tubal pregnancy


Summary: The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.

Top Publications

  1. Hsu S, Mitwally M, Aly A, Al Saleh M, Batt R, Yeh J. Laparoscopic management of tubal ectopic pregnancy in obese women. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:198-202 pubmed
    ..Laparoscopic management of tubal ectopic pregnancy does not appear to significantly increase surgical morbidity in obese patients. ..
  2. Ghezzi F, Cromi A, Fasola M, Bolis P. One-trocar salpingectomy for the treatment of tubal pregnancy: a 'marionette-like' technique. BJOG. 2005;112:1417-9 pubmed
    Laparoscopic salpingectomy for the treatment of tubal pregnancy has traditionally been performed with two ancillary trocars...
  3. Potter M, Lepine L, Jamieson D. Predictors of success with methotrexate treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy at Grady Memorial Hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:1192-4 pubmed
    ..However, a finding unique to this study was that visualization of a yolk sac was a risk factor for failure. ..
  4. Nieuwkerk P, Hajenius P, Ankum W, van der Veen F, Wijker W, Bossuyt P. Systemic methotrexate therapy versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in patients with tubal pregnancy. Part I. Impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Fertil Steril. 1998;70:511-7 pubmed
    ..health-related quality of life after systemic methotrexate therapy versus laparoscopic salpingostomy for tubal pregnancy. Multicenter randomized clinical trial. Departments of obstetrics and gynecology of six Dutch hospitals...
  5. Lipscomb G, McCord M, Stovall T, Huff G, Portera S, Ling F. Predictors of success of methotrexate treatment in women with tubal ectopic pregnancies. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:1974-8 pubmed
    ..Among women with tubal ectopic pregnancies, a high serum chorionic gonadotropin concentration is the most important factor associated with failure of treatment with a single-dose methotrexate protocol. ..
  6. Mohamed H, Maiti S, Phillips G. Laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy: a 5-year experience. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22:411-4 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy is the most beneficial procedure with maximum safety and efficiency when the laparoscopic service is added to the unit. ..
  7. Pham H, Lin E. Adnexal ring of ectopic pregnancy detected by contrast-enhanced CT. Abdom Imaging. 2007;32:56-8 pubmed
    ..Right tubal ectopic pregnancy was confirmed at surgery...
  8. Coulier B, Malbecq S, Brinon P, Ramboux A. MDCT diagnosis of ruptured tubal pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Emerg Radiol. 2008;15:179-82 pubmed
    We report a case of ruptured tubal pregnancy with massive life-threatening hemoperitoneum. The 38 year-old woman presented with gynaecologic haemorrhage, pelvic pain and hypovolemic shock...
  9. Pluchino N, Ninni F, Angioni S, Carmignani A, Genazzani A, Cela V. Spontaneous cornual pregnancy after homolateral salpingectomy for an earlier tubal pregnancy: a case report and literature review. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..a laparoscopically treated spontaneous cornual pregnancy after homolateral salpingectomy for an earlier tubal pregnancy in a condition of hemodynamic instability as a result of cornual rupture...

More Information


  1. Cabar F, Pereira P, Zugaib M. Intrauterine pregnancy after salpingectomy for tubal pregnancy due to emergency contraception: a case report. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62:641-2 pubmed
  2. Revel A, Ophir I, Koler M, Achache H, Prus D. Changing etiology of tubal pregnancy following IVF. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1372-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Tubal pregnancy (TP) is twice as common following IVF when compared with natural conception. This is surprising, since embryo transfer is aimed for an accurate area in the uterine cavity...
  3. Elson J, Tailor A, Banerjee S, Salim R, Hillaby K, Jurkovic D. Expectant management of tubal ectopic pregnancy: prediction of successful outcome using decision tree analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2004;23:552-6 pubmed
    ..Decision tree analysis may be used as a guide to estimate the probability of successful expectant management in individual cases. ..
  4. Nieuwkerk P, Hajenius P, van der Veen F, Ankum W, Wijker W, Bossuyt P. Systemic methotrexate therapy versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in tubal pregnancy. Part II. Patient preferences for systemic methotrexate. Fertil Steril. 1998;70:518-22 pubmed
    ..preferences for systemic methotrexate therapy relative to laparoscopic salpingostomy in the treatment of tubal pregnancy. Preference assessment in controlled clinical study. Four hospitals and one infertility clinic...
