pregnancy induced hypertension


Summary: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.

Top Publications

  1. Demir S, Evruke C, Ozgunen T, Kadayifci O, Altintas U, Kokangul S. The relationship between pregnancy induced hypertension and congenital thrombophilia. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1161-6 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between some thrombophilic parameters and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
  2. Fortner R, Pekow P, Solomon C, Markenson G, Chasan Taber L. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and risk of hypertensive pregnancy among Latina women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:167.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain have been associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, but previous studies have included few Latinas, a group at increased risk...
  3. Rahman L, Hairi N, Salleh N. Association between pregnancy induced hypertension and low birth weight; a population based case-control study. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2008;20:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..63, 9.71) for low birth weight. There was a significant association of pregnancy-induced hypertension with low birth weight. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were 5 times more likely to have had pregnancy-induced hypertension...
  4. Meloni P, D Angeli I, Piazze J, Cerekya A, Simari T, Pala A, et al. First trimester PAPP-A levels associated with early prediction of pregnancy induced hypertension. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2009;28:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of maternal PAPP-A levels in the identification of women at risk of PIH...
  5. Podymow T, August P. Update on the use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy. Hypertension. 2008;51:960-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Furuya M, Ishida J, Inaba S, Kasuya Y, Kimura S, Nemori R, et al. Impaired placental neovascularization in mice with pregnancy-associated hypertension. Lab Invest. 2008;88:416-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Collective data suggest that the impairments of fetoplacental neovascularization and uteroplacental remodeling contribute to the development of complications in PAH...
  7. Moodley J. Maternal deaths due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;22:559-67 pubmed publisher
  8. Hennessy A, Thornton C, Makris A, Ogle R, Henderson Smart D, Gillin A, et al. A randomised comparison of hydralazine and mini-bolus diazoxide for hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy: the PIVOT trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;47:279-85 pubmed
    ..Rapid control of severe hypertension is necessary to reduce maternal morbidity, for example, stroke and placental abruption. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of mini-bolus diazoxide with intravenous (i.v.) hydralazine...
  9. Trumbo P, Ellwood K. Supplemental calcium and risk reduction of hypertension, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and preeclampsia: an evidence-based review by the US Food and Drug Administration. Nutr Rev. 2007;65:78-87 pubmed

More Information


  1. Samuels Kalow M, Funai E, Buhimschi C, Norwitz E, Perrin M, Calderon Margalit R, et al. Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:490.e1-6 pubmed
    ..This study examines the relationship between elevated prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), HDP, and postpregnancy mortality...
  2. Roberts C, Algert C, Ford J. Methods for dealing with discrepant records in linked population health datasets: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007;7:12 pubmed
    ..However, this raises the possibility of discrepant case reports from different datasets...
  3. Koech A, Ndungu B, Gichangi P. Structural changes in umbilical vessels in pregnancy induced hypertension. Placenta. 2008;29:210-4 pubmed
    b>Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is associated with placental morphological changes, alterations in the blood flow patterns in the umbilical vessels and adverse fetal and maternal outcome...
  4. Sahu S, Abraham R, Vedavalli R, Daniel M. Study of lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and vitamin E in pregnancy induced hypertension. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;53:365-9 pubmed
    ..In PIH cases there was a negative correlation of diastolic BP with MDA (P<0.05). Early detection of these parameters is going to aid in better management of PIH cases...
  5. Roberts C, Lain S, Hadfield R. Quality of population health data reporting by mode of delivery. Birth. 2007;34:274-5; author reply 275-6 pubmed
  6. Liu Y, Liu J, Liu L, Ma R, Ye R, Li S, et al. [The relationship between prepregnancy body mass index and the occurrence of pregnancy induced hypertension]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;43:299-304 pubmed
    ..To examine the relationship between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in Chinese population...
  7. Groom K, North R, Poppe K, Sadler L, McCowan L. The association between customised small for gestational age infants and pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension varies with gestation at delivery. BJOG. 2007;114:478-84 pubmed
  8. Lawler J, Osman M, Shelton J, Yeh J. Population-based analysis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2007;26:67-76 pubmed
    ..To determine the population-based incidence of hypertensive diseases in pregnancy in Western New York...
