Summary: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).

Top Publications

  1. Edoute Y, Davids M, Johnston C, Halperin M. An integrative physiological approach to polyuria and hyponatraemia: a 'double-take' on the diagnosis and therapy in a patient with schizophrenia. QJM. 2003;96:531-40 pubmed
    ..Applying this simple approach, a more comprehensive and accurate differential diagnosis, and a plan for therapy to avoid serious complications was compiled...
  2. Hirayama A, Fujimoto K, Akiyama T, Hirao Y. Decrease in nocturnal urinary levels of arginine vasopressin in patients with nocturnal polyuria. Urology. 2006;68:19-23 pubmed
    ..and endocrine levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) or solute diuresis is associated with the nocturnal voided volume, and whether the urinary AVP could be a parameter for screening for nocturnal polyuria caused by AVP insufficiency.
  3. Wang C, Lin Y, Huang S, Chang C. Low dose oral desmopressin for nocturnal polyuria in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study. J Urol. 2011;185:219-23 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of low dose oral desmopressin in elderly patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with more than nocturnal voids and nocturnal polyuria more than 30% of total daily urine volume.
  4. Arima H, Oiso Y. Mechanisms underlying progressive polyuria in familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:754-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The analyses of knock-in mice expressing a mutant NPII that causes FNDI in humans demonstrated that polyuria progressed substantially in the absence of loss of AVP neurones...
  5. Dehoorne J, Raes A, Van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle J. Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria secondary to increased nocturnal osmotic excretion. J Urol. 2006;176:749-53 pubmed
    We investigated the role of increased solute excretion in children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria.
  6. Langlois V, Geary D, Murray L, Champoux S, Hebert D, Goodyer P. Polyuria and proteinuria in cystinosis have no impact on renal transplantation. A report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15:7-10 pubmed
    ..All these occurred in cadaveric grafts and only one occurred after preemptive transplantation. Despite polyuria and severe proteinuria, children with cystinosis do not appear to be at an increased risk of graft failure or ..
  7. Kravarusic D, Sigalet D, Hamiwka L, Midgley J, Wade A, Grisaru S. Persistent post-transplant polyuria managed by bilateral native-kidney laparoscopic nephrectomy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:880-2 pubmed
    b>Polyuria is not considered an absolute indication for pre-transplant nephrectomy; however, it may complicate post-transplantation fluid management...
  8. Diederich S, Eckmanns T, Exner P, Al Saadi N, Bahr V, Oelkers W. Differential diagnosis of polyuric/polydipsic syndromes with the aid of urinary vasopressin measurement in adults. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001;54:665-71 pubmed
  9. Fenske W, Quinkler M, Lorenz D, Zopf K, Haagen U, Papassotiriou J, et al. Copeptin in the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome--revisiting the direct and indirect water deprivation tests. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1506-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the method of choice for the differential diagnosis of the polydipsia-polyuria syndrome. In theory, direct measurement of AVP is highly attractive but is hampered by technical difficulties.

More Information


  1. Murer L, Addabbo F, Carmosino M, Procino G, Tamma G, Montini G, et al. Selective decrease in urinary aquaporin 2 and increase in prostaglandin E2 excretion is associated with postobstructive polyuria in human congenital hydronephrosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2705-12 pubmed
    ..kidney was characterized by a reduced urinary excretion of AQP2 (approximately 54%) associated with polyuria that persisted from day 1 to day 5 (433 +/- 58 versus 310 +/- 74 ml/24 h at day 1; 326 +/- 44 versus 227 +/- 26 ..
  2. Weiss J, Blaivas J. Nocturnal polyuria versus overactive bladder in nocturia. Urology. 2002;60:28-32; discussion 32 pubmed
    ..Thus, nocturia may be attributed to nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal urine overproduction), diminished nocturnal bladder capacity, or both...
