Summary: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.

Top Publications

  1. Ferjani S, Saidani M, Ennigrou S, Hsairi M, Ben Redjeb S. Virulence determinants, phylogenetic groups and fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from cystitis and pyelonephritis. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2012;60:270-4 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to assess the relation between virulence genotype, phylogenetic group and susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and the urinary tract infection type including pyelonephritis and cystitis due to Escherichia coli.
  2. Kloos R, Boelens J, de Jong T, Versluys B, Bierings M. Hemorrhagic cystitis in a cohort of pediatric transplantations: incidence, treatment, outcome, and risk factors. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013;19:1263-6 pubmed publisher
    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) can be a severe complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
  3. Bolton M, Horvath D, Li B, Cortado H, Newsom D, White P, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction is a direct consequence of localized maternal uropathogenic Escherichia coli cystitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33897 pubmed publisher
    ..We introduced bacterial cystitis into successfully outbred female mice at gestational day 14 to follow pregnancy outcomes and immunological ..
  4. Scholes D, Hawn T, Roberts P, Li S, Stapleton A, Zhao L, et al. Family history and risk of recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis in women. J Urol. 2010;184:564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Family history variables indicative of genetic risk merit further investigation. We evaluated the risk of recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis in women with and those without a family history of urinary tract infection.
  5. Martins J, Silva R, Coutinho Silva R, Takiya C, Battastini A, Morrone F, et al. The role of P2X7 purinergic receptors in inflammatory and nociceptive changes accompanying cyclophosphamide-induced haemorrhagic cystitis in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:183-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a well-known adverse effect of therapy with cyclophosphamide used for the treatment of many solid tumours ..
  6. Arms L, Vizzard M. Role for pAKT in rat urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate increased AKT phosphorylation in the urinary bladder with urinary bladder inflammation and that blockade of AKT phosphorylation in the urothelium improves overall bladder function...
  7. Ho D, Chen C, Lin W, Chang P, Huang Y. Effect of hyaluronic acid on urine nerve growth factor in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Int J Urol. 2011;18:525-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate how hyaluronic acid (HA) affects nerve growth factor (NGF) production and bladder overactivity in a cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis rat model.
  8. Oxley J, Cottrell A, Adams S, Gillatt D. Ketamine cystitis as a mimic of carcinoma in situ. Histopathology. 2009;55:705-8 pubmed publisher
    To describe the histopathological features of a series of patients with ketamine-related cystitis.
  9. Engles C, Hauser P, Abdullah S, Culkin D, Hurst R. Intravesical chondroitin sulfate inhibits recruitment of inflammatory cells in an acute acid damage "leaky bladder" model of cystitis. Urology. 2012;79:483.e13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Replacement of the GAG layer with intravesically administered GAGs is an effective therapy for interstitial cystitis in at least some patients...

More Information


  1. Chen C, Lee M, Chen Y, Lin M. Ketamine-snorting associated cystitis. J Formos Med Assoc. 2011;110:787-91 pubmed publisher
    ..ketamine users were reported since Shahani et al first reported nine cases of ketamine-associated ulcerative cystitis in 2007...
  2. Gupta K, Hooton T, Naber K, Wullt B, Colgan R, Miller L, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:e103-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus of this work is treatment of women with acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis, diagnoses limited in these guidelines to premenopausal, non-pregnant women with no known ..
  3. Schito G, Gualco L, Naber K, Botto H, Palou J, Mazzei T, et al. Do different susceptibility breakpoints affect the selection of antimicrobials for treatment of uncomplicated cystitis?. J Chemother. 2010;22:345-54 pubmed
    ..They continue to represent effective options for the empiric therapy of female patients with uncomplicated cystitis. The use of different interpretative criteria for E...
  4. Sommariva M, Sandri S, Guerrer C. [Treatment of acute iatrogenic cystitis secondary to bladder chemo-immuno-instillation or pelvic radiotherapy]. Urologia. 2010;77:187-92 pubmed
    The onset of cystitis during intravesical chemo-immunotherapy for the treatment of non-muscle invasive transitional cell bladder tumor, or after pelvic radiotherapy mainly for prostate cancer, is a frequent clinical situation, not easily ..
  5. Falagas M, Vouloumanou E, Togias A, Karadima M, Kapaskelis A, Rafailidis P, et al. Fosfomycin versus other antibiotics for the treatment of cystitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1862-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystitis is a common infection. The alarmingly high resistance rates exhibited by contemporary uropathogens necessitate the re-evaluation of old antibiotics.
  6. Madersbacher H, van Ophoven A, van Kerrebroeck P. GAG layer replenishment therapy for chronic forms of cystitis with intravesical glycosaminoglycans--a review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2013;32:9-18 pubmed publisher
    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer replenishment is a cornerstone in the therapy of interstitial cystitis (IC)...
