fetal hypoxia


Summary: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.

Top Publications

  1. Teramo K, Widness J. Increased fetal plasma and amniotic fluid erythropoietin concentrations: markers of intrauterine hypoxia. Neonatology. 2009;95:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Amniotic fluid EPO levels have been shown to increase exponentially during fetal hypoxia in preeclamptic, diabetic and Rh-immunized pregnancies, to correlate inversely with cord blood pH, pO(2) and ..
  2. Regnault T, de Vrijer B, Galan H, Wilkening R, Battaglia F, Meschia G. Development and mechanisms of fetal hypoxia in severe fetal growth restriction. Placenta. 2007;28:714-23 pubmed
    ..We postulate that FGR hypoxia results from disproportionate underdevelopment of those changes which allow for a progressive increase in umbilical O(2) uptake. ..
  3. Wedegärtner U, Tchirikov M, Schafer S, Priest A, Walther M, Adam G, et al. Fetal sheep brains: findings at functional blood oxygen level-dependent 3-T MR imaging--relationship to maternal oxygen saturation during hypoxia. Radiology. 2005;237:919-26 pubmed
    ..The depletion of oxygen supply is reflected by decreases in fetal brain BOLD SIs that are more distinct in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Normalized BOLD SI is influenced only slightly by ROI position. ..
  4. Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka S. Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..There is insufficient evidence to implicate any one prenatal factor in autism aetiology, although there is some evidence to suggest that exposure to pregnancy complications may increase the risk. ..
  5. Oh C, Dong Y, Liu H, Thompson L. Intrauterine hypoxia upregulates proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in fetal guinea pig hearts. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:78.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrauterine hypoxia may be an important stimulus in local generation of selected proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs in fetal hearts. ..
  6. Dong Y, Yu Z, Sun Y, Zhou H, Stites J, Newell K, et al. Chronic fetal hypoxia produces selective brain injury associated with altered nitric oxide synthases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;204:254.e16-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Time-mated pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to 10.5% molecular oxygen for 14 days (animals with chronic fetal hypoxia; HPX) or room air (control animals; NMX); L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL; an inducible nitric oxide ..
  7. Guo R, Hou W, Dong Y, Yu Z, Stites J, Weiner C. Brain injury caused by chronic fetal hypoxemia is mediated by inflammatory cascade activation. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:540-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest CHX fetal brain injury is not directly caused by oxygen deprivation but rather is an adaptive response that becomes maladaptive...
  8. Monau T, Vargas V, Zhang L, Myers D, Ducsay C. Nitric oxide inhibits ACTH-induced cortisol production in near-term, long-term hypoxic ovine fetal adrenocortical cells. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:955-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Nitric oxide may, therefore, play an important role in regulating ACTH-induced cortisol production in the LTH fetal adrenal. ..
  9. Pearce W. Hypoxic regulation of the fetal cerebral circulation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:731-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Xue Q, Zhang L. Prenatal hypoxia causes a sex-dependent increase in heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in adult male offspring: role of protein kinase C epsilon. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:624-32 pubmed publisher
  2. Masaoka N, Nakajima Y, Hayakawa Y, Ohgame S, Hamano S, Nagaishi M, et al. Transplacental effects of allopurinol on suppression of oxygen free radical production in chronically instrumented fetal lamb brains during intermittent umbilical cord occlusion. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;18:1-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated a good transfer of allopurinol from mother to fetus and suggested the possibility of intrauterine treatment to inhibit fetal brain damage resulting from increased oxygen free radicals. ..
  3. Sharma S, Lucitti J, Nordman C, Tinney J, Tobita K, Keller B. Impact of hypoxia on early chick embryo growth and cardiovascular function. Pediatr Res. 2006;59:116-20 pubmed
  4. Supramaniam V, Jenkin G, Loose J, Wallace E, Miller S. Chronic fetal hypoxia increases activin A concentrations in the late-pregnant sheep. BJOG. 2006;113:102-9 pubmed
    ..Department of Physiology, Monash University. Chronically catherised fetal sheep in late pregnancy. Chronic fetal hypoxia and IUGR were experimentally induced by single umbilical artery ligation (SUAL) in catheterised fetal sheep...