  3. Addla S, Adeyoju A, Neilson D, O REILLY P. Diclofenac for treatment of nocturia caused by nocturnal polyuria: a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Eur Urol. 2006;49:720-5 pubmed
    To investigate the efficacy of diclofenac 50 mg enteric-coated tablet (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug) in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria.
  4. Brubaker L, Fitzgerald M. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturia relief in patients treated with solifenacin for overactive bladder symptoms. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007;18:737-41 pubmed
    ..achieved relief of their nighttime voiding symptoms when treated with solifenacin and whether having nocturnal polyuria (NP) affected that response...
  5. Lee H, Choo M, Lee J, Park C, Paick J, Lee J, et al. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ? 18 yr with mixed nocturia (? 2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited...
  6. Rao R, Zhang M, Zhao M, Cai H, Harris R, Breyer M, et al. Lithium treatment inhibits renal GSK-3 activity and promotes cyclooxygenase 2-dependent polyuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F642-9 pubmed
    ..Renal prostaglandins have been suggested to play an important role in lithium-induced polyuria. The present studies examined whether induction of the COX2 isoform contributes to LiCl-induced polyuria...
  7. Kishore B, Krane C, Di Iulio D, Menon A, Cacini W. Expression of renal aquaporins 1, 2, and 3 in a rat model of cisplatin-induced polyuria. Kidney Int. 2000;58:701-11 pubmed
    Cisplatin (CP)-induced polyuria in rats is attributed to decreased medullary hypertonicity and/or an end-organ resistance to vasopressin. However, the roles of renal aquaporins (AQPs) have not yet been explored.
  8. van Kerrebroeck P, Abrams P, Chaikin D, Donovan J, Fonda D, Jackson S, et al. The standardisation of terminology in nocturia: report from the Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn. 2002;21:179-83 pubmed
  9. Chasens E, Umlauf M, Pillion D, Wells J. Nocturnal polyuria in type 2 diabetes: a symptom of obstructive sleep apnea. Diabetes Educ. 2002;28:424-34 pubmed
    b>Polyuria and nocturia in individuals with type 2 diabetes may be due to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a recently recognized etiology of excess nighttime urine production...
  10. Satake M, Ikarashi N, Ichikawa Y, Maniwa A, Toda T, Ito K, et al. The role of renal aquaporin 2 in the alleviation of dehydration associated with diabetic polyuria in KKAy mice. Life Sci. 2010;87:475-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyuria is a symptom that appears in association with diabetes mellitus. Because sustained polyuria causes serious dehydration, it is believed that the body has a compensating mechanism to alleviate dehydration...
  11. Kemter E, Rathkolb B, Bankir L, Schrewe A, Hans W, Landbrecht C, et al. Mutation of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC2 in mice is associated with severe polyuria and a urea-selective concentrating defect without hyperreninemia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F1405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..SLC12A1), coding for NKCC2, cause type I Bartter syndrome, which is characterized by prenatal onset of a severe polyuria, salt-wasting tubulopathy, and hyperreninemia...
  12. Gröger N, Fröhlich H, Maier H, Olbrich A, Kostin S, Braun T, et al. SLC4A11 prevents osmotic imbalance leading to corneal endothelial dystrophy, deafness, and polyuria. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14467-74 pubmed publisher
    ..SLC4A11 is essential for urinary concentration, suggesting that SLC4A11 participates in the countercurrent multiplication that concentrates urine in the kidney medulla...
  13. Jia Z, Wang H, Yang T. Mice lacking mPGES-1 are resistant to lithium-induced polyuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1689-96 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase-2 activity is required for the development of lithium-induced polyuria. However, the involvement of a specific, terminal prostaglandin (PG) isomerase has not been evaluated...
  14. Hayashi M, Arima H, Ozaki N, Morishita Y, Hiroi M, Ozaki N, et al. Progressive polyuria without vasopressin neuron loss in a mouse model for familial neurohypophysial diabetes insipidus. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1641-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies suggest that loss of AVP neurons might be the cause of polyuria in FNDI. Here we analyzed knockin mice expressing mutant NPII that causes FNDI in humans...