  9. Roberts C, Bell J, Ford J, Hadfield R, Algert C, Morris J. The accuracy of reporting of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in population health data. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2008;27:285-97 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the accuracy of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy reporting in birth and hospital discharge data compared with data abstracted from medical records...
  10. Longo Mbenza B, Tshimanga K, Buassa bu Tsumbu B, Kabangu M. Diets rich in vegetables and physical activity are associated with a decreased risk of pregnancy induced hypertension among rural women from Kimpese, DR Congo. Niger J Med. 2008;17:265-9 pubmed
    ..To assess whether the frequency pf pregnancy-induced hypertension is low, and vegetables intake and physical activity are protective against pregnancy-induced hypertension onset among rural women from Democratic republic of Congo...
  11. Koopmans C, Bijlenga D, Groen H, Vijgen S, Aarnoudse J, Bekedam D, et al. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia after 36 weeks' gestation (HYPITAT): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;374:979-988 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). No cases of maternal or neonatal death or eclampsia were recorded. Induction of labour is associated with improved maternal outcome and should be advised for women with mild hypertensive disease beyond 37 weeks' gestation. ZonMw. ..
  12. Chhabra S, Kakani A. Maternal mortality due to eclamptic and non-eclamptic hypertensive disorders: a challenge. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:25-9 pubmed
    ..Evidence-based critical care is essential as even seemingly milder forms of pregnancy induced hypertension can lead to mortality.
  13. Koopmans C, Bijlenga D, Aarnoudse J, Van Beek E, Bekedam D, van den Berg P, et al. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring in women with pregnancy induced hypertension or mild preeclampsia at term: the HYPITAT trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007;7:14 pubmed
    Hypertensive disorders, i.e. pregnancy induced hypertension and preeclampsia, complicate 10 to 15% of all pregnancies at term and are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The only causal treatment is delivery...
  14. Wang H, Li C, Wang Z, Yang F. [Relationships between polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes and genetic susceptibility to pregnancy induced hypertension]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2004;39:369-72 pubmed
    To study the relationships between polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
  15. Nadar S, Karalis I, Al Yemeni E, Blann A, Lip G. Plasma markers of angiogenesis in pregnancy induced hypertension. Thromb Haemost. 2005;94:1071-6 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities may have implications for the pathogenesis of PIH and preeclampsia...
  16. Tayebjee M, Karalis I, Nadar S, Beevers D, MacFadyen R, Lip G. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1 and -2 levels in gestational hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:325-9 pubmed
  17. Vigeh M, Yokoyama K, Mazaheri M, Beheshti S, Ghazizadeh S, Sakai T, et al. Relationship between increased blood lead and pregnancy hypertension in women without occupational lead exposure in Tehran, Iran. Arch Environ Health. 2004;59:70-5 pubmed
    ..Results of this study indicated that low-level lead exposure may be a risk factor for pregnancy hypertension...
  18. Nadar S, Al Yemeni E, Blann A, Lip G. Thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor and E-selectin as plasma markers of endothelial damage/dysfunction and activation in pregnancy induced hypertension. Thromb Res. 2004;113:123-8 pubmed
  19. Skweres T, Preis K, Ciepłuch R, Miśkiewicz K. [The value of a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio assessment in a single voided urine specimen in prediction of 24-hour proteinuria in pregnancy induced hypertension]. Ginekol Pol. 2006;77:415-21 pubmed
    ..However, 24-hour urine collection is time consuming, cumbersome and often inaccurate especially during pregnancy. Pregnant women find it very inconvenient and difficult...
  20. Levine R, Lam C, Qian C, Yu K, Maynard S, Sachs B, et al. Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in preeclampsia. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:992-1005 pubmed
    ..Since soluble endoglin, another antiangiogenic protein, acts together with sFlt1 to induce a severe preeclampsia-like syndrome in pregnant rats, we examined whether it is associated with preeclampsia in women...
