ectopic pregnancy

Summary

Summary: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).

Top Publications

  1. Gerson R, Lee E, Gorman E. Primary extrauterine ovarian choriocarcinoma mistaken for ectopic pregnancy: sonographic imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;189:W280-3 pubmed
  2. Ng S, Hamontri S, Chua I, Chern B, Siow A. Laparoscopic management of 53 cases of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:448-52 pubmed publisher
    To present our experience of laparoscopic management of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Retrospective review of 53 cases of cornual pregnancy treated laparoscopically. K.K. Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore...
  3. Balat O, Kutlar I, Ozkur A, Bakir K, Aksoy F, Ugur M. Primary pure ovarian choriocarcinoma mimicking ectopic pregnancy: a report of fulminant progression. Tumori. 2004;90:136-8 pubmed
    ..In this report we present a nongestational choriocarcinoma that was referred to our hospital as an ectopic pregnancy. The clinical features, management, and outcome are discussed.
  4. Al Azemi M, Refaat B, Amer S, Ola B, Chapman N, Ledger W. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the human fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle and in ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:833-40 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and whether epithelia from FTs bearing an ectopic pregnancy differ from healthy tubes in iNOS expression.
  5. Moore C, Todd W, O Brien E, Lin H. Free fluid in Morison's pouch on bedside ultrasound predicts need for operative intervention in suspected ectopic pregnancy. Acad Emerg Med. 2007;14:755-8 pubmed
    ..Patients who were suspected to have an ectopic pregnancy were prospectively enrolled over a ten-month period...
  6. Refaat B, Amer S, Ola B, Chapman N, Ledger W. The expression of activin-betaA- and -betaB-subunits, follistatin, and activin type II receptors in fallopian tubes bearing an ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:293-9 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality with increasing incidence worldwide...
  7. Musa J, Daru P, Mutihir J, Ujah I. Ectopic pregnancy in Jos Northern Nigeria: prevalence and impact on subsequent fertility. Niger J Med. 2009;18:35-8 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy remains a major gynaecological problem in contemporary gynaecological practice...
  8. Quintar A, Mukdsi J, del Valle Bonaterra M, Aoki A, Maldonado C, Pérez Alzaa J. Increased expression of uteroglobin associated with tubal inflammation and ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1613-7 pubmed
    ..was screened and quantified in samples of fallopian tubes from patients with salpingitis, hydrosalpinx, and ectopic pregnancy by exposing the UG with immunohistochemical techniques. University hospital and electron microscopy center...
  9. Horne A, Phillips J, Kane N, Lourenco P, McDonald S, Williams A, et al. CB1 expression is attenuated in Fallopian tube and decidua of women with ectopic pregnancy. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3969 pubmed publisher
    Embryo retention in the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to lead to ectopic pregnancy (EP), a considerable cause of morbidity...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Mukul L, Teal S. Current management of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2007;34:403-19, x pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy continues to be one of the most common gynecologic emergencies and is the leading cause of pregnancy-related first-trimester death in the United States...
  2. Horne A, King A, Shaw E, McDonald S, Williams A, Saunders P, et al. Attenuated sex steroid receptor expression in fallopian tube of women with ectopic pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:5146-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex steroid hormone receptor (SHR) dynamics are well-documented in human endometrium but have not been comprehensively studied in Fallopian tube (FT)...
  3. Refaat B, Al Azemi M, Geary I, Eley A, Ledger W. Role of activins and inducible nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy in patients with or without Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1493-503 pubmed publisher
    Chlamydia trachomatis infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy (EP), infertility, and chronic pelvic pain in women...
  4. Chang H, Suh C. Ectopic pregnancy after assisted reproductive technology: what are the risk factors?. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010;22:202-7 pubmed publisher
    This review discusses recent publications that investigate risk factors associated with ectopic pregnancy after IVF. Data on the risk factors for developing ectopic pregnancy after IVF are still inconsistent...
  5. Jurstrand M, Jensen J, Magnuson A, Kamwendo F, Fredlund H. A serological study of the role of Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. Sex Transm Infect. 2007;83:319-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between M genitalium antibodies and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ectopic pregnancy (EP) using a lipid-associated membrane protein-enzyme immunoassay (LAMP-EIA) method.
  6. Lautmann K, Staboulidou I, Wüstemann M, Gunter H, Scharf A, Hillemanns P. Heterotopic pregnancy: simultaneous intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy following IVF treatment with the birth of a healthy child. Ultraschall Med. 2009;30:71-3 pubmed
    Although spontaneous simultaneous intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy was an extremely rare event in the past, it is increasingly being diagnosed since the rate of assisted reproduction technique (ART) gestations increased...