  5. Pereira P, Cabar F, Raiza L, Roncaglia M, Zugaib M. Emergency contraception and ectopic pregnancy: report of 2 cases. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2005;60:497-500 pubmed
  6. Tan T, Elashry A, Tischner I, Jolaoso A. Lightning does strike twice: recurrent ipsilateral tubal pregnancy following partial salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;27:534-5 pubmed
  7. Hajenius P, Engelsbel S, Mol B, van der Veen F, Ankum W, Bossuyt P, et al. Randomised trial of systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in tubal pregnancy. Lancet. 1997;350:774-9 pubmed
    Laparoscopic salpingostomy is a well-established treatment for patients with tubal pregnancy who desire to retain fertility. Another approach that preserves the fallopian tube is medical treatment...
  8. Lim Y, Ng S, Ng P, Tan A, Jamil M. Laparoscopic salpingectomy in tubal pregnancy: prospective randomized trial using endoloop versus electrocautery. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2007;33:855-62 pubmed
    ..compare the effectiveness of the endoloop technique to electrocautery during laparoscopic salpingectomy for tubal pregnancy. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted over 24 months at the Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan ..
  9. Gamzu R, Almog B, Levin Y, Pauzner D, Lessing J, Jaffa A, et al. The ultrasonographic appearance of tubal pregnancy in patients treated with methotrexate. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2585-7 pubmed
    ..4 days (range 7-63 days). The initial size of a tubal pregnancy is not related to the success of MTX treatment...
  10. Cabar F, Fettback P, Pereira P, Zugaib M. Serum markers in the diagnosis of tubal pregnancy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63:701-8 pubmed
    ..However, the clinical applicability of these findings remains to be evaluated in larger prospective studies. ..
  11. Bickell N, Bodian C, Anderson R, Kase N. Time and the risk of ruptured tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:789-94 pubmed
    b>Tubal pregnancy remains an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. We sought to quantify the relationship of time between symptom onset and treatment and the risk of tubal rupture...
  12. Basama F. Preoperative diagnosis of unilateral tubal twin ectopic pregnancy with one live twin. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:313-4 pubmed
  13. Faiz S, Sporrong B, Al Meshari A. A case of seven recurrent ectopic pregnancies. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:529-31 pubmed
    ..We present a rare case of 7 recurrent ectopic pregnancies in a 39-year-old Saudi woman, together with a literature review of the reproductive performance after recurrent ectopic pregnancy. ..
  14. Varras M, Akrivis C, Tsoukalos G, Plis C, Karadaglis S, Ladopoulos I. Tubal ectopic pregnancy associated with an extraskeletal chondroma of the fallopian tube: case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2008;35:83-5 pubmed
    ..We present the first reported case of extraskeletal chondroma of the fallopian tube causing transportation impairment of the fertilized ovum in a 32-year-old gravida 1, para 1 woman. ..
  15. Seo M, Choi J, Bae J, Lee W, Eom J, Lee E, et al. Preoperative diagnostic clues to ovarian pregnancy: retrospective chart review of women with ovarian and tubal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2017;60:462-468 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyze the preoperative diagnostic clues to ovarian pregnancy (OP)...
  16. Goffin F, Munaut C, Malassine A, Evain Brion D, Frankenne F, Fridman V, et al. Evidence of a limited contribution of feto-maternal interactions to trophoblast differentiation along the invasive pathway. Tissue Antigens. 2003;62:104-16 pubmed
    ..However, the TCC was markedly longer in tubal pregnancy than in intrauterine pregnancy...
  17. Cassik P, Ofili Yebovi D, Yazbek J, Lee C, Elson J, Jurkovic D. Factors influencing the success of conservative treatment of interstitial pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;26:279-82 pubmed
    ..The measurement of serum hCG at the initial visit may be used to predict the likelihood of successful conservative treatment of interstitial pregnancy. ..
  18. Brady J, Wilson M. Spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy. J R Soc Med. 2005;98:120-1 pubmed
  19. Odejinmi F, Oliver R. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy. J Comp Eff Res. 2014;3:241-3 pubmed publisher
    Evaluation of: Mol F, van Mello NM, Strandell A et al. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (ESEP study): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 383(9927), 1483-1439 (2014)...
  20. Halperin R, Vaknin Z, Schneider D, Yaron M, Herman A. Conservative management of ectopic pregnancy with fetal cardiac activity by combined local (sonographically guided) and systemic injection of methotrexate. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56:148-51 pubmed
    ..The combined local sonographically guided and systemic injection of methotrexate is associated with a successful outcome in asymptomatic patients presenting with ectopic pregnancy and fetal cardiac activity. ..
  21. Shin B, Park M. Incidental detection of interstitial pregnancy on CT imaging. Korean J Radiol. 2010;11:123-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered. ..
  22. Altinkaya S, Ozat M, Pektas M, Gungor T, Mollamahmutoglu L. Simultaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;47:338-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of bilateral tubal pregnancy following IVF and embryo transfer (ET)...
