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005;64:273-8 pubmed
    ..In APS, HELLP is associated with pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in most cases and seems to occur earlier than in the general population. Heparin plus aspirin may prevent obstetric complications in the subsequent pregnancies. ..
  42. Murray D, O RIORDAN M, Geary M, Phillips R, Clarke T, McKenna P. The HELLP syndrome: maternal and perinatal outcome. Ir Med J. 2001;94:16-8 pubmed
    The HELLP syndrome is a rare condition with a variable presentation, and in general, the outlook for mother and baby is felt to be poor...
  43. Hashiguchi K, Inamura T, Irita K, Abe M, Noda E, Yanai S, et al. Late occurrence of diffuse cerebral swelling after intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with the HELLP syndrome--Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2001;41:144-8 pubmed
    ..A 37-year-old female presented with HELLP syndrome causing an intracerebral hematoma, which was treated by evacuation and mild hypothermia...
  44. Ezri T, Abouleish E, Lee C, Evron S. Intracranial subdural hematoma following dural puncture in a parturient with HELLP syndrome. Can J Anaesth. 2002;49:820-3 pubmed
    ..It is conceivable that thrombocytopenia together with possible abnormal platelet function increased the risk of subdural hematoma. Alternative diagnoses to PDPH should be considered whenever headache is not posturally related. ..
  45. Gul A, Aslan H, Cebeci A, Polat I, Ulusoy S, Ceylan Y. Maternal and fetal outcomes in HELLP syndrome complicated with acute renal failure. Ren Fail. 2004;26:557-62 pubmed
    This study reviews maternal and fetal outcomes in HELLP syndrome complicated with acute renal failure (ARF), and compares clinical and laboratory findings of the cases of HELLP syndrome that did not develop ARF...
  46. Bayraktaroglu Z, Demirci F, Balat O, Kutlar I, Okan V, Uğur G. Plasma exchange therapy in HELLP syndrome: a single-center experience. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2006;17:99-102 pubmed
    ..During a three-year period, 13 patients with HELLP syndrome were treated with one or two sessions of plasma exchange after delivery...
  47. Altamura C, Vasapollo B, Tibuzzi F, Novelli G, Valensise H, Rossini P, et al. Postpartum cerebellar infarction and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2005;26:40-2 pubmed
    ..This case report gives evidence of the importance of considering the different risk factors involved in stroke occurrence during pregnancy. ..
  48. Fonseca J, Mendez F, Cataño C, Arias F. Dexamethasone treatment does not improve the outcome of women with HELLP syndrome: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:1591-8 pubmed
    ..A prospective, double-blind clinical trial was conducted among 132 women with HELLP syndrome who were assigned randomly to treatment or placebo groups...
  49. Gul A, Cebeci A, Aslan H, Polat I, Ozdemir A, Ceylan Y. Perinatal outcomes in severe preeclampsia-eclampsia with and without HELLP syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2005;59:113-8 pubmed
    ..and compare perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia-eclampsia with and without HELLP syndrome. Clinical and laboratory findings, and perinatal-neonatal outcomes of all pregnants with severe preeclampsia, ..
  50. Gilboa Y, Bardin R, Feldberg D, Bachar G. Postpartum hepatic rupture and retroperitoneal hematoma associated with HELLP syndrome. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8:219-20 pubmed
  51. Benedetto C, Marozio L, Salton L, Maulà V, Chieppa G, Massobrio M. Factor V Leiden and factor II G20210A in preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:1095-100 pubmed
    ..2%) and in one normal pregnant woman (0.9%)(p = 0.041). In the subgroup of 32 preeclamptic subjects with HELLP syndrome, factor V Leiden was found in three patients (9.3%) and factor II G20210A in two (6.2%)...
  52. Merchant S, Mathew P, Vanderjagt T, Howdieshell T, Crookston K. Recombinant factor VIIa in management of spontaneous subcapsular liver hematoma associated with pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:1055-8 pubmed
    ..Recombinant factor VIIa was used to achieve hemostasis in all three patients. Recombinant factor VIIa is an effective adjunct in the treatment of preeclamptic patients with expanding or ruptured subcapsular liver hematoma. ..
  53. Yucesoy G, Ozkan S, Bodur H, Tan T, Caliskan E, Vural B, et al. Maternal and perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy: a seven year experience of a tertiary care center. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;273:43-9 pubmed
    ..cases, 28 cases (11%) had eclamptic convulsion and another 28 patients (11%) were demonstrated to have HELLP syndrome. Intrauterine growth restriction, oligohydramnios, placental ablation were the obstetric complications in 75 (..