Summary: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).

Top Publications

  1. Umlauf M, Chasens E. Sleep disordered breathing and nocturnal polyuria: nocturia and enuresis. Sleep Med Rev. 2003;7:403-11 pubmed
    Although nocturnal voiding is frequently attributed to urologic disorders, nocturia and enuresis are also important symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing...
  2. Otu Bassey I, Ejezie G, Epoke J, Useh M. Enterobiasis and its relationship with anal itching and enuresis among school-age children in Calabar, Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:611-6 pubmed
    The prevalence of enterobiasis and its relationship with anal itching and enuresis were investigated among 799, randomly selected children aged 5-14 years, who lived, either in an area of high population density or one with a much lower ..
  3. Vande Walle J, Bogaert G, Mattsson S, Schurmans T, Hoebeke P, Deboe V, et al. A new fast-melting oral formulation of desmopressin: a pharmacodynamic study in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. BJU Int. 2006;97:603-9 pubmed
    ..of desmopressin (in single doses of 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 or 480 microg) in children with known primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) and thus identify those dosages that could provide a duration of action corresponding to a typical length ..
  4. van Kerrebroeck P. Experience with the long-term use of desmopressin for nocturnal enuresis in children and adolescents. BJU Int. 2002;89:420-5 pubmed
  5. Yeung C, Diao M, Sreedhar B. Cortical arousal in children with severe enuresis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2414-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Aceto G, Penza R, Delvecchio M, Chiozza M, Cimador M, Caione P. Sodium fraction excretion rate in nocturnal enuresis correlates with nocturnal polyuria and osmolality. J Urol. 2004;171:2567-70 pubmed
    ..sodium fraction excretion rate (FE Na) and potassium fraction excretion (FE K) rates in monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. We also correlate FE Na and FE K to urinary osmolality, nocturnal polyuria and vasopressin in the same population...
  7. Alexopoulos E, Kostadima E, Pagonari I, Zintzaras E, Gourgoulianis K, Kaditis A. Association between primary nocturnal enuresis and habitual snoring in children. Urology. 2006;68:406-9 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis has been associated with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing mostly in hospital-referred adults and children...
  8. Kajiwara M, Inoue K, Kato M, Usui A, Kurihara M, Usui T. Nocturnal enuresis and overactive bladder in children: an epidemiological study. Int J Urol. 2006;13:36-41 pubmed
    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of nocturnal enuresis (NE) and to examine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in primary schoolchildren...
  9. Abdel Latif M, Mosbah A, El Bahnasawy M, Elsawy E, Shaaban A. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in men with orthotopic ileal neobladders: possible relationship to nocturnal enuresis. BJU Int. 2005;96:391-6 pubmed
    ..To assess prospectively the incidence with time of asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with orthotopic ileal neobladders, and the possible effect on neobladder function...

More Information


  1. Korzeniecka Kozerska A, Zoch Zwierz W, Wasilewska A. Functional bladder capacity and urine osmolality in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2005;39:56-61 pubmed
    To assess functional day-time bladder capacity (DBC) and urine osmolality in children with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) according to age and sex.
  2. Bower W, Diao M, Tang J, Yeung C. Acupuncture for nocturnal enuresis in children: a systematic review and exploration of rationale. Neurourol Urodyn. 2005;24:267-72 pubmed
    This review identified reports of acupuncture for childhood nocturnal enuresis, with the aim of ascertaining whether acupuncture is efficacious and or better than standard therapy for treating enuresis.
  3. Van Hoecke E, Baeyens D, Vande Walle J, Hoebeke P, Roeyers H. Socioeconomic status as a common factor underlying the association between enuresis and psychopathology. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2003;24:109-14 pubmed
    The association between enuresis and psychopathology (e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) has been well studied...
  4. Thiedke C. Nocturnal enuresis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:1499-506 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis is a common problem that can be troubling for children and their families. Recent studies indicate that nocturnal enuresis is best regarded as a group of conditions with different etiologies...
  5. Yeung C, Sreedhar B, Leung V, Metreweli C. Ultrasound bladder measurements in patients with primary nocturnal enuresis: a urodynamic and treatment outcome correlation. J Urol. 2004;171:2589-94 pubmed
    ..We evaluate the use of a special ultrasound (US) protocol for the assessment of bladder dysfunction compared with urodynamic findings, and for prediction of treatment outcome in children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE).