  7. Raughley M, Frishman G. Local treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Semin Reprod Med. 2007;25:99-115 pubmed
    ..Local therapy has an important place in the armamentarium of the treatment of ectopic pregnancies. ..
  8. Babikian S, Thoma D, Berkey B. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy presenting 3 years after supracervical hysterectomy. J Ultrasound Med. 2008;27:1087-90 pubmed
    An ectopic pregnancy after a hysterectomy is a rare event, with about 40 reported cases since it was first identified by Wendeler in 1895...
  9. Noon A, Smith D, McAndrew P. Magnetic resonance imaging characterization of a mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of the kidney detected incidentally during an ectopic pregnancy. Urology. 2010;75:247-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This tumor presented incidentally in a 35-year-old woman with an ectopic pregnancy.
  10. Shaw J, Denison F, Evans J, Durno K, Williams A, Entrican G, et al. Evidence of prokineticin dysregulation in fallopian tube from women with ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:1601-8.e1 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate expression and regulation of prokineticins (PROKs) and their receptors (PROKRs) in fallopian tube (FT) from women who are not pregnant and women with ectopic pregnancy (EP).
  11. Muresan D, Stamatian F, Ona D, Cruciat G, Caracostea G, Rotar I, et al. [Current trends in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2008;103:73-8 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy represents even nowadays a problem with a major impact upon women reproductive health, with an incidence that is still growing...
  12. Al Azemi M, Refaat B, Aplin J, Ledger W. The expression of MUC1 in human Fallopian tube during the menstrual cycle and in ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:2582-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality with increasing incidence worldwide...
  13. Yoon B, Park H, Seong S, Park C, Park S, Lee K. Single-port laparoscopic salpingectomy for the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010;17:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-port laparoscopic salpingectomy was successfully performed in all 20 patients with ectopic pregnancy. The median operative time was 55 minutes (range 25-85 minutes), and blood loss in all patients was minimal...
  14. Wicherek L, Galazka K, Lazar A. Analysis of metallothionein, RCAS1 immunoreactivity regarding immune cell concentration in the endometrium and tubal mucosa in ectopic pregnancy during the course of tubal rupture. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2008;65:52-61 pubmed
    ..tubes and endometrium were collected during one surgical procedure and divided into three groups: unruptured ectopic pregnancy (EP) without bleeding, unruptured EP with hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity, and ruptured tubal ..
  15. Ramos D, Busso N, Busso C. Vaginal management of a "late" ectopic pregnancy after vaginal hysterectomy. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:352.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    To describe the first vaginal approach to an ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy. Case report. Private hospital...
  16. Lin Y, Chen C, Yuan C, Wang P. Successful rescue of an early interstitial pregnancy after failed systemic methotrexate treatment: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:332-4 pubmed
    ..Use of a local MTX injection may be a better choice than that of systemic MTX treatment. ..
  17. Sindos M, Togia A, Sergentanis T, Kabagiannis A, Malamas F, Farfaras A, et al. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy: risk factors for a life-threatening condition. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:621-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The widely used features to establish the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are not always sufficient to predict rupture...
  18. Horne A, Duncan W, King A, Burgess S, Lourenco P, Cornes P, et al. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:287-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a considerable cause of morbidity and occasional mortality. Currently, there is no reliable test to differentiate ectopic from intrauterine gestation...
  19. El Bishry G, Ganta S. The role of single serum progesterone measurement in conjunction with beta hCG in the management of suspected ectopic pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;28:413-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This was a retrospective study of 126 patients presenting with a clinical picture suggestive of ectopic pregnancy, when ultrasound examination was inconclusive...
  20. Kirk E, Bourne T. Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy with ultrasound. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;23:501-8 pubmed publisher
    Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is now the imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy with overall reported sensitivities of>90%...
  21. Jia Rong Z, Shuang Di L, Xiao Ping W. Eutopic or ectopic pregnancy: a competition between signals derived from the endometrium and the fallopian tube for blastocyst implantation. Placenta. 2009;30:835-9 pubmed publisher
    Embryo retention in the fallopian tube is thought to lead to ectopic pregnancy, which is a significant cause of morbidity. This pathological condition does not occur in laboratory rodents...
  22. STEIN J, Wang R, Adler N, Boscardin J, Jacoby V, Won G, et al. Emergency physician ultrasonography for evaluating patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;56:674-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is a common concern in emergency departments (EDs) and remains the leading cause of first-trimester mortality...
  23. Tufail A, Hashmi H. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in rudimentary horn of the uterus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2007;17:105-6 pubmed
    ..Exploratory laparotomy revealed ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. Excision of accessory horn was done. ..
  24. Aggarwal R, Tully A, Grantcharov T, Larsen C, Miskry T, Farthing A, et al. Virtual reality simulation training can improve technical skills during laparoscopic salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy. BJOG. 2006;113:1382-7 pubmed
    ..modules for training of inexperienced gynaecological surgeons to perform laparoscopic salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy. Prospective cohort study. Departments of surgery and gynaecology in central London teaching hospitals...