  15. Raes A, Dehoorne J, Van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle C, Vansintjan P, et al. Partial response to intranasal desmopressin in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is related to persistent nocturnal polyuria on wet nights. J Urol. 2007;178:1048-51; discussion 1051-2 pubmed
    ..nighttime urine production on wet and dry nights in a highly selected study population of children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis associated with proved nocturnal polyuria who responded only partially to intranasal desmopressin.
  16. Chang Y, Lin A, Chen K. Short-term effects of desmopressin on water and electrolyte excretion in adults with nocturnal polyuria. J Urol. 2007;177:2227-9; discussion 2230 pubmed
    ..Desmopressin is often used to treat adult patients with nocturnal polyuria. However, data on the effect of desmopressin on water/electrolyte excretion in adults are scarce...
  17. Weiss J, Blaivas J, Stember D, Brooks M. Nocturia in adults: etiology and classification. Neurourol Urodyn. 1998;17:467-72 pubmed
    ..The etiology of nocturia was thus classified into one of three groups: nocturnal polyuria ([NP] in which voided urine volume during the hours of sleep exceeds 35% of the 24-hr output), nocturnal detrusor ..
  18. Amlal H, Chen Q, Habo K, Wang Z, Soleimani M. Fasting downregulates renal water channel AQP2 and causes polyuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F513-23 pubmed
    ..Rats fasted for 24 h exhibited severe polyuria (urine volume increased from 11 before fasting to 29 ml/24 h after fasting, P < 0...
  19. Umlauf M, Chasens E. Sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal polyuria: nocturia and enuresis. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:403-11 pubmed
    ..However, polyuria can be elicited by obstructive sleep apnea as well as bedrest, microgravity and other experimental conditions ..
  20. Weiss J, Blaivas J. Nocturia. Curr Urol Rep. 2003;4:362-6 pubmed
    ..Nocturia may be attributed to nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal urine overproduction), diminished nocturnal bladder capacity, or a combination of the two...
  21. Kruse A, Mahler B, Rittig S, Djurhuus J. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria. J Urol. 2009;182:1954-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis...
  22. Sakakibara R, Matsuda S, Uchiyama T, Yoshiyama M, Yamanishi T, Hattori T. The effect of intranasal desmopressin on nocturnal waking in urination in multiple system atrophy patients with nocturnal polyuria. Clin Auton Res. 2003;13:106-8 pubmed
    ..of arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in this disorder may lead to nocturnal polyuria, which has been treated with intramuscular desmopressin...
  23. Asplund R. Hip fractures, nocturia, and nocturnal polyuria in the elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2006;43:319-26 pubmed
    ..5; CI 1.8-7.3). One can conclude that in these elderly subjects the risk of hip fractures during a five-year period was increased independently by increased nocturnal micturition and increased nocturnal urine output...
  24. Sugatani J, Komiyama N, Mochizuki T, Hoshino M, Miyamoto D, Igarashi T, et al. Urinary concentrating defect in rats given Shiga toxin: elevation in urinary AQP2 level associated with polyuria. Life Sci. 2002;71:171-89 pubmed
    ..and these rats were shown to develop substantial morphological changes in the kidney tubules, associated with polyuria. Severe polyuria was observed as an early event with no other obvious sequelae after Stx administration, in ..
  25. Koseoglu H, Aslan G, Ozdemir I, Esen A. Nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms and response to alpha-blocker therapy. Urology. 2006;67:1188-92 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria (NP, defined as a nocturnal urine fraction exceeding one third of the daily urine output in elderly men) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic ..
  26. Kim G, Choi N, Jung J, Song J, Lee C, Kang C, et al. Treating lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a COX-2 inhibitor improves polyuria via upregulation of AQP2 and NKCC2. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..largely from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), we hypothesized that treatment of NDI with a COX-2 inhibitor may relieve polyuria through increased expression of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter type 2 (NKCC2) in the thick ascending limb and aquaporin-2 ..