  21. Roberts C, Algert C, Morris J, Ford J, Henderson Smart D. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a population-based study. Med J Aust. 2005;182:332-5 pubmed
    ..To determine population-based rates and outcomes of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy...
  22. Duley L, Henderson Smart D, Meher S. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;:CD001449 pubmed
    ..Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure. Their comparative effects on other substantive outcomes, however, is uncertain...
  23. Kristensen J, Vestergaard M, Wisborg K, Kesmodel U, Secher N. Pre-pregnancy weight and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death. BJOG. 2005;112:403-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death and to study the causes of death among the children...
  24. Moodley J. Maternal deaths associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a population-based study. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2004;23:247-56 pubmed
    ..Clear protocols for management of hypertension in pregnancy at all levels of health care are required...
  25. Verlohren S, Perschel F, Thilaganathan B, Dröge L, Henrich W, Busjahn A, et al. Angiogenic Markers and Cardiovascular Indices in the Prediction of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Hypertension. 2017;69:1192-1197 pubmed publisher
    ..This offers a more precise insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as offering a window for intervention, possibly decreasing cardiovascular mortality in these women. ..
  26. Fauvel J. [Hypertension during pregnancy: Epidemiology, definition]. Presse Med. 2016;45:618-21 pubmed publisher
    ..High blood pressure during pregnancy remains, by its complications, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. ..
  27. Póvoa A, Costa F, Rodrigues T, Patricio B, Cardoso F. Prevalence of hypertension during pregnancy in Portugal. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2008;27:279-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In Portugal, the prevalence of hypertensive disorders diagnosed during pregnancy seems to be lower than that reported in most countries, but these disorders have a significant effect on pregnancy outcomes. ..
  28. Yee L, Caughey A, Cheng Y. Association between gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes in women with chronic hypertension. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:348.e1-348.e9 pubmed publisher
  29. Luef B, Andersen L, Renault K, Nohr E, Jørgensen J, Christesen H. Validation of hospital discharge diagnoses for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2016;95:1288-1294 pubmed publisher
    ..Misclassification was most common in obese preeclamptic women. These findings depict the limitations associated with the direct use of discharge diagnoses of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for research purposes. ..
  30. Kale A, Kuyumcuoglu U, Guzel A. Is pregnancy over 45 with very high parity related with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes?. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2009;36:120-2 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we hypothesized that cases aged 45 or over with very high parity are not always related with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. ..
  31. Ye R, Liu Y, Ma R, Ren A, Liu J. [Association between pregnancy-induced hypertension, cesarean delivery and perinatal mortality: a prospective study]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30:891-4 pubmed
    ..67 (1.52 - 4.70) in groups with PIH in third trimester. Moderate and severe PIH early developed during pregnancy could increase the risk of perinatal mortality, while cesarean delivery could decrease the risks in women with PIH. ..
  32. Festa C, Mattei L, Bitterman O, Pintaudi B, Framarino Dei Malatesta M, Bianchi P, et al. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and 3 years after delivery in women with gestational hyperglycemia. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41:1075-1082 pubmed publisher
    ..64) were associated with hypertension after pregnancy. Women with gestational hyperglycemia should undergo regular monitoring during and after pregnancy to detect metabolic and clinical impairments and to prevent cardiovascular harm. ..
  33. Pace R, Brazeau A, Meltzer S, Rahme E, Dasgupta K. Conjoint Associations of Gestational Diabetes and Hypertension With Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease in Parents: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186:1115-1124 pubmed publisher
    ..8, 95% CI: 1.4, 2.3). In conclusion, we found associations of a combined GDM/GH indicator with cardiometabolic disease in mothers and with diabetes in fathers, with stronger associations when both GDM and GH were present...
  34. Kale P, Costa A. Maternal deaths in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2000-2003. J Health Popul Nutr. 2009;27:794-801 pubmed
    ..Appropriate interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to encompass all women of childbearing age, irrespective of the magnitude of the risk of maternal death. ..