  25. Morlock R, Lafata J, Eisenstein D. Cost-effectiveness of single-dose methotrexate compared with laparoscopic treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;95:407-12 pubmed
    ..with intramuscular (IM) methotrexate compared with fallopian tube-sparing laparoscopy for small unruptured ectopic pregnancy. A decision-analytic model accounting for varying resolution rates, complication rates, and cost estimates ..
  26. Kohn M, Kerr K, Malkevich D, O Neil N, Kerr M, Kaplan B. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels and the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy in emergency department patients with abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding. Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10:119-26 pubmed
    Strategies for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy that defer endovaginal ultrasound in women with suggestive symptoms and serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) levels less than 1500 mIU/mL ignore the increased risk of ectopic ..
  27. Yamada T, Okamoto Y, Kasamatsu H, Mori H. Intraoperative autologous blood transfusion for hemoperitoneum resulting from ectopic pregnancy or ovarian bleeding during laparoscopic surgery. JSLS. 2003;7:97-100 pubmed
    ..The blood loss was 1186 +/- 789 mL, and the volume of reinfused processed blood was 661 +/- 405 mL in ectopic pregnancy cases...
  28. Zhang X, Liu X, Fan H. Interstitial pregnancy and transcervical curettage. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:1193-5 pubmed
    ..Removal was complete, and the serum beta-hCG quickly became undetectable. Transcervical curettage under laparoscopic guidance provides an alternative conservative treatment for interstitial pregnancy. ..
  29. Ego A, Subtil D, Cosson M, Legoueff F, Houfflin Debarge V, Querleu D. Survival analysis of fertility after ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:560-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the reproductive outcome after ectopic pregnancy and to assess the contribution of risk factors to future fertility. Prospective follow-up in a population-based sample...
  30. Mettler L, Ibrahim M, Lehmann Willenbrock E, Schmutzler A. Pelviscopic reversal of tubal sterilization with the one- to two-stitch technique. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc. 2001;8:353-8 pubmed
    ..No abortions occurred. Laparoscopic end-to-end anastomosis is a suitable surgical alternative to tubal end-to-end anastomosis by laparotomy and has all the advantages of a laparoscopic procedure. ..
  31. Bouyer J, Coste J, Shojaei T, Pouly J, Fernandez H, Gerbaud L, et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis based on a large case-control, population-based study in France. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157:185-94 pubmed
    This case-control study was associated with a regional register of ectopic pregnancy between 1993 and 2000 in France...
  32. Corpa J. Ectopic pregnancy in animals and humans. Reproduction. 2006;131:631-40 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy denotes a pregnancy occurring elsewhere than in the cavity of the uterus. This pathology has been recognised for years and it causes numerous maternal deaths during the first trimester of pregnancy...
  33. Nishi H, Funayama H, Fukumine N, Yagishita M, Nohira T, Suzuki Y, et al. Rupture of pregnant noncommunicating rudimentary uterine horn with fetal salvage: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2003;268:224-6 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical examination showed that the excised uterine horn was filled with placental tissue without an intervening layer of decidua basalis. ..
  34. Mueller M, Raio L, Spoerri S, Ghezzi F, Dreher E, Bersinger N. Novel placental and nonplacental serum markers in ectopic versus normal intrauterine pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:1106-11 pubmed
    To evaluate whether the serum concentrations of novel placental markers and nonplacental markers differ in ectopic pregnancy when compared with normal intrauterine pregnancy. Prospective clinical study. University hospital...
  35. Daponte A, Pournaras S, Zintzaras E, Kallitsaris A, Lialios G, Maniatis A, et al. The value of a single combined measurement of VEGF, glycodelin, progesterone, PAPP-A, HPL and LIF for differentiating between ectopic and abnormal intrauterine pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:3163-6 pubmed
    ..plasmaprotein A (PAPP-A), human placental lactogen (HPL) and leukaemia inhibiting factor (LIF) differ in ectopic pregnancy (EP) when compared with abnormal intrauterine pregnancy (aIUP)...
  36. Cole L, Isozaki T, Jones E. Urine beta-core fragment, a potential screening test for ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. Fetal Diagn Ther. 1997;12:336-9 pubmed
    The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the United States has risen 6-fold in the last three decades. It now accounts for about 2% of reported pregnancies. Tests are now needed to identify ectopic pregnancy before it is clinically evident...
  37. Goyaux N, Leke R, Keita N, Thonneau P. Ectopic pregnancy in African developing countries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003;82:305-12 pubmed
    We have reviewed the scientific literature on ectopic pregnancy (EP) in African countries published over the past 20 years and available from several databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group), with the ..