  5. Wedegärtner U, Tchirikov M, Schafer S, Priest A, Kooijman H, Adam G, et al. Functional MR imaging: comparison of BOLD signal intensity changes in fetal organs with fetal and maternal oxyhemoglobin saturation during hypoxia in sheep. Radiology. 2006;238:872-80 pubmed
    ..94, 1.13). BOLD MR imaging can be used to measure changes of oxyhemoglobin saturation in fetal organs during hypoxia. The liver and heart demonstrated the greatest signal intensity decreases during hypoxia. ..
  6. Tikvica A, Kusan Jukić M, Pintarić I, Medic M, Hudicek Martincić G, Kosec V, et al. Nitric oxide synthesis in placenta is increased in intrauterine growth restriction and fetal hypoxia. Coll Antropol. 2008;32:565-70 pubmed
    ..pregnancies and those from pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with or without fetal hypoxia. We have measured nitrites by the Griess reaction in 15 placentas from IUGR pregnancies and 12 controls...
  7. Corrêa R, Espíndula A, Silva R, Saldanha J, Guimarães C, Cavellani C, et al. Morphologic analysis of fetal stress organsin different causes of perinatal death. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2012;31:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6% of the cases, 22.1% moderate, and 25.3% severe. The number of macrophages was higher in PHA. Changes in these organs are closely related to the cause of death and to the period during which the harmful agent. ..
  8. Dong Y, Thompson L. Differential expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in coronary and cardiac tissue in hypoxic fetal guinea pig hearts. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2006;13:483-90 pubmed
    ..05) mRNA and protein of cardiac tissue (by 50.0% and 40.6%, respectively) in the same hearts. Chronic fetal hypoxia, after 14 days, induces sustained changes in eNOS gene and eNOS protein expression that differ between ..
  9. Thompson L, Dong Y. Chronic hypoxia decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression in fetal guinea pig hearts. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005;12:388-95 pubmed
    ..Thus, the functional role of NO in the fetal heart during hypoxia may differ from that of the adult. ..
  10. Ream M, Ray A, Chandra R, Chikaraishi D. Early fetal hypoxia leads to growth restriction and myocardial thinning. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that hypoxia compromises the fetus through myocardial hypoplasia and reduced heart rate. ..
  11. Burstyn I, Wang X, Yasui Y, Sithole F, Zwaigenbaum L. Autism spectrum disorders and fetal hypoxia in a population-based cohort: accounting for missing exposures via Estimation-Maximization algorithm. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011;11:2 pubmed publisher
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with complications of pregnancy that implicate fetal hypoxia (FH); the excess of ASD in male gender is poorly understood...
  12. Ducsay C, Mlynarczyk M, Kaushal K, Hyatt K, Hanson K, Myers D. Long-term hypoxia enhances ACTH response to arginine vasopressin but not corticotropin-releasing hormone in the near-term ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R892-9 pubmed publisher
    ..LTH significantly increases pituitary sensitivity to AVP. This enhanced sensitivity may be a mechanism of our previously observed enhanced corticotrope function...
  13. Sørensen A, Pedersen M, Tietze A, Ottosen L, Duus L, Uldbjerg N. BOLD MRI in sheep fetuses: a non-invasive method for measuring changes in tissue oxygenation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2009;34:687-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The unchanged signal in the fetal brain during altered maternal oxygen conditions is probably explained by the brain-sparing mechanism. ..
  14. Vargas V, Kaushal K, Monau T, Myers D, Ducsay C. Long-term hypoxia enhances cortisol biosynthesis in near-term ovine fetal adrenal cortical cells. Reprod Sci. 2011;18:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that enhanced cortisol production in LTH adrenals is the result of enhanced protein expression of StAR and potential downstream signaling pathways. ..
  15. Patterson A, Chen M, Xue Q, Xiao D, Zhang L. Chronic prenatal hypoxia induces epigenetic programming of PKC{epsilon} gene repression in rat hearts. Circ Res. 2010;107:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that fetal hypoxia-induced methylation of cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotides at the PKCepsilon promoter is repressive and ..
  16. Morrison J, Botting K, Dyer J, Williams S, Thornburg K, McMillen I. Restriction of placental function alters heart development in the sheep fetus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R306-13 pubmed
    ..PR resulted in chronic fetal hypoxia, IUGR, and elevated plasma cortisol concentrations...