  35. Valdes G, Quezada F, Marchant E, von Schultzendorff A, Moran S, Padilla O, et al. Association of remote hypertension in pregnancy with coronary artery disease: a case-control study. Hypertension. 2009;53:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..17 to 2.39) significantly increased the risk of coronary artery disease. This study demonstrates that women with HPs have earlier coronary disease, probably related to intermediate cardiovascular risks that have a gestational expression. ..
  36. Wilson M, Desmond D, Goodwin T, Miller D, Ingles S. Maternal and fetal variants in the TGF-beta3 gene and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in a predominantly Latino population. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:295.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..32; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.77). Maternal TGF-beta3 variants had no effect on risk of PIH. A fetal TGF-beta3 polymorphism (rs11466414) is associated with PIH in a predominantly Hispanic population. ..
  37. Jing S, Luo K, He H, Lu C, Zhang S, Tan Y, et al. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in blastocyst-stage biopsy with frozen embryo transfer and cleavage-stage biopsy with fresh embryo transfer after preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:105-112.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..BB-FET is associated with a higher incidence of gestational hypertension but better neonatal outcomes compared with CB-ET, especially in twins. ..
  38. Pisani I, Tiralongo G, Lo Presti D, Gagliardi G, Farsetti D, Vasapollo B, et al. Correlation between maternal body composition and haemodynamic changes in pregnancy: different profiles for different hypertensive disorders. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2017;10:131-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with higher BMI and FM percentage, and increased TVR in the second trimester, might be at risk of gestational hypertension and excessive fluid retention at the end of pregnancy. ..
  39. Ohmaru T, Fujita Y, Sugitani M, Shimokawa M, Fukushima K, Kato K. Placental elasticity evaluation using virtual touch tissue quantification during pregnancy. Placenta. 2015;36:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on complications, 199 women were divided into 5 groups (normal, FGR, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), diabetes mellitus and collagen disease), and shear wave velocity (SWV) of the placenta, ..
  40. Luo J, Fu D, Wu Y, Gao Y. Inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3/SOSC1 Signaling Pathway Improves Secretion Function of Vascular Endothelial Cells in a Rat Model of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;40:527-537 pubmed
    ..Our study provides evidence that inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3/SOSC1 signaling pathway could improve the secretion function of VECs in PIH rats. ..
  41. Jeve Y, Potdar N, Opoku A, Khare M. Three-arm age-matched retrospective cohort study of obstetric outcomes of donor oocyte pregnancies. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2016;133:156-8 pubmed publisher
    ..42-23.9; P=0.01). Women who conceived after oocyte donation had an increased risk of hypertensive disorders. Oocyte donation should be managed as an independent risk factor, and couples should be counselled appropriately. ..
  42. Spracklen C, Ryckman K, Triche E, Saftlas A. Physical Activity During Pregnancy and Subsequent Risk of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension: A Case Control Study. Matern Child Health J. 2016;20:1193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with previous studies, these data suggest increasing PA during pregnancy may reduce preeclampsia risk while increasing levels of sedentary activity may increase disease risk. ..
  43. Wong L, Caughey A, Nakagawa S, Kaimal A, Tran S, Cheng Y. Perinatal outcomes among different Asian-American subgroups. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:382.e1-6 pubmed publisher
  44. Hall D, Gebhardt S, Theron G, Grové D. Pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension are less common in HIV infected women. Pregnancy Hypertens. 2014;4:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension are less common in HIV infected women being managed with mono- or triple anti-retroviral therapy. ..
  45. Buscicchio G, Gentilucci L, Tranquilli A. Computerized analysis of fetal heart rate in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction and premature rupture of membranes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:335-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The alteration is slight but evident; it reflects fetal well-being. Computerized FHR tracing analysis may improve the clinical care and the timing of delivery. ..
  46. Kato R. [Maternal mortality in Japan and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnancy]. Masui. 2010;59:303-10 pubmed
    ..Currently the main causes of maternal death in Japan are hemorrhage, obstetric embolism and pregnancy induced hypertension. Several modifications to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation are needed for pregnant women...