  6. Erdogan A, Akkurt H, Boettjer N, Yurtseven E, Can G, Kiran S. Prevalence and behavioural correlates of enuresis in young children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2008;44:297-301 pubmed
    Previous studies based on clinical samples report that enuresis in children is associated with behavioural problems and reduced self-esteem, but the relationship between behavioural problems and enuresis remains controversial...
  7. Kantrowitz J, Srihari V, Tek C. Three cases of risperidone-induced enuresis. Schizophr Res. 2006;84:174-5 pubmed
  8. Ozkan K, Garipardic M, Toktamis A, Karabiber H, Sahinkanat T. Enuresis prevalence and accompanying factors in schoolchildren: a questionnaire study from southeast Anatolia. Urol Int. 2004;73:149-55 pubmed
    The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of enuresis, to determine accompanying factors, and to identify common methods in the management of enuresis in Turkish children aged between 6 and 11 years living in eastern Anatolia...
  9. Fritz G, Rockney R, Bernet W, Arnold V, Beitchman J, Benson R, et al. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with enuresis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:1540-50 pubmed
    b>Enuresis is a symptom that is frequently encountered in child psychiatric evaluations. Careful assessment is required to identify specific urologic, developmental, psychosocial, and sleep-related etiologies...
  10. Hjalmas K, Arnold T, Bower W, Caione P, Chiozza L, von Gontard A, et al. Nocturnal enuresis: an international evidence based management strategy. J Urol. 2004;171:2545-61 pubmed
  11. Kumar P, Aneja S, Kumar R, Taluja V. Spina bifida occulta in functional enuresis. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:223-5 pubmed
    To study incidence of spina bifida occulta in nocturnal enuresis cases and to compare outcome of enuresis with spina bifida occulta and enuresis without spina bifida occulta.
  12. Berry A. Helping children with nocturnal enuresis: the wait-and-see approach may not be in anyone's best interest. Am J Nurs. 2006;106:56-63; quiz 64 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis-defined as the involuntary passage of urine at night-is a common childhood condition...
  13. Bower W, Sit F, Yeung C. Nocturnal enuresis in adolescents and adults is associated with childhood elimination symptoms. J Urol. 2006;176:1771-5 pubmed
    Since nocturnal enuresis in adults and adolescents is rarely monosymptomatic, we identified the prevalence of childhood bladder and bowel dysfunction, and compared findings to those in a normative cohort.
  14. Aceto G, Penza R, Coccioli M, Palumbo F, Cresta L, Cimador M, et al. Enuresis subtypes based on nocturnal hypercalciuria: a multicenter study. J Urol. 2003;170:1670-3 pubmed
    Desmopressin may not be effective for nocturnal enuresis associated with polyuria and hypercalciuria. Nighttime hypercalciuria in an enuretic population from 5 centers and its correlation with nighttime polyuria were verified.
  15. Brooks L, Topol H. Enuresis in children with sleep apnea. J Pediatr. 2003;142:515-8 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that the presence of nocturnal enuresis is related to the severity of sleep apnea, we examined the relation between the Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI, apneas plus hypopneas per hour of sleep) and the presence ..
  16. Azhir A, Frajzadegan Z, Adibi A, Hedayatpoor B, Fazel A, Divband A. An epidemiological study of enuresis among primary school children in Isfahan, Iran. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:1572-7 pubmed
    To estimate the prevalence of enuresis in primary school children in Iran and to determine the factors associated with this disorder.
  17. Alexopoulos E, Kaditis A, Kostadima E, Gourgoulianis K. Resolution of nocturnal enuresis in snoring children after treatment with nasal budesonide. Urology. 2005;66:194 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis has been associated with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea and may resolve after adenotonsillectomy. Nasal corticosteroids have improved symptoms and polysomnography findings in children with snoring...
  18. Honjo H, Kawauchi A, Ukimura O, Soh J, Mizutani Y, Miki T. Treatment of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis by acupuncture: A preliminary study. Int J Urol. 2002;9:672-6 pubmed
    This study was designed to clarify the clinical usefulness of acupuncture as a treatment option for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, and evaluate the mechanisms of its effect.