  38. Katsikis I, Rousso D, Farmakiotis D, Kourtis A, Diamanti Kandarakis E, Panidis D. Receiver operator characteristics and diagnostic value of progesterone and CA-125 in the prediction of ectopic and abortive intrauterine gestations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006;125:226-32 pubmed
    The study was designed to investigate the predictive value of progesterone and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy (EP) and inevitable miscarriage...
  39. Nardo L. The dilemma of recurrent ectopic pregnancy after tubal surgery and in-vitro fertilization. What to do?. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;10:300 pubmed
    This commentary was written to stimulate a debate on the role of tubal surgery for ectopic pregnancy in women undergoing IVF.
  40. Farquhar C. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 2005;366:583-91 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
  41. Gezer A, Mutlu H. Laparoscopic management of cornual pregnancy without sutures. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;270:194-6 pubmed
    Cornual pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence is reported as 3% of all ectopic pregnancies accounting 20% of deaths due to ectopic pregnancy...
  42. Addar M. Methotrexate embryopathy in a surviving intrauterine fetus after presumed diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2004;26:1001-3 pubmed
    ..previously been treated for polycystic ovarian syndrome, was given methotrexate parenterally for a suspected ectopic pregnancy at 5 weeks of amenorrhea. Later, a surviving intrauterine pregnancy was noted, and the pregnancy continued...
  43. Riggs J, Schiavello H, Fixler R. Concurrent appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med. 2002;47:510-4 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is infrequently encountered together with appendicitis. Since 1960, 21 such cases have been reported. A 32-year-old, Hispanic woman presented with signs and symptoms of an acute surgical abdomen...
  44. Felemban A, Sammour A, Tulandi T. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a possible marker for early ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:490-2 pubmed
    ..growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), arrested IUP and ectopic pregnancy (EP)...
  45. Barlow R, Cooke I, Odukoya O, Heatley M, Jenkins J, Narayansingh G, et al. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in fresh tissue specimens from patients with ectopic pregnancy or tubal factor infertility as determined by PCR and in-situ hybridisation. J Med Microbiol. 2001;50:902-8 pubmed
    ..fresh tissue specimens (endometrium, fallopian tube and ovary) was investigated in 33 women presenting with ectopic pregnancy (EP), 14 women with tubal factor infertility (TFI) and 50 control patients from the UK and the West Indies...
  46. Ghi T, Banfi A, Marconi R, Iaco P, Pilu G, Aloysio D, et al. Three-dimensional sonographic diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005;26:102-4 pubmed
  47. Bouyer J. [Epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy: incidence, risk factors and outcomes]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2003;32:S8-17 pubmed
    Two entities must be differentiated in ectopic pregnancy (EP) epidemiology: EP occurring in women without contraception (reproductive failure) and with contraception (contraceptive failure). These two entities differ on almost all issues...
  48. Deruelle P, Closset E. Management of interstitial pregnancy using selective uterine artery embolization. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:427-8 pubmed
  49. Anorlu R, Oluwole A, Abudu O, Adebajo S. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005;84:184-8 pubmed
    b>Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of maternal deaths in Nigeria and in other developing countries. In Lagos, Nigeria, it is responsible for 8.6% of maternal deaths, and has a case fatality rate of 3.7%...
  50. Taylor R, Berkowitz J, McComb P. Role of laparoscopic salpingostomy in the treatment of hydrosalpinx. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:594-600 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the relative impact of various historical, physical, and operative factors on pregnancy outcome using a multivariate statistical analysis...
  51. Jerbi M, Trimech A, Choukou A, Hidar S, Bibi M, Chaieb A, et al. [Rupture of rudimentary horn pregnancy at the 18th week of gestation: a case report]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2005;33:505-7 pubmed
    ..Excision of the rudimentary horn and ipsilateral salpingectomy were carried out. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and she left the hospital 6 days later. ..
  52. Jones C, Maple P, Andrews N, Paul I, Caul E. Measurement of IgG antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by commercial enzyme immunoassays and immunofluorescence in sera from pregnant women and patients with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and laboratory diagnosed Chlamy. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:225-9 pubmed
    ..The TRFIA assay may be useful as a screening assay, possibly in conjunction with one of the highly specific EIAs studied (for example, Medac p-EIA) to confirm the antibody specificity of sera selected by the screening assay. ..
  53. Mashiach S, Admon D, Oelsner G, Paz B, Achiron R, Zalel Y. Cervical Shirodkar cerclage may be the treatment modality of choice for cervical pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:493-6 pubmed
    ..Cervical cerclage may be considered as the treatment of choice in cases of cervical pregnancies. It may be the only therapy in cases of heterotopic pregnancies (intrauterine and cervical pregnancy). ..