  47. Rahimi Z, Lotfi S, Ahmadi A, Jalilian N, Shakiba E, Vaisi raygani A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 C-735T and its interaction with matrix metalloproteinase-7 A-181G polymorphism are associated with the risk of preeclampsia: influence on total antioxidant capacity and blood pressure. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;38:327-332 pubmed publisher
    ..Further association studies of the role of MMP-2 polymorphism and MMP-2 activity in relation to oxidative stress parameters and blood pressure could elucidate the role of MMP-2 and MMP-7 in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. ..
  48. Correa R, Gilio D, Cavellani C, Paschoini M, Oliveira F, Peres L, et al. Placental morphometrical and histopathology changes in the different clinical presentations of hypertensive syndromes in pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277:201-6 pubmed
  49. Aukes A, de Groot J, Aarnoudse J, Zeeman G. Brain lesions several years after eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:504.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact pathophysiology underlying these imaging changes and their clinical relevance remain to be elucidated. ..
  50. Ishii M, Hattori A, Numaguchi Y, Ma X, Nagasaka T, Tsujimoto M, et al. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney...
  51. Haas A, Marik P. Current diagnosis and management of hypertensive emergency. Semin Dial. 2006;19:502-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, with hypertensive urgency, blood pressure control can be achieved with the use of oral medications within 24-48 hours. This paper reviews the management of hypertensive emergencies...
  52. Woolcock J, Hennessy A, Xu B, Thornton C, Tooher J, Makris A, et al. Soluble Flt-1 as a diagnostic marker of pre-eclampsia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;48:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt-1) increase in pre-eclampsia (PE)...
  53. Wali A, Suresh M. Maternal morbidity, mortality, and risk assessment. Anesthesiol Clin. 2008;26:197-230, ix pubmed publisher
    ..5 million every year. This article not only assesses morbidity risks in some of the leading causes of maternal death but also highlights strategies to minimize the risks and to prevent maternal morbidity and mortality...
  54. Pan J, Song H, Pan X. [Reproductive effects of occupational exposure to mercury on female workers in China: a meta-analysis]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28:1215-8 pubmed
    ..To analyze and evaluate the reproductive effects of occupational exposure to mercury among female workers and to identify relative sensitive indicators...
  55. Valerio E, Ramos J, Muller A, Martins Costa S. Random albumin/creatinine ratio for quantification of proteinuria in manifest pre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2007;114:119-20; author reply 120 pubmed
  56. Garovic V, Bailey K, Boerwinkle E, Hunt S, Weder A, Curb D, et al. Hypertension in pregnancy as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease later in life. J Hypertens. 2010;28:826-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess the role of hypertension in pregnancy as an independent risk factor for hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke later in life...
  57. Bellamy J, Pugh H, Sanders D. The trouble with blood pressure cuffs. BMJ. 2008;337:a431 pubmed publisher
  58. Thornton C, Hennessy A, von Dadelszen P, Nishi C, Makris A, Ogle R. An international benchmarking collaboration: measuring outcomes for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2007;29:794-800 pubmed
    ..To implement a set of clinical indicators to benchmark outcomes for women suffering from the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy...
  59. Chen W, Khalil R. Differential [Ca2+]i signaling of vasoconstriction in mesenteric microvessels of normal and reduced uterine perfusion pregnant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R1962-72 pubmed publisher
  60. Ben Ami S, Oron G, Ben Haroush A, Blickstein D, Hod M, Bar J. Primary atherothrombotic occlusive vascular events in premenopausal women with history of adverse pregnancy outcome. Thromb Res. 2010;125:124-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with atherothrombotic occlusive vascular disease (AOVD) in premenopausal women...
  61. Poon L, Staboulidou I, Maiz N, Plasencia W, Nicolaides K. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: screening by uterine artery Doppler at 11-13 weeks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;34:142-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Ganzevoort W, Rep A, Bonsel G, de Vries J, Wolf H. Dynamics and incidence patterns of maternal complications in early-onset hypertension of pregnancy. BJOG. 2007;114:741-50 pubmed
  63. Lunati F, Dugnani M, Campanini M. [Hypertension in pregnancy]. Recenti Prog Med. 2008;99:432-9 pubmed
    ..Among calcium-antagonist drugs, the efficacy of nifedipine is proved; and in the pre-eclampsia, metil dopa, beta blockers and idralazine. Many questions are anyway still unsolved needing more studies...