  19. Weissbach A, Leiberman A, Tarasiuk A, Goldbart A, Tal A. Adenotonsilectomy improves enuresis in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:1351-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and the effect of tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy on enuresis.
  20. Nuhoglu B, Ayyildiz A, Fidan V, Cebeci O, Kosar U, Germiyanoglu C. Do children with primary nocturnal enuresis have a retarded bone age? A cross-sectional study. Int J Urol. 2006;13:109-10 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis is a common pediatric problem, the etiology of which is unclear. In recent years, various studies have been published stating that children with nocturnal enuresis exhibit growth and skeletal maturation retardation.
  21. Butler R, Golding J, Northstone K. Nocturnal enuresis at 7.5 years old: prevalence and analysis of clinical signs. BJU Int. 2005;96:404-10 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in a large cohort of children at 7...
  22. El Bahnasawy M, Osman Y, Gomha M, Shaaban A. Persistent and occasional nocturnal enuresis in orthotopic urinary diversion: is there a urodynamic difference?. BJU Int. 2005;96:1373-7 pubmed
    ..To establish urodynamic criteria differentiating between men with a radical cystoprostatectomy and ileal neobladder who are persistently enuretic and those who are occasionally enuretic...
  23. Abeygunasekera A, Jayasinghe R, Duminda M, Chamintha T, Guruge R. Significance of recent onset nocturnal enuresis in adult men: a prospective study. Ceylon Med J. 2004;49:79-81 pubmed
    Although literature on childhood nocturnal enuresis and its persistence into adulthood is abundant, recent onset nocturnal enuresis in adults is a poorly studied symptom.
  24. Woo S, Park K. Enuresis alarm treatment as a second line to pharmacotherapy in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2004;171:2615-7 pubmed
    We evaluate the effectiveness of enuresis alarm as second line therapy for partial or nonresponders to pharmacotherapy.
  25. Karlidag R, Ozisik H, Soylu A, Kizkin S, Sipahi B, Unal S, et al. Topographic abnormalities in event-related potentials in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23:237-40 pubmed
    ..maturational delay in the central nervous system is dwelled upon in the pathogenesis of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE)...
  26. Neveus T. The role of sleep and arousal in nocturnal enuresis. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92:1118-23 pubmed
    To review what is known about the role of sleep and arousal mechanisms in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis.
  27. Bosson S, Holland P, Barrow S. A visual motor psychological test as a predictor to treatment in nocturnal enuresis. Arch Dis Child. 2002;87:188-91 pubmed
    ..We postulated that in some children there might be a delay in maturation of the normal neurological pathways involved in establishment of nocturnal continence and examined this by using a specific neuropsychological test...
  28. Raes A, Dehoorne J, Hoebeke P, Van Laecke E, Donckerwolcke R, Vande Walle J. Abnormal circadian rhythm of diuresis or nocturnal polyuria in a subgroup of children with enuresis and hypercalciuria is related to increased sodium retention during daytime. J Urol. 2006;176:1147-51 pubmed
    In a subgroup of children with enuresis an increase in nighttime water and solute excretion has been documented...
  29. Desta M, Hägglöf B, Kebede D, Alem A. Socio-demographic and psychopathologic correlates of enuresis in urban Ethiopian children. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:556-60 pubmed
    To examine the association between enuresis and psychopathology in urban Ethiopian children.
  30. Ozden C, Ozdal O, Altinova S, Oguzulgen I, Urgancioglu G, Memis A. Prevalence and associated factors of enuresis in Turkish children. Int Braz J Urol. 2007;33:216-22 pubmed
    b>Enuresis, which is frequently diagnosed amongst schoolchildren, is an important psychosocial problem for both parents and children...
  31. Diaz Saldano D, Chaviano A, Maizels M, Yerkes E, Cheng E, Losavio J, et al. Office management of pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis: a comparison of physician advised and parent chosen alternative treatment outcomes. J Urol. 2007;178:1758-61; discussion 1762 pubmed
    We compared the remission of pediatric primary nocturnal enuresis in groups of children who used a physician advised practice plan vs a parent chosen alternative.
  32. Azhir A, Nasseri F, Fazel A, Adibi A, Frajzadegan Z, Divband A. Etiology and pathology of enuresis among primary school children in Isfahan, Iran. Saudi Med J. 2007;28:1706-10 pubmed
    To determine the etiology and pathogenesis of enuresis among primary school children by using a special ultrasound (US) protocol for the assessment of bladder dysfunction and to compare excretion of urinary sodium and calcium in enuretic ..