  17. Sørensen A, Holm D, Pedersen M, Tietze A, Stausbøl Grøn B, Duus L, et al. Left-right difference in fetal liver oxygenation during hypoxia estimated by BOLD MRI in a fetal sheep model. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38:665-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the BOLD MRI technique is a promising non-invasive tool that might be useful for the future monitoring of the human fetus. ..
  18. Tong W, Zhang L. Fetal hypoxia and programming of matrix metalloproteinases. Drug Discov Today. 2012;17:124-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hypoxia adversely affects the brain and heart development, yet the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies indicate an important role of the extracellular matrix in fetal development and tissue remodeling...
  19. Riddle A, Luo N, Manese M, Beardsley D, Green L, Rorvik D, et al. Spatial heterogeneity in oligodendrocyte lineage maturation and not cerebral blood flow predicts fetal ovine periventricular white matter injury. J Neurosci. 2006;26:3045-55 pubmed
    ..These data support that although ischemia is necessary to generate PWMI, the presence of susceptible populations of oligodendrocyte progenitors underlies regional predilection to injury. ..
  20. Pasupathy D, Wood A, Pell J, Fleming M, Smith G. Rates of and factors associated with delivery-related perinatal death among term infants in Scotland. JAMA. 2009;302:660-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of intrapartum stillbirth and neonatal death at term decreased in Scotland between 1988 and 2007. This decrease was only significant for deaths ascribed to intrapartum anoxia. ..
  21. Pasupathy D, Wood A, Pell J, Fleming M, Smith G. Time trend in the risk of delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death associated with breech presentation at term. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:490-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased use of planned caesarean delivery only partly explains the decline in delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death between 1985 and 2004 in Scotland. ..
  22. Rueda Clausen C, Morton J, Davidge S. Effects of hypoxia-induced intrauterine growth restriction on cardiopulmonary structure and function during adulthood. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The implication of these findings is the potential usefulness of neonatal diagnosis as a predictor of cardiopulmonary outcomes during adulthood. ..
  23. Torrance H, Benders M, Derks J, Rademaker C, Bos A, Van Den Berg P, et al. Maternal allopurinol during fetal hypoxia lowers cord blood levels of the brain injury marker S-100B. Pediatrics. 2009;124:350-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Fetal hypoxia is an important determinant of neonatal encephalopathy caused by birth asphyxia, in which hypoxia-induced free radical formation plays an important role...
  24. Salamalekis E, Hintipas E, Salloum I, Vasios G, Loghis C, Vitoratos N, et al. Computerized analysis of fetal heart rate variability using the matching pursuit technique as an indicator of fetal hypoxia during labor. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19:165-9 pubmed
    ..2% and 53.1% in recognizing non-reassuring FHR. Fetal hypoxia during labor can be recognized using the MP technique for the analysis of FHR signal power in the VLF and LLF ..
  25. Amer Wahlin I, Bördahl P, Eikeland T, Hellsten C, Noren H, Sörnes T, et al. ST analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram during labor: Nordic observational multicenter study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;12:260-6 pubmed
    ..Fifteen cases of intrapartum fetal hypoxia identified from neurological neonatal symptoms and/or cord artery pH < 7...
  26. Zhang L. Prenatal hypoxia and cardiac programming. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005;12:2-13 pubmed
    ..This review discusses recent evidence of an association of prenatal hypoxic exposure with an increased vulnerability of adult heart disease, and the possible mechanisms involved. ..
  27. Kakuya F, Shirai M, Takase M, Ishii N, Ishioka T, Hayashi T, et al. Relationship between erythropoietin levels both in cord serum and amniotic fluid at birth and abnormal fetal heart rate records. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:414-9 pubmed
    ..data in rats suggest that an elevated amniotic fluid erythropoietin (EPO) level at birth indicates antepartum fetal hypoxia. However, the short gestation period in rats does not permit a direct comparison of our data with humans...
  28. Whitelaw A. Systematic review of therapy after hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Semin Neonatol. 2000;5:33-40 pubmed
    ..No adequate trials of dexamethasone, calcium channel blockers, magnesium sulphate, or naloxone have yet been completed, but pilot studies in infants have shown the risks of magnesium sulphate and calcium channel blockers. ..
  29. Cannon T, van Erp T, Rosso I, Huttunen M, Lonnqvist J, Pirkola T, et al. Fetal hypoxia and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenic patients, their siblings, and controls. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59:35-41 pubmed
    ..b>Fetal hypoxia predicted reduced gray matter and increased CSF bilaterally throughout the cortex in patients (gray matter ..