  7. Nakada T, Nakada H, Yoshida Y, Nakashima Y, Banya Y, Fujihira T, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for radiation cystitis in patients with prostate cancer: a long-term follow-up study. Urol Int. 2012;89:208-14 pubmed publisher
    To assess the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) for treating radiation cystitis a long-term follow-up study was done in patients with prostate cancer, the second most common malignancy in Japan.
  8. Chung A, Arianayagam M, Rashid P. Bacterial cystitis in women. Aust Fam Physician. 2010;39:295-8 pubmed
    A woman presenting with symptoms suggestive of bacterial cystitis is a frequent occurrence in the general practice setting. One in three women develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime (compared to 1 in 20 men).
  9. Silva L, Patah P, Saliba R, Szewczyk N, Gilman L, Neumann J, et al. Hemorrhagic cystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants is the complex result of BK virus infection, preparative regimen intensity and donor type. Haematologica. 2010;95:1183-90 pubmed publisher
    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common cause of morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, frequently associated with BK virus infection...
  10. Cai T, Mazzoli S, Nesi G, Boddi V, Mondaini N, Bartoletti R. 14-day prulifloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections: a prospective, open-label, pilot trial with 6-month follow-up. J Chemother. 2009;21:535-41 pubmed
    ..once daily, 51 young female patients, attending the same STD center between may and June 2007 for symptoms of cystitis, with a history of recurrent UTI and urine culture positive for uropathogens, were enrolled in this prospective ..
  11. Wang B, Gao X, Men K, Qiu J, Yang B, Gou M, et al. Treating acute cystitis with biodegradable micelle-encapsulated quercetin. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012;7:2239-47 pubmed publisher
    Intravesical application of an anti-inflammatory drug is an efficient strategy for acute cystitis therapy. Quercetin (QU) is a potent anti-inflammatory agent; however, its poor water solubility restricts its clinical application...
  12. Huan S, Wang K, Yeh S, Lee C, Lin L, Liu D, et al. Scutellaria baicalensis alleviates cantharidin-induced rat hemorrhagic cystitis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. Molecules. 2012;17:6277-89 pubmed publisher used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat scabies and hepatoma, but accompanied by hemorrhagic cystitis. Evidence shows that cantharidin induces human bladder carcinoma cell death through COX-2 overexpression in vitro...
  13. Totsika M, Kostakioti M, Hannan T, Upton M, Beatson S, Janetka J, et al. A FimH inhibitor prevents acute bladder infection and treats chronic cystitis caused by multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli ST131 are typically associated with limited treatment options and are often recurrent...
  14. Watanabe M, Yamaguchi K, Yamanishi T, Kamai T, Yoshida K. [A case of eosinophilic cystitis that was treated with oral suplatast tosilate (IPD-1151T)]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2009;55:715-9 pubmed
    ..No disease progression was noted after the treatment with suplatast tosilate. To our knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic cystitis treated with suplatast tosilate.
  15. Mackey M. Intravesicular cidofovir for the treatment of polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46:442-6 pubmed publisher
    To review the literature regarding the use of intravesicular cidofovir in the treatment of polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis.
  16. Pinto R, Frias B, Allen S, Dawbarn D, McMahon S, Cruz F, et al. Sequestration of brain derived nerve factor by intravenous delivery of TrkB-Ig2 reduces bladder overactivity and noxious input in animals with chronic cystitis. Neuroscience. 2010;166:907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..It is upregulated in various inflammatory conditions, where it may contribute to altered pain states. In cystitis, little is known about the relevance of BDNF in bladder-generated noxious input and bladder overactivity, a ..
  17. Larson J, Kruger J, Wise A, Kaneene J, Miller R, Fitzgerald S, et al. Nested case-control study of feline calicivirus viruria, oral carriage, and serum neutralizing antibodies in cats with idiopathic cystitis. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:199-205 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology of feline calicivirus (FCV) infection in cats with idiopathic cystitis (FIC) has not been investigated by contemporary molecular biologic methods.
  18. Augé C, Chêne G, Dubourdeau M, Desoubzdanne D, Corman B, Palea S, et al. Relevance of the cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis model for pharmacological studies targeting inflammation and pain of the bladder. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;707:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystitis was induced in female rats by a single CYP injection...
  19. Chuang S, Liu K, Li Y, Jang M, Lee H, Wu W, et al. Dual involvements of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase expressions in ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis in rat bladder. Neurourol Urodyn. 2013;32:1137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of the present study were to investigate voiding patterns, tissue constituents and the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) involved in ketamine-induced ulcerative cystitis in rat urinary bladder.
  20. Lemberger S, Deeg C, Hauck S, Amann B, Hirmer S, Hartmann K, et al. Comparison of urine protein profiles in cats without urinary tract disease and cats with idiopathic cystitis, bacterial urinary tract infection, or urolithiasis. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:1407-15 pubmed publisher
    To characterize and compare the urine protein content in cats without urinary tract disease and cats with idiopathic cystitis (IdC), bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI), or urolithiasis.