  33. Miskulin M, Miskulin I, Mujkic A, Dumic A, Puntaric D, Buljan V, et al. Enuresis in school children from eastern Croatia. Turk J Pediatr. 2010;52:393-9 pubmed
    ..NI was significantly more frequent in boys than in girls. Family history of enuresis was present in 68.6% (24/35) of enuretic children. Only 17...
  34. Ellington E, McGuinness T. Mental health considerations in pediatric enuresis. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2012;50:40-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Enuresis is a common condition during the childhood years. Although distressing to both children and parents, enuresis often goes unreported...
  35. Logan A, Lesperance F. Primary nocturnal enuresis: omega-3 fatty acids may be of therapeutic value. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64:1188-91 pubmed
    Primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE), or bed-wetting, is a distressing urinary condition which can persist through childhood and beyond...
  36. Klages T, Geller B, Tillman R, Bolhofner K, Zimerman B. Controlled study of encopresis and enuresis in children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005;44:1050-7 pubmed
    To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and ..
  37. Tanaka Y, Kawauchi A, Yoneda K, Naitoh Y, Yamao Y, Iwasaki H, et al. Vesicoureteral reflux detected among patients with nocturnal enuresis. Eur Urol. 2003;43:80-3 pubmed
    To clarify the characteristics of vesicoureteral reflux detected in patients with nocturnal enuresis.
  38. Klein N. Management of primary nocturnal enuresis. Urol Nurs. 2001;21:71-6; quiz 81-2 pubmed
    ..Statistics show that 10% to 20% of 5 year olds continue with a least one episode of nocturnal enuresis per month...
  39. Yeung C, Sihoe J, Sit F, Bower W, Sreedhar B, Lau J. Characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis in adults: an epidemiological study. BJU Int. 2004;93:341-5 pubmed
    To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in adults in Hong Kong, as there are currently limited epidemiological data in adults.
  40. Cayan S, Doruk E, Bozlu M, Duce M, Ulusoy E, Akbay E. The assessment of constipation in monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis. Int Urol Nephrol. 2001;33:513-6 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis and constipation are common pediatric problems. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of constipation in children with or without monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis.
  41. Eapen V, Mabrouk A. Prevalence and correlates of nocturnal enuresis in the United Arab Emirates. Saudi Med J. 2003;24:49-51 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and associated psychopathology in children with enuresis.
  42. Kanaheswari Y. Epidemiology of childhood nocturnal enuresis in Malaysia. J Paediatr Child Health. 2003;39:118-23 pubmed
    To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in primary school children in Malaysia and to determine the factors associated with primary nocturnal enuresis.
  43. Ghanizadeh A. Comorbidity of enuresis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Atten Disord. 2010;13:464-7 pubmed publisher
    To compare parental psychopathology and psychiatric disorders in ADHD children with and those without enuresis.
  44. Gur E, Turhan P, Can G, Akkus S, Sever L, Güzelöz S, et al. Enuresis: prevalence, risk factors and urinary pathology among school children in Istanbul, Turkey. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:58-63 pubmed
    b>Enuresis is a common problem among children and adolescents, and can lead to important social and psychological disturbances...
  45. von Gontard A. [Psychological and psychiatric aspects of nocturnal enuresis and functional urinary incontinence]. Urologe A. 2004;43:787-94 pubmed
    Psychological factors play an important role in nocturnal enuresis and functional urinary incontinence...
  46. Radvanska E, Kovacs L, Rittig S. The role of bladder capacity in antidiuretic and anticholinergic treatment for nocturnal enuresis. J Urol. 2006;176:764-8; discussion 768-9 pubmed
    We evaluated combination treatment with desmopressin and oxybutynin in patients with enuresis who did not respond to desmopressin monotherapy...
  47. Lee M, Kim C. Use of aripiprazole in clozapine induced enuresis: report of two cases. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:333-5 pubmed publisher
    ..describes the efficacy of combined use of aripiprazole in the treatment of a patient with clozapine induced enuresis. Aripiprazole acts as a potential dopamine partial agonist and the dopamine blockade in the basal ganglia might ..