  30. Bennet L, Rossenrode S, Gunning M, Gluckman P, Gunn A. The cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of the immature fetal sheep to acute umbilical cord occlusion. J Physiol. 1999;517 ( Pt 1):247-57 pubmed
    ..These cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses may contribute to the patterns of cerebral injury seen in the human preterm fetus. ..
  31. van Erp T, Saleh P, Rosso I, Huttunen M, Lonnqvist J, Pirkola T, et al. Contributions of genetic risk and fetal hypoxia to hippocampal volume in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, their unaffected siblings, and healthy unrelated volunteers. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1514-20 pubmed
    The authors examined in an epidemiologic sample the contributions of genetic predisposition and history of fetal hypoxia to hippocampal volume in patients with psychosis...
  32. Ferber A, Fridel Z, Weissmann Brenner A, Minior V, Divon M. Are elevated fetal nucleated red blood cell counts an indirect reflection of enhanced erythropoietin activity?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1473-5 pubmed
    ..Other studies documented an association between fetal hypoxia and elevated nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts and have speculated that it is the elevation of EPO that ..
  33. Li G, Xiao Y, Estrella J, Ducsay C, Gilbert R, Zhang L. Effect of fetal hypoxia on heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in the adult rat. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003;10:265-74 pubmed
    ..Several possible mechanisms may be involved, including an increase in beta(2)-adrenoreceptor and the G(s)alpha/G(i)alpha ratio, and a decrease in heat shock protein 70 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the left ventricle. ..
  34. Bae S, Xiao Y, Li G, Casiano C, Zhang L. Effect of maternal chronic hypoxic exposure during gestation on apoptosis in fetal rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H983-90 pubmed
    ..Chronic hypoxia-mediated increase in beta1-AR and decrease in heat shock proteins may also play an important role in apoptosis in the fetal heart. ..
  35. Jazayeri A, Politz L, Tsibris J, Queen T, Spellacy W. Fetal erythropoietin levels in pregnancies complicated by meconium passage: does meconium suggest fetal hypoxia?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:188-90 pubmed
    ..5; meconium, P <.001; gestational age, P <.01). These results suggest that meconium passage can be associated with chronic fetal hypoxia as demonstrated by elevated fetal erythropoietin levels, independent of gestational age.
  36. Siristatidis C, Salamalekis E, Kassanos D, Creatsas G. Alterations in Doppler velocimetry indices of the umbilical artery during fetal hypoxia in labor, in relation to cardiotocography and fetal pulse oximetry findings. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;272:191-6 pubmed
    ..Alterations in UA Doppler velocimetry indices were observed during labor-induced fetal hypoxia. PO readings of <40% provoked an increase in the RI and PI...
  37. Hajek Z, Srp B, Haddad E, Drbohlav P, Pařízek A, Liska K, et al. [Analysis of present diagnostic methods of intrapartum fetal hypoxia]. Ceska Gynekol. 2005;70:22-6 pubmed
    To evaluate specificity of present diagnostic methods of intrapartal fetal hypoxia (cardiotocography--CTG, fetal pulse oxymetry--FpO2, ST-ECG analysis). A prospective study...
  38. Roberts J, Lain K. Recent Insights into the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Placenta. 2002;23:359-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, the suggestion that some of the maternal alterations are due to fetal adaptive responses encourages careful choices of agents and meticulous infant follow up in well planned clinical trials. ..
  39. Myers D, Bell P, Hyatt K, Mlynarczyk M, Ducsay C. Long-term hypoxia enhances proopiomelanocortin processing in the near-term ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:R1178-84 pubmed
    ..We conclude that LTH results in enhanced POMC processing and/or release to ACTH and increased hypothalamic drive. ..
  40. Jensen A, Garnier Y, Berger R. Dynamics of fetal circulatory responses to hypoxia and asphyxia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1999;84:155-72 pubmed
    ..what factors determine this collapse of circulatory compensating mechanisms in the fetus, how does it relate to neuronal damage, and how can the fetal brain be pharmacologically protected against the adverse effects of asphyxia? ..
  41. Raff H, Bruder E, Jankowski B, Engeland W. The effect of fetal hypoxia on adrenocortical function in the 7-day-old rat. Endocrine. 2000;13:111-6 pubmed
    b>Fetal hypoxia in late gestation is a common cause of postnatal morbidity...