  64. Kikuchi A, Unno N, Shiba M, Sunagawa S, Ogiso Y, Kozuma S, et al. Multifractal description of the maternal surface of the placenta. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2008;66:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, multifractal analysis based on generalized concepts of fractals has been applied to biological tissues composed of complex structures...
  65. Li L, Zhou W, Qiao Y, Wang M, Zhang J. [Expression and significance of Edg4 and Edg7 in the placentas of patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2007;42:386-9 pubmed
  66. Savona Ventura C, Buttigieg G, Grima S. Outcomes of hypertensive obstetric patients in the Maltese Islands. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;101:189-91 pubmed publisher
  67. Custódio M, Yamakami L, Bortolotto M, Waissman A, Zugaib M. [Maternal and perinatal outcome in patients with severe systolic dysfunction]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2008;54:500-5 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate maternal and fetal outcome in patients with severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction followed in a tertiary-care hospital...
  68. Yamada H, Atsumi T, Amengual O, Koike T, Furuta I, Ohta K, et al. Anti-beta2 glycoprotein-I antibody increases the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension: a case-controlled study. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;84:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The usefulness of anti-beta2GPI measurement among women without other anti-phospholipid antibodies requires further study...
  69. Scioscia M, Paine M, Gumaa K, Rodeck C, Rademacher T. Release of inositol phosphoglycan P-type by the human placenta following insulin stimulus: a multiple comparison between preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational hypertension. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008;21:581-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to assess the release of this mediator in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and hypertensive disorders other than preeclampsia...
  70. Khalil A, Cooper D, Harrington K. Pulse wave analysis: a preliminary study of a novel technique for the prediction of pre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2009;116:268-76; discussion 276-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate whether first-trimester arterial pulse wave analysis (PWA) can predict pre-eclampsia...
  71. Ullah M, Barman A, Siddique M, Haque A. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its consequences in pregnancy in a rural community of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2007;33:60-4 pubmed
    ..Screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this rural community...
  72. Vollebregt K, van der Wal M, Wolf H, Vrijkotte T, Boer K, Bonsel G. Is psychosocial stress in first ongoing pregnancies associated with pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension?. BJOG. 2008;115:607-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Investigating the association of pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension with psychosocial stress in the first half of pregnancy...
  73. Slattery M, Geary M, Morrison J. Obstetric antecedents for preterm delivery. J Perinat Med. 2008;36:306-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the obstetric antecedents for preterm delivery (PTD) in an Irish urban obstetric population, and to evaluate the incidence and outcome of such deliveries...
  74. DE Sousa J, Eagleton C, Lo C. Evaluation of chronic hypertension in pregnant young women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;49:299-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 76% of women had appropriate follow-up for their hypertension. Screening for secondary causes was not consistent, and the majority had incomplete investigation...
  75. Magee L, von Dadelszen P. The management of severe hypertension. Semin Perinatol. 2009;33:138-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Most commonly, severe hypertension is treated with parenteral labetalol or hydralazine, or oral nifedipine (capsules or PA tablet). Other options will depend on local availability. MgSO(4) should not be relied on as an antihypertensive...
  76. Bennett W, Gilson M, Jamshidi R, Burke A, Segal J, Steele K, et al. Impact of bariatric surgery on hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: retrospective analysis of insurance claims data. BMJ. 2010;340:c1662 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether women who had a delivery after bariatric surgery have lower rates of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy compared with women who had a delivery before bariatric surgery...
  77. Lopez Jaramillo P, Pradilla L, Castillo V, Lahera V. [Socioeconomic pathology as a cause of regional differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and pregnancy-induced hypertension]. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2007;60:168-78 pubmed
    ..We regard the interaction between these various factors as the most important cause of the rapidly increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease observed in developing countries in recent years...
  78. Negrato C, Jovanovic L, Tambascia M, Geloneze B, Dias A, Calderon I, et al. Association between insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hypertension in pregnancy. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009;7:53-9 pubmed publisher