  23. Straube W, Goretzlehner G, Loh M, Schutz M, Nehmzow M. [Detection of the early pregnancy factor (EPF) in the serum of patients with questionable pregnancy]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1987;109:968-73 pubmed
    ..In non-pregnant patients the EPF was not detectable with exception of two patients under medication and one patient suffering from dysmenorrhea membranacea. ..
  24. Takeda A, Manabe S, Mitsui T, Nakamura H. Spontaneous ectopic pregnancy occurring in the isthmic portion of the remnant tube after ipsilateral adnexectomy: report of two cases. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2006;32:190-4 pubmed
    ..Attention should be paid to this unusual type of ectopic pregnancy while examining patients with previous history of adnexal surgery. ..
  25. Ghosh B, Dadhwal V, Deka D, Ramesan C, Mittal S. Ectopic pregnancy following levonorgestrel emergency contraception: a case report. Contraception. 2009;79:155-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a case of ectopic pregnancy following use of levonorgestrel emergency contraception. To our knowledge, this is the first case report from India following introduction of levonorgestrel emergency contraception in 2001. ..
  26. Yang H, Song T. Temporary Simultaneous 2 Arterial Occlusions during Laparoscopic Management for Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2018;25:961-962 pubmed publisher
    ..She had a history of left salpingectomy caused by tubal pregnancy and wanted prompt surgical management without a surgical scar...
  27. Kompanje E. A remarkable case in the history of obstetrical surgery: a laparotomy performed by the Dutch surgeon Abraham Cyprianus in 1694. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005;118:119-23 pubmed
    ..This particular case is reviewed in this article. ..
  28. Pasini A, Alfieri L, Belloni C. [Spontaneous ectopic contralateral pregnancy with unicornuate uterus. A case report]. Minerva Ginecol. 2001;53:215-8 pubmed
    ..A hemoperitoneum, due to the rupture of the tube, occurred with a HCG level of 48 I.U./l. A laparoscopy was therefore performed and the fallopian tube removed. ..
  29. Nassar A, Charara I, Nawfal A, Ghulmiyyah L, Usta I. Ectopic pregnancy in a uterine perforation site. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:e15-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of a pregnancy at the site of a recent uterine perforation. Possible mechanisms of this rare condition and different therapeutic options are mentioned. ..
  30. Hsu S, Martin D, Aly A. Operative laparoscopy in tubal pregnancy: preoperative ultrasonographic measurement of hemoperitoneum as a predictor of blood loss and outcome. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:117-22 pubmed
    ..Retrospective study of all tubal pregnancy patients with preoperative ultrasonographic evidence of hemoperitoneum who underwent laparoscopy as part of ..
  31. Graham J. [Conservative surgical treatment for tubal pregnancy]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2002;70:253-8 pubmed
  32. Summa B, Meinhold Heerlein I, Bauerschlag D, Jonat W, Mettler L, Schollmeyer T. Early detection of a twin tubal pregnancy by Doppler sonography allows fertility-conserving laparoscopic surgery. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated laparoscopically by partial tubectomy allowing a subsequent tubal re-anastomosis. Doppler sonography may detect vital ectopic pregnancies early enabling fertility-conserving surgery. ..
  33. Weigert M, Gruber D, Pernicka E, Bauer P, Feichtinger W. Previous tubal ectopic pregnancy raises the incidence of repeated ectopic pregnancies in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer patients. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with a previous TEP should be informed about the significantly increased risk for a further TEP in IVF-ET treatment, especially if they are smoking. ..
  34. Kucera E, Helbich T, Klem I, Schurz B, Sliutz G, Leodolter S, et al. Systemic methotrexate treatment of interstitial pregnancy--magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a valuable tool for monitoring treatment. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2000;112:772-5 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose this imaging modality as a valuable tool for monitoring systemic methotrexate treatment of interstitial pregnancy that should be used additionally to beta-hCG clearance curves. ..
  35. Sarmini R, Tate D. Ruptured left cornual gestation in an unstable patient. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2005;12:383 pubmed
  36. Dumesic D, Damario M, Session D. Interstitial heterotopic pregnancy in a woman conceiving by in vitro fertilization after bilateral salpingectomy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2001;76:90-2 pubmed
    ..Physicians should consider interstitial ectopic pregnancy as a cause of abdominal pain, even when a viable pregnancy occurs by IVF after salpingectomy. ..
  37. Cabar F, Pereira P, Schultz R, Francisco R, Zugaib M. Vascular endothelial growth factor and ?-human chorionic gonadotropin are associated with trophoblastic invasion into the tubal wall in ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1595-600 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mUI/mL showed 72.7% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for stage III. Maternal serum VEGF and ?-hCG concentrations are associated with depth of trophoblastic penetration into the tubal wall. ..