  48. Kandil S, Aksu H, Ozyavuz R. Reversible nocturnal enuresis in children receiving SSRI with or without risperidone: presentation of five cases. Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci. 2004;41:218-21 pubmed
    ..Data about their use in the treatment of enuresis also exist. Voiding disorders related to their use have been reported...
  49. Basha S, Bialowas C, Ende K, Szeremeta W. Effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy in the resolution of nocturnal enuresis secondary to obstructive sleep apnea. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1101-3 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and nocturnal enuresis (NE) in patients who required tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy.
  50. Neveus T, Eggert P, Evans J, Macedo A, Rittig S, Tekgul S, et al. Evaluation of and treatment for monosymptomatic enuresis: a standardization document from the International Children's Continence Society. J Urol. 2010;183:441-7 pubmed publisher
    We provide updated, clinically useful recommendations for treating children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.
  51. Chang J, Lee K, Kim T, Yoon S, Lee T, Kim K. Clinical and urodynamic effect of methylphenidate for the treatment of giggle incontinence (enuresis risoria). Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:1338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in giggle incontinence (GI), and the relationship between GI and urodynamic parameters...
  52. Chang S, Ng C, Wong S. Behavioural problems in children and parenting stress associated with primary nocturnal enuresis in Hong Kong. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91:475-9 pubmed
    ..The study recruited 89 children with primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) from the paediatric clinics of 9 regional hospitals in Hong Kong, and 131 age- and gender-matched control ..
  53. Ng D, Chau K, Kwok K. Nocturnal enuresis and obstructive sleep apnoea in two children. Singapore Med J. 2001;42:590-1 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis was a symptom of childhood obstructive sleep apnoea, OSAS. We reported two children with secondary nocturnal enuresis which disappeared after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for proven OSAS...
  54. Zink S, Freitag C, Von Gontard A. Behavioral comorbidity differs in subtypes of enuresis and urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2008;179:295-8; discussion 298 pubmed
    The aim of this prospective study is to describe the association of comorbid behavioral and somatic factors in children with different forms of nocturnal enuresis and daytime incontinence referred to a tertiary center.
  55. Redsell S, Collier J, Garrud P, Evans J, Cawood C. Multimedia versus written information for nocturnal enuresis education: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Child Care Health Dev. 2003;29:121-9 pubmed
    This study evaluated the impact of child-focused information provision using a multimedia software package 'All About Nocturnal Enuresis' and written leaflets containing the same information for bedwetting children.
  56. Tappin D, Clarke L, Ross L, Bell M. A nocturnal enuresis service for a deprived inner city. Acta Paediatr. 2003;92:97-102 pubmed
    ..Of 168,000 children in Glasgow, an estimated 5000 aged 5-15 y have primary nocturnal enuresis. The aim of this study was to establish a nocturnal enuresis service for Glasgow.
  57. Unalacak M, Aydin M, Ermis B, Ozeren A, Sogut A, Demirel F, et al. Assessment of cardiac autonomic regulation in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis by analysis of heart rate variability. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2004;204:63-9 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is controversial. Various urodynamic studies showed bladder hyperactivity in enuretic children. But the exact cause is not precisely known...
  58. Hagstroem S, Kamperis K, Rittig S, Djurhuus J. Bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and healthy controls. J Urol. 2006;176:759-63 pubmed
    We investigated bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and in healthy controls.
  59. Yeung C, Sreedhar B, Sihoe J, Sit F, Lau J. Differences in characteristics of nocturnal enuresis between children and adolescents: a critical appraisal from a large epidemiological study. BJU Int. 2006;97:1069-73 pubmed
    To evaluate any differences in the characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) between younger enuretic children and adolescents.
  60. Butler R. Childhood nocturnal enuresis: developing a conceptual framework. Clin Psychol Rev. 2004;24:909-31 pubmed
    Nocturnal enuresis has been described as the most prevalent and chronic of all childhood problems. The experience, particularly for the older child, can be extremely distressing and limiting...
  61. Triantafyllidis A, Charalambous S, Papatsoris A, Papathanasiou A, Kalaitzis C, Rombis V, et al. Management of nocturnal enuresis in Greek children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1343-5 pubmed
    Our experiences of managing nocturnal enuresis in Greek children at our Outpatient Clinics of Pediatric Urology are described...