  27. De Guchtenaere A, Vande Walle C, Van Sintjan P, Raes A, Donckerwolcke R, Van Laecke E, et al. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. J Urol. 2007;178:2626-9 pubmed
    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight...
  28. Vande Walle J, Vande Walle C, Van Sintjan P, De Guchtenaere A, Raes A, Donckerwolcke R, et al. Nocturnal polyuria is related to 24-hour diuresis and osmotic excretion in an enuresis population referred to a tertiary center. J Urol. 2007;178:2630-4 pubmed
    ..We evaluated characteristics of bladder volume and diuresis rate in patients with nocturnal enuresis referred to a tertiary enuresis center...
  29. De Guchtenaere A, Vande Walle C, Van Sintjan P, Donckerwolcke R, Raes A, Dehoorne J, et al. Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria may benefit from furosemide therapy administered in the morning. J Urol. 2007;178:2635-9; discussion 2639 pubmed
    There is increasing evidence that a subgroup of patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin may have an abnormal circadian rhythm of renal tubular sodium handling...
  30. Wang W, Li C, Summer S, Falk S, Schrier R. Polyuria of thyrotoxicosis: downregulation of aquaporin water channels and increased solute excretion. Kidney Int. 2007;72:1088-94 pubmed
    ..b>Polyuria and increased solute excretion still occurred even when food and water intake was equivalent...
  31. AbdelFatah D, Shaker H, Ismail M, Ezzat M. Nocturnal polyuria and nocturnal arginine vasopressin (AVP): a key factor in the pathophysiology of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28:506-9 pubmed publisher
    To identify the relationship between nocturnal AVP deficiency, nocturnal polyuria (NP), and low urinary osmolality in children suffering of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NE).
  32. Cansick J, Rees L, Koffman G, Van t Hoff W, Bockenhauer D. A fatal case of cerebral oedema with hyponatraemia and massive polyuria after renal transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24:1231-4 pubmed publisher
    We report the case of a child who died from severe cerebral oedema in the context of hyponatraemia and extreme polyuria immediately after renal transplantation...
  33. Satake M, Ikarashi N, Kagami M, Ogiue N, Toda T, Kobayashi Y, et al. Increases in the expression levels of aquaporin-2 and aquaporin-3 in the renal collecting tubules alleviate dehydration associated with polyuria in diabetes mellitus. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1965-70 pubmed
    Enhanced expression of renal aquaporin-2 (AQP2) has been reported when polyuria occurs in diabetic animal models...
  34. Umlauf M, Chasens E, Greevy R, Arnold J, Burgio K, Pillion D. Obstructive sleep apnea, nocturia and polyuria in older adults. Sleep. 2004;27:139-44 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between nocturia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in community dwelling older men and women...
  35. Takahashi N, Chernavvsky D, Gomez R, Igarashi P, Gitelman H, Smithies O. Uncompensated polyuria in a mouse model of Bartter's syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5434-9 pubmed
    ..gene is one of several that when mutated causes Bartter's syndrome in humans, a syndrome characterized by severe polyuria and electrolyte imbalance. Homozygous NKCC2-/- pups were born in expected numbers and appeared normal...
  36. Fujii T, Ochi J, Miyajima T, Yorifuji T, Ueda T, Koyama T, et al. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and tethered cord syndrome with a lipoma of the cauda equina. Brain Dev. 1998;20:47-9 pubmed
    ..We report a 12-year-old girl with a cauda equina lipoma and a tethered spinal cord, whose chief complaints were polyuria and polydipsia. She was diagnosed as having nephrogenic diabetes insipidus...
  37. Aceto G, Penza R, Delvecchio M, Chiozza M, Cimador M, Caione P. Sodium fraction excretion rate in nocturnal enuresis correlates with nocturnal polyuria and osmolality. J Urol. 2004;171:2567-70 pubmed
    ..We also correlate FE Na and FE K to urinary osmolality, nocturnal polyuria and vasopressin in the same population.