  38. Kagel T, Lemburg S, Muller K, Laczkovics A, Nicolas V, Heyer C. [Mediastinal metastasis of a tubal choriocarcinoma following ectopic pregnancy as a rare cause of thoracic pain]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2006;128:90-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, final diagnosis of a mediastinal metastasis of a tubarian choriocarcinoma in ectopic pregnancy was made. We discuss this extremely rare disease and provide a short overview of the literature. ..
  39. Grullon K, Feldstein V, Lim K. Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein associated with an asymptomatic tubal pregnancy at 20 weeks' gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90:682-5 pubmed
    ..Elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) has rarely been associated with second-trimester tubal pregnancy. We present a case of a 20-week asymptomatic tubal pregnancy identified by elevated MSAFP...
  40. Hsieh C, Hwu Y, Li S, Lee R. Simultaneous cul-de-sac and tubal pregnancy following in vitro fertilization. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;56:250-252 pubmed publisher
    ..On Day 23 after the embryo transfer, right tubal pregnancy with a 0...
  41. Abasiattai A, Utuk M, Ugege W. Spontaneous heterotrophic pregnancy with tubal rupture and delivery of a live baby at term: a case report. Niger J Med. 2010;19:236-8 pubmed
  42. Hourani R, Hachem K, Haddad Zebouni S, Mansour F, Elhage A, Checrallah A, et al. The multiple ultrasound patterns of ectopic pregnancy. J Med Liban. 2008;56:27-34 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of all these patterns is helpful in establishing an early correct diagnosis, therefore leading to elective and conservative management in stable patients and preventing tubal rupture or substantial hemorrhage. ..
  43. van Mello N, Mol F, Adriaanse A, Boss E, Dijkman A, Doornbos J, et al. The METEX study: methotrexate versus expectant management in women with ectopic pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Womens Health. 2008;8:10 pubmed publisher
    ..This trial will provide guidance on the present management dilemmas in women with EPs and PULs with low and plateauing serum hCG concentrations. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 48210491. ..
  44. Atabekoglu C, Gözükuçük M, Ozkavukcu S, Sonmezer M. Rare presentation of ectopic pregnancy following IVF-ET: live twin gestation in the same fallopian tube. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2009;12:122-4 pubmed
    ..Albeit extremely rare, ectopic pregnancies with abnormal presentation can be encountered following IVF-ET. Single embryo transfer may be advised to protect from ectopic pregnancies after IVF-ET. ..
  45. Aydogdu M, Heilmann I, Schutte P, Trams G. [Advanced ectopic pregnancy--clinical management]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2001;123:585-7 pubmed
    ..In some pregnancies after the 23/24 week there is possibility of a more conservative approach. We describe a case with immediate operative intervention. ..
  46. Perkins J, Mitchell M. Heterotopic pregnancy in a large inner-city hospital: a report of two cases. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96:363-6 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate the need for prompt and immediate action at the first sign indicating ectopic pregnancy to avoid missing this potentially life-threatening condition. ..
  47. Shaw J, Dey S, Critchley H, Horne A. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16:432-44 pubmed publisher
    ..A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. ..
  48. Ding D, Chu T, Kao S, Chen P, Wei Y. Laparoscopic management of tubal ectopic pregnancy. JSLS. 2008;12:273-6 pubmed
    ..The length of hospital stay following laparoscopic management was significantly less than that in the laparotomy group. Laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy can be the most beneficial procedure with maximum safety and efficacy. ..
  49. Lin Y, Hwang J, Huang L, Chou C. Conservative treatment for a ruptured interstitial pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:179 pubmed
  50. Al Mosawi A, Ayyash E, Hayat S, Asfar S. Ruptured extrauterine gestation in heterotopic pregnancy. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25:413-4 pubmed
  51. Sethi R, Lauszus F. [Heterotopic pregnancy after ovarian stimulation]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2004;166:3107 pubmed
  52. Maymon R, Herman A, Ariely S, Dreazen E, Buckovsky I, Weinraub Z. Three-dimensional vaginal sonography in obstetrics and gynaecology. Hum Reprod Update. 2000;6:475-84 pubmed
    ..The current review provides examples and discussions of the various applications in obstetrics, gynaecology and assisted reproduction in which 3D TVS is a useful supplement to image modality. ..
  53. Garde R, Jovanovic V, Couchman G, Walmer D, Price T. Ectopic pregnancy in a preexisting hydrosalpinx during a spontaneous pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1001.e11-3 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of increased tubal ectopic pregnancy rates during IVF with hydrosalpinges remains unexplained. This case supports abnormal embryo migration due to the hydrosalpinx as a contributing factor. ..