Genomes and Genes
Summary: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
- Hviid L, Marinho C, Staalsoe T, Penha Gonçalves C. Of mice and women: rodent models of placental malaria. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:412-9 pubmed publisher..However, many features of murine and human PM are similar, including involvement of VSAs analogous to PfEMP1. It thus appears that rodent model studies can further the understanding of VSA-dependent malaria pathogenesis and immunity. ..
- Adegnika A, Luty A, Grobusch M, Ramharter M, Yazdanbakhsh M, Kremsner P, et al. ABO blood group and the risk of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Malar J. 2011;10:101 pubmed publisher..These findings were not confirmed by the study from Gabon, in which statistically non-significant trends for reduced risk of placental parasitaemia in those with blood group O, regardless of parity, were observed. ..
- N Dao C, N Diaye J, Gaye A, Le Hesran J. [Placental malaria and pregnancy outcome in a peri urban area in Senegal]. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 2006;54:149-56 pubmed..Although malaria at delivery is not associated with occurrence of a maternal obstetric pathology, it has detrimental effects for the fetus and newborns. Effective antimalarial strategies during the antenatal period are urgently needed. ..
- Kaiser Rogers K, McFadden D, Livasy C, Dansereau J, Jiang R, Knops J, et al. Androgenetic/biparental mosaicism causes placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Med Genet. 2006;43:187-92 pubmed..Androgenetic mosaicism for the first time provides an aetiology for PMD, and may be a novel mechanism for BWS and unexplained intrauterine growth restriction. ..
- Redline R. Villitis of unknown etiology: noninfectious chronic villitis in the placenta. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:1439-46 pubmed..Irrespective of target antigen or antigens, the pathophysiologic implications of having activated maternal lymphocytes within vascularized fetal tissues are not trivial. ..
- Rampersad R, Barton A, Sadovsky Y, Nelson D. The C5b-9 membrane attack complex of complement activation localizes to villous trophoblast injury in vivo and modulates human trophoblast function in vitro. Placenta. 2008;29:855-61 pubmed publisher..Our findings demonstrate that MAC associates with fibrin deposits at sites of villous injury in vivo. Hypoxia also enhances MAC deposition in cultured trophoblasts and MAC alters trophoblast function in a phenotype specific manner. ..
- Bukovsky A, Cekanova M, Caudle M, Wimalasena J, Foster J, Henley D, et al. Expression and localization of estrogen receptor-alpha protein in normal and abnormal term placentae and stimulation of trophoblast differentiation by estradiol. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:13 pubmed..This mechanism, however, may not operate in abnormal placentae, which show a lack of ER-alpha expression...
- Labarrere C, Mullen E. Fibrinoid and trophoblastic necrosis with massive chronic intervillositis: an extreme variant of villitis of unknown etiology. Am J Reprod Immunol Microbiol. 1987;15:85-91 pubmed..A maternal immunological aggression toward fetal tissues is proposed as pathophysiological mechanism, although a nondetermined placental infection cannot be excluded. ..
- Kayentao K, Kodio M, Newman R, Maiga H, Doumtabe D, Ongoiba A, et al. Comparison of intermittent preventive treatment with chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in Mali. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:109-16 pubmed..In intensely seasonal transmission settings in Mali, >2 doses may be required to prevent placental reinfection prior to delivery. ..
- Bermudez C, Luengas O, Pérez Wulff J, Genatios U, Garcia V, Guevara Zuloaga F, et al. Management of a placental chorioangioma with endoscopic devascularization and intrauterine transfusions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007;29:97-8 pubmed
- Rogerson S, Mkundika P, Kanjala M. Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria at delivery: comparison of blood film preparation methods and of blood films with histology. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1370-4 pubmed..02). Placental histology is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy. Methods for preparation of placental films may affect the density, but not the prevalence, of P. falciparum infection detected. ..
- Redline R, Boyd T, Campbell V, Hyde S, Kaplan C, Khong T, et al. Maternal vascular underperfusion: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:237-49 pubmed..68). Adoption of this clearly defined, clinically relevant, and pathologically reproducible terminology could enhance clinicopathologic correlation and provide a more objective framework for future clinical research. ..