  38. Raes A, Dehoorne J, Hoebeke P, Van Laecke E, Donckerwolcke R, Vande Walle J. Abnormal circadian rhythm of diuresis or nocturnal polyuria in a subgroup of children with enuresis and hypercalciuria is related to increased sodium retention during daytime. J Urol. 2006;176:1147-51 pubmed
    ..To investigate if modifications in renal function are involved in nocturnal enuresis, we assessed circadian variation in natriuresis and tubular sodium handling in polyuric hypercalciuric children...
  39. Wang S, Mitu G, Hirschberg R. Osmotic polyuria: an overlooked mechanism in diabetic nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:2167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..laboratory and the published literature this narrative develops a novel hypothesis where hyperglycaemic, osmotic polyuria play important contributory roles in the initiation and progression of tubulo-interstitial injury in diabetic ..
  40. Kujubu D, Aboseif S. An overview of nocturia and the syndrome of nocturnal polyuria in the elderly. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2008;4:426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Nocturia in the elderly can be caused by many conditions; a common cause is the syndrome of nocturnal polyuria. Although the pathophysiology of nocturnal polyuria remains obscure, some investigators believe that low night-..
  41. Hensen J, Henig A, Fahlbusch R, Meyer M, Boehnert M, Buchfelder M. Prevalence, predictors and patterns of postoperative polyuria and hyponatraemia in the immediate course after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1999;50:431-9 pubmed
    ..This study was performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of polyuria and hyponatraemia after a complete and selective removal of pituitary adenomas was attempted via the transnasal-..
  42. Kong J, Zhang Z, Li D, Wong K, Zhang Y, Szeto F, et al. Loss of vitamin D receptor produces polyuria by increasing thirst. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:2396-405 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice develop polyuria, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between vitamin D and homeostasis of water and electrolytes...
  43. Al Magamsi M, Habib H. Clinical presentation of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Al-Madina region of Saudi Arabia. Pediatr Diabetes. 2004;5:95-8 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical pattern and the laboratory characteristics at presentation of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Al-Madina region of the north-west province of Saudi Arabia...
  44. Quaedackers J, Roelfsema V, Hunter C, Heineman E, Gunn A, Bennet L. Polyuria and impaired renal blood flow after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R576-83 pubmed
    ..severe asphyxia in the preterm fetus was associated with evolving renal tubular dysfunction, as shown by transient polyuria and natriuresis. Despite a prolonged increase in RVR, there was only a modest effect on glomerular function.
  45. Terada N, Arakaki R, Okada Y, Kitahara M, Kaneko Y, Omori K, et al. [Efficacy of intranasal desmopressin in the treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2005;51:151-4 pubmed
    ..We investigated the efficacy and safety of intranasal desmopressin in the treatment of nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria on 12 patients (ten men, two women) ranging in age from 53 to 77 years (mean 67 years)...
  46. Drake N, Flynn M, Romero A, Weidner A, Amundsen C. Nocturnal polyuria in women with overactive bladder symptoms and nocturia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1682-6 pubmed
    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of nocturnal polyuria in women complaining of nocturia and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and to identify clinical and health characteristics associated with nocturnal polyuria.
  47. Wilting I, Egberts A, Movig K, Laarhoven J, Heerdink E, Nolen W. The association between concomitant use of serotonergic antidepressants and lithium-induced polyuria. A multicenter medical chart review study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2008;41:129-33 pubmed publisher
    A previous study aimed at revealing the prevalence and determinants of lithium induced polyuria suggested an increased risk of polyuria (urine volume > or =3 L/24 h) in those using serotonergic antidepressants next to lithium...
  48. Dai Z, Ruan L, Jin J, Qian Y, Wang L, Shi Z, et al. [Analysis of AVPR2 gene mutation in a pedigree affected with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2016;33:666-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient presented polyuria and polydipsia postnatally. Computerized tomography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter...