  42. Salamalekis E, Thomopoulos P, Giannaris D, Salloum I, Vasios G, Prentza A, et al. Computerised intrapartum diagnosis of fetal hypoxia based on fetal heart rate monitoring and fetal pulse oximetry recordings utilising wavelet analysis and neural networks. BJOG. 2002;109:1137-42 pubmed
    To develop a computerised system that will assist the early diagnosis of fetal hypoxia and to investigate the relationship between the fetal heart rate variability and the fetal pulse oximetry recordings...
  43. Teramo K, Hiilesmaa V, Schwartz R, Clemons G, Widness J. Amniotic fluid and cord plasma erythropoietin levels in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and chronic hypertension. J Perinat Med. 2004;32:240-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that elevated amniotic fluid erythropoietin levels are markers of chronic or subchronic fetal hypoxia and are associated with neonatal morbidity in pregnancies complicated by hypertension.
  44. Hanson M. Do we now understand the control of the fetal circulation?. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1997;75:55-61 pubmed
  45. Norén H, Amer Wahlin I, Hagberg H, Herbst A, Kjellmer I, Marsal K, et al. Fetal electrocardiography in labor and neonatal outcome: data from the Swedish randomized controlled trial on intrapartum fetal monitoring. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:183-92 pubmed
    ..Cardiotocography plus ST analysis provides accurate information about intrapartum hypoxia and may prevent intrapartum asphyxia and neonatal encephalopathy by giving a clear alert to the staff members who are in charge. ..
  46. Imamura T, Umezaki H, Kaushal K, Ducsay C. Long-term hypoxia alters endocrine and physiologic responses to umbilical cord occlusion in the ovine fetus. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2004;11:131-40 pubmed
    ..Despite similar ACTH responses to UCO, the cortisol response was greater in the LTH fetuses than in normoxic controls. LTH appears to result in enhanced adrenal sensitivity to a secondary stressor or altered cortisol metabolism. ..
  47. Kendall G, Peebles D. Acute fetal hypoxia: the modulating effect of infection. Early Hum Dev. 2005;81:27-34 pubmed
    ..There are a number of clinical and research implications that centre around the role of antibiotics, mode and timing of delivery, maternal cooling during labour and the role of immune-modulating drugs. ..
  48. Goonewardene M, Hanwellage K. Fetal acoustic stimulation test for early intrapartum fetal monitoring. Ceylon Med J. 2011;56:14-8 pubmed
    ..001) and accuracy (99%vs 64%, p < 0.001) in predicting 5 minute APGAR < 7 in the baby. FAST is a reliable screening test for assessing fetal well being in early labour. It complements the NST and is better than the NST alone. ..
  49. Shiao S, Ou C. Accurate measurements of fetal hemoglobin for neonates with different gestational ages. Hemoglobin. 2006;30:419-35 pubmed
    ..Future studies may be needed to account for Hb F1 when measuring Hb F levels to assess oxygenation status in (pre term) neonates. ..
  50. Thorpe R, Hubbell M, Silpanisong J, Williams J, Pearce W. Chronic hypoxia attenuates the vasodilator efficacy of protein kinase G in fetal and adult ovine cerebral arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;313:H207-H219 pubmed publisher
  51. Ropacka Lesiak M, Korbelak T, Breborowicz G. [Doppler blood flow velocimetry in the middle cerebral artery in uncomplicated pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol. 2011;82:185-90 pubmed
    ..However PI indices, particularly RI in the middle cerebral artery have low predictive value for the analyzed parameters. ..
  52. Gentili S, Morrison J, McMillen I. Intrauterine growth restriction and differential patterns of hepatic growth and expression of IGF1, PCK2, and HSDL1 mRNA in the sheep fetus in late gestation. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study highlights that intrahepatic responses to fetal substrate restriction may exist that protect the liver from decreased growth and, potentially, from a decreased responsiveness to the actions of insulin in postnatal life...
  53. Kahila H, Stefanovic V, Loukovaara M, Alfthan H, Hamalainen E, Halmesmaki E. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure: effects on biochemical markers of hypoxia and early neonatal outcome. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87:1213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..010-0.075 U/L vs 0.024, range: 0.010-0.075 U/L). While no significant differences in asphyxia markers were observed between the three groups, a tendency towards higher levels of EPO emerged in the buprenorphine-exposed group. ..