- Bhide A, Prefumo F, Sairam S, Carvalho J, Thilaganathan B. Ultrasound-guided interstitial laser therapy for the treatment of placental chorioangioma. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102:1189-91 pubmed..Interstitial laser therapy in a patient with placental chorioangioma resulted in a successful outcome. ..
- McGready R, Brockman A, Cho T, Levesque M, Tkachuk A, Meshnick S, et al. Haemozoin as a marker of placental parasitization. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:644-6 pubmed..Women with P. vivax infections during pregnancy do not have measurable levels of placental haemozoin suggesting that P. vivax-infected erythrocytes do not accumulate in the placenta as much as P. falciparum-infected ones. ..
- Myerson D, Parkin R, Benirschke K, Tschetter C, Hyde S. The pathogenesis of villitis of unknown etiology: analysis with a new conjoint immunohistochemistry-in situ hybridization procedure to identify specific maternal and fetal cells. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2006;9:257-65 pubmed..Our findings indicate that invasion of fetal villi by maternal T cells is associated with focal destruction of the syncytiotrophoblast, clarifying how placental immuno-defensive mechanisms may be contravened. ..
- Adam I, Babiker S, Mohmmed A, Salih M, Prins M, Zaki Z. ABO blood group system and placental malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan. Malar J. 2007;6:110 pubmed..These results indicate that women of eastern Sudan are at risk for placental malaria infection irrespective to their age or parity. Those women with blood group O were at higher risk of past placental malaria infection. ..
- Redline R. Placental inflammation. Semin Neonatol. 2004;9:265-74 pubmed..All of these factors combine to produce specific patterns of placental pathology that can be used to guide treatment, predict complications and explain adverse outcome. ..
- Escribano D, Galindo A, Arbues J, Puente J, de la Fuente P. Prenatal management of placental chorioangioma: value of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21:489-93 pubmed..Spontaneous thrombosis of the main supplying blood vessel of the chorioangioma was detected at 33 weeks. The child was delivered at 39 weeks of pregnancy in normal clinical condition...
- Brustoski K, Moller U, Kramer M, Hartgers F, Kremsner P, Krzych U, et al. Reduced cord blood immune effector-cell responsiveness mediated by CD4+ cells induced in utero as a consequence of placental Plasmodium falciparum infection. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:146-54 pubmed..These data demonstrate that parasite Ag-specific CD4(+) regulatory cells are generated in utero as a consequence of placental P. falciparum infection. ..
- Loscertales M, Brabin B. ABO phenotypes and malaria related outcomes in mothers and babies in The Gambia: a role for histo-blood groups in placental malaria?. Malar J. 2006;5:72 pubmed..Cell surface glycans, such as ABO and related antigens have special relevance in reproductive biology and could modulate specific cell interactions as those associated with the pathogenesis of placental malaria. ..
- Singer L, Newman R, Diarra A, Moran A, Huber C, Stennies G, et al. Evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test for assessing the burden of malaria during pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:481-5 pubmed..1% by RDT. When the PCR was used as the gold standard, RDTs had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 76%. The MAKROmed RDT was highly sensitive in the detection of placental malaria, but had lower than expected specificity. ..
- Paradinas F, Sebire N, Fisher R, Rees H, Foskett M, Seckl M, et al. Pseudo-partial moles: placental stem vessel hydrops and the association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and complete moles. Histopathology. 2001;39:447-54 pubmed
- Polydorides A, Kalish R, Witkin S, Baergen R. A fetal cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphism is associated with placental malperfusion. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2007;26:284-90 pubmed..Thus, a fetal polymorphism in the COX-2 gene influences the occurrence of placental malperfusion and ischemia, which may be of sufficient severity to promote or allow the development of IUGR. ..
- Trimnell A, Kraemer S, Mukherjee S, Phippard D, Janes J, Flamoe E, et al. Global genetic diversity and evolution of var genes associated with placental and severe childhood malaria. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;148:169-80 pubmed..These studies aid our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms that shape var diversity and will be important to the development of vaccines against pregnancy associated malaria and severe malaria. ..