  49. Cemeroglu A, Buyukgebiz A. Psychogenic diabetes insipidus in toddlers with compulsive bottle-drinking: not a rare entity. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002;15:93-4 pubmed
    ..We report three toddlers who presented to our clinic with compulsive drinking behavior and polyuria. Laboratory work-up and water deprivation tests were consistent with psychogenic diabetes insipidus.
  50. Bhardwaj S, Thergaonkar R, Sinha A, Hari P, Hi C, Bagga A. Phenotype of Dent Disease in a Cohort of Indian Children. Indian Pediatr. 2016;53:977-982 pubmed
    ..8 y), and polyuria, polydipsia, salt craving, hypophosphatemic rickets and night blindness...
  51. Seyberth H. Pathophysiology and clinical presentations of salt-losing tubulopathies. Pediatr Nephrol. 2016;31:407-18 pubmed publisher
    ..to salt wasting, as occurs in all SLTs, characteristic features of loop disorders are hypo- or isosthenuric polyuria and hypercalciuria, whereas characteristics of DCT disorders are hypokalemia and (symptomatic) hypomagnesemia...
  52. Vieweg V, Pandurangi A, Levenson J, Silverman J. The consulting psychiatrist and the polydipsia-hyponatremia syndrome in schizophrenia. Int J Psychiatry Med. 1994;24:275-303 pubmed
    ..Schizophrenics with the polydipsia-hyponatremia syndrome most commonly present with polydipsia, polyuria, urinary incontinence, cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes, seizures, or coma...
  53. Kaneko S, Haruno A, Suzuki N, Kitazato K, Yamazaki Y, Nagai M, et al. [Effect of propiverine hydrochloride on the function of the bladder in dogs]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 1989;93:55-60 pubmed
    ..v. Thus the inhibitory effect of P-4 on the micturition movements of the bladder is more potent than that of flavoxate. These findings indicate that P-4 is a useful drug for the treatment of pollakiuria. ..
  54. Hobbs D, Gast T, Ferguson K, Bunchman T, Barletta G. Nutritional management of hyperkalemic infants with chronic kidney disease, using adult renal formulas. J Ren Nutr. 2010;20:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to evaluate the use of adult renal formulas in hyperkalemic infants with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
  55. Fujii M, Suto H, Goto M, Miki Y, Asai N. [Water-electrolyte imbalance: Reality in diagnosis and therapy (discussion)]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;95:908-24 pubmed
  56. Trabelsi L, Majdoub Rekik N, Bouaziz H, Mnif Feki M, Hammemi B, Maaloul I, et al. [Pituitary tuberculosis: a case report]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2005;66:340-6 pubmed
    ..A 42 years old woman, with a history of erythema nodosum, presented with polyuria polydipsia (PUPD), amenorrhea and galactorrhea...
  57. Schirle L. Polyuria with sevoflurane administration: a case report. AANA J. 2011;79:47-50 pubmed
    b>Polyuria has been reported as a side effect of sevoflurane administration, but because of its relative rarity, many practitioners are not aware of this potential phenomenon...
  58. Lopez Pereira P, Martinez Urrutia M, Espinosa L, Jaureguizar E. Long-term consequences of posterior urethral valves. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:590-6 pubmed publisher
  59. Bichet D, Fujiwara T. Reabsorption of sodium chloride--lessons from the chloride channels. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1281-3 pubmed
  60. Amlal H, Ledoussal C, Sheriff S, Shull G, Soleimani M. Downregulation of renal AQP2 water channel and NKCC2 in mice lacking the apical Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3. J Physiol. 2003;553:511-22 pubmed
    ..Nhe3-/- mice demonstrated a significant polydipsia (P < 0.03) and polyuria (P < 0.04), with a lower urine osmolality (P < 0.003) as compared to Nhe3+/+ mice...