  21. Miranda A, Mickle A, Schmidt J, Zhang Z, Shaker R, Banerjee B, et al. Neonatal cystitis-induced colonic hypersensitivity in adult rats: a model of viscero-visceral convergence. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2011;23:683-e281 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to determine if neonatal cystitis alters colonic sensitivity later in life and to investigate the role of peripheral mechanisms.
  22. Wang Z, Wang P, Bjorling D. Activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 inhibits experimental cystitis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;304:R846-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether treatment with the CB2 agonist GP1a alters severity of experimental cystitis induced by acrolein and referred mechanical hyperalgesia associated with cystitis...
  23. Neuzillet Y, Naber K, Schito G, Gualco L, Botto H. French results of the ARESC study: clinical aspects and epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in female patients with cystitis. Implications for empiric therapy. Med Mal Infect. 2012;42:66-75 pubmed publisher
    Uncomplicated cystitis is one of the most frequent community infections. We report the French results of the international ARESC study on the clinical aspects, epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens.
  24. Miller J, Pedersen L, Sun Y, Olsen J. Maternal use of cystitis medication and childhood epilepsy in a danish population-based cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012;26:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined cystitis antibiotics commonly used during pregnancy, as a marker of cystitis, and the risk of childhood epilepsy in a ..
  25. Nasrin S, Masuda E, Kugaya H, Ito Y, Yamada S. Improvement by phytotherapeutic agent of detrusor overactivity, down-regulation of pharmacological receptors and urinary cytokines in rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis. J Urol. 2013;189:1123-9 pubmed publisher
    We characterized pharmacological effects of the phytotherapeutic agent Eviprostat® on urodynamic parameters, bladder muscarinic and purinergic receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cyclophosphamide induced cystitis.
  26. Girard B, Tompkins J, Parsons R, May V, Vizzard M. Effects of CYP-induced cystitis on PACAP/VIP and receptor expression in micturition pathways and bladder function in mice with overexpression of NGF in urothelium. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;48:730-43 pubmed
    ..We have now explored the contribution of target-derived NGF in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis to determine whether additional changes in neuropeptides/receptors are observed in micturition reflex pathways ..
  27. Yu S, Xia C, Kay J, Qiao L. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 is essential for cystitis- and nerve growth factor-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in sensory neurons. Mol Pain. 2012;8:48 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystitis causes considerable neuronal plasticity in the primary afferent pathways...
  28. Buffington C. Idiopathic cystitis in domestic cats--beyond the lower urinary tract. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:784-96 pubmed publisher
    ..after standard clinical evaluation of the LUT, so these cats typically are classified as having idiopathic cystitis. A syndrome in human beings commonly known as interstitial cystitis (IC) shares many features in common with ..
  29. Wagenlehner F, Wagenlehner C, Savov O, Gualco L, Schito G, Naber K. [Clinical aspects and epidemiology of uncomplicated cystitis in women. German results of the ARESC Study]. Urologe A. 2010;49:253-61 pubmed publisher
    Uncomplicated cystitis in women is among the most frequent infections in the community setting...
  30. Chung C, Zhang Q, Qiao L. Endogenous nerve growth factor regulates collagen expression and bladder hypertrophy through Akt and MAPK pathways during cystitis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We reported here that cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis significantly increased the production of type I collagen in the inflamed bladder leading to increases in the ..
  31. Kyung Y, Park H, Lee G. Preservation of uroplakins by 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate in cyclophosphamide-induced rat cystitis. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:51-7 pubmed publisher
    Cyclophosphamide (CP) causes extensive cystitis, which is ameliorated with concomitant treatment with mesna...
  32. Hameed O. Myxoid cystitis with "chordoid" lymphocytes: another mimic of invasive urothelial carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:1061-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes a peculiar type of cystitis that closely mimicked myxoid urothelial carcinoma...
  33. Kim C, Kim M, Cho Y, Cho I, Lee G. Virulence characteristics and phylogenetic background of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli in the urine samples from Korean women with acute uncomplicated cystitis. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:602-7 pubmed publisher
    ..of the virulence factors (VFs) of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli (CFRE) with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC), we determined the VFs and the phylogenetic background of all 54 CFRE strains and the 55 randomly selected ..
  34. Iacovelli V, Topazio L, Gaziev G, Bove P, Vespasiani G, Finazzi Agrò E. Intravesical glycosaminoglycans in the management of chronic cystitis. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2013;65:249-62 pubmed
    ..glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in urology, with particular emphasis on the therapeutic use in all the chronic forms of cystitis. The so called "bladder layer" is mainly composed by chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and ..
  35. Bjorling D, Wang Z, Bushman W. Models of inflammation of the lower urinary tract. Neurourol Urodyn. 2011;30:673-82 pubmed publisher
    ..discuss various animal models of lower urinary tract inflammation, including feline spontaneous (interstitial) cystitis, neurogenic cystitis, autoimmune cystitis, cystitis induced by intravesical instillation of chemicals or ..
  36. Arms L, Girard B, Vizzard M. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4 in rat urinary bladder with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;298:F589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..01) increases in intercontraction interval, bladder capacity