- Lokan J, Chan Y, Agnesta F. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia. Pathology. 2002;34:375-8 pubmed
- Schwarz N, Adegnika A, Breitling L, Gabor J, Agnandji S, Newman R, et al. Placental malaria increases malaria risk in the first 30 months of life. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1017-25 pubmed publisher..An additional consequence may be increased risk of malaria in early life, although the epidemiological evidence of this consequence is limited...
- Beeson J, Duffy P. The immunology and pathogenesis of malaria during pregnancy. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;297:187-227 pubmed..Emerging knowledge of the pathogenesis and immunology of malaria in pregnancy will increasingly lead to new opportunities for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions and new tools for diagnosis and monitoring. ..
- Rogerson S, Hviid L, Duffy P, Leke R, Taylor D. Malaria in pregnancy: pathogenesis and immunity. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:105-17 pubmed
- Matteelli A, Caligaris S, Castelli F, Carosi G. The placenta and malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1997;91:803-10 pubmed..A deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process is of key importance in the design of protective interventions which are effective and acceptable during the gestation period. ..
- Sarr D, Marrama L, Gaye A, Dangou J, Niang M, Mercereau Puijalon O, et al. High prevalence of placental malaria and low birth weight in Sahelian periurban area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:171-7 pubmed..Severe anemia was also associated with chronic infection. Long-lasting infections are the most deleterious to mother and infant and are most likely associated with drug resistance of parasites. ..
- Jauniaux E, Poston L, Burton G. Placental-related diseases of pregnancy: Involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution. Hum Reprod Update. 2006;12:747-55 pubmed..This would impair the placentation process leading to chronic oxidative stress in the placenta and finally to diffuse maternal endothelial cell dysfunction. ..
- Mankhambo L, Kanjala M, Rudman S, Lema V, Rogerson S. Evaluation of the OptiMAL rapid antigen test and species-specific PCR to detect placental Plasmodium falciparum infection at delivery. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:155-8 pubmed..Neither OptiMAL nor PCR testing of peripheral blood is adequately sensitive to detect all placental malaria infection, but a positive result by OptiMAL testing identifies women with a high proportion of low-birth-weight babies. ..
- Lau T, Yu S, Leung T, To K, Fung T, Leung T. Prenatal embolisation of a large chorioangioma using enbucrilate. BJOG. 2005;112:1002-4 pubmed
- Flick K, Scholander C, Chen Q, Fernandez V, Pouvelle B, Gysin J, et al. Role of nonimmune IgG bound to PfEMP1 in placental malaria. Science. 2001;293:2098-100 pubmed..Normal, nonimmune IgG that is bound to a duffy binding-like domain beta of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) might at the IE surface act as a bridge to neonatal Fc receptors of the placenta. ..
- Chow S, Craig M, Jacques C, Hall B, Catteau J, Munro S, et al. Correlates of placental infection with cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 or human herpes virus 7. J Med Virol. 2006;78:747-56 pubmed..The major pathogen detected in all cases of placental infection associated with fetal death was human CMV. ..
- Agababov R, Abashina T, Suzina N, Vainshtein M, Schwartsburd P. Link between the early calcium deposition in placenta and nanobacterial-like infection. J Biosci. 2007;32:1163-8 pubmed..We hypothesize that the increased placental calcification might be caused, at least in part, by nanobacterial infection. ..
- Uneke C. Impact of placental Plasmodium falciparum malaria on pregnancy and perinatal outcome in sub-Saharan Africa: part III: placental malaria, maternal health, and public health. Yale J Biol Med. 2008;81:1-7 pubmed..The effects of placental malaria on maternal health can better be understood when considered in relation with various maternal parameters, including maternal age, parity, peripheral malaria infection, anemia, and HIV infection. ..
- Benirschke K, Coen R, Patterson B, Key T. Villitis of known origin: varicella and toxoplasma. Placenta. 1999;20:395-9 pubmed..The identification of the pathogens, varicella virus and toxoplasma, would easily have been overlooked in routine study of the placenta and were possible because of clinical suspicion. ..
- Staalsoe T, Megnekou R, Fievet N, Ricke C, Zornig H, Leke R, et al. Acquisition and decay of antibodies to pregnancy-associated variant antigens on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes that protect against placental parasitemia. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:618-26 pubmed..Data suggest that VSA(CSA) is a target for vaccination against PAM. ..
- O Neil Dunne I, Achur R, Agbor Enoh S, Valiyaveettil M, Naik R, Ockenhouse C, et al. Gravidity-dependent production of antibodies that inhibit binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan during pregnancy. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7487-92 pubmed
- Brabin B, Romagosa C, Abdelgalil S, Menendez C, Verhoeff F, McGready R, et al. The sick placenta-the role of malaria. Placenta. 2004;25:359-78 pubmed..These statistics and our limited understanding of its pathogenesis suggest the research priorities on this subject. ..
- Szymanowski K, Chmaj Wierzchowska K, Florek E, Opala T. [Do calcification of placenta reveal only maternal cigarette smoking?]. Przegl Lek. 2007;64:879-81 pubmed..Cigarette smoking should not be considered as exclusive factor leading to formation deposits of calcium in placenta. The consumption of vitamin supplements probably also involve calcification of placenta tissue. ..
- Pham T, Steele J, Stayboldt C, Chan L, Benirschke K. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is associated with high rates of intrauterine growth restriction and fetal demise: A report of 11 new cases and a review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 2006;126:67-78 pubmed..Thus, PMD is associated with high IUGR and IUFD/neonatal death rates and disproportionally affects females. The cause and pathogenesis are yet unknown. The current understanding and hypotheses involving PMD are discussed. ..
- Stoll C, Alembik Y, Dott B, Roth M. Study of placenta of children born with congenital malformations. Ann Genet. 2003;46:1-5 pubmed..The human placenta discounts a principal functional part, the maternal blood in the intervillous space. Congenital malformations may interact with this function. ..
- Wang X, Wang J, Trudinger B. Gene expression of nitric oxide synthase by human umbilical vein endothelial cells: the effect of fetal plasma from pregnancy with umbilical placental vascular disease. BJOG. 2003;110:53-8 pubmed..Our findings raise the possibility that the release of factors causing an up-regulation of iNOS and ecNOS in the endothelium in the fetal placenta may occur as part of an inflammatory response of the vascular endothelium to injury. ..
- Mockenhaupt F, Ulmen U, von Gaertner C, Bedu Addo G, Bienzle U. Diagnosis of placental malaria. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:306-8 pubmed..In addition to the gross underestimation of placental malaria by peripheral blood film microscopy, submicroscopic infections were found to be a risk factor for maternal anemia. ..
- Kabyemela E, Muehlenbachs A, Fried M, Kurtis J, Mutabingwa T, Duffy P. Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria. Malar J. 2008;7:26 pubmed publisher..Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation...
- Chelbi S, Mondon F, Jammes H, Buffat C, Mignot T, Tost J, et al. Expressional and epigenetic alterations of placental serine protease inhibitors: SERPINA3 is a potential marker of preeclampsia. Hypertension. 2007;49:76-83 pubmed..Our results provide one of the first observations of a specific epigenetic alteration in human placental diseases and provide new potential markers for an early diagnosis. ..
- Burton G, Jones C. Syncytial knots, sprouts, apoptosis, and trophoblast deportation from the human placenta. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;48:28-37 pubmed publisher..We recognize that apoptotic changes can occur in pathologic pregnancies, but consider the deportation of trophoblast that has been linked to preeclampsia to be most likely of necrotic origin following ischemic injury. ..
- Redline R. Inflammatory responses in the placenta and umbilical cord. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;11:296-301 pubmed..This review summarises the relationships between aetiology, intensity, duration, characteristics and site of histological placental inflammation and suggests how these data may help to better understand the antenatal environment. ..
- Muehlenbachs A, Fried M, Lachowitzer J, Mutabingwa T, Duffy P. Genome-wide expression analysis of placental malaria reveals features of lymphoid neogenesis during chronic infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:557-65 pubmed..We propose a model where the production of Ig during chronic malaria may enhance inflammation by attracting and activating macrophages that, in turn, recruit B cells to further produce Ig in the intervillous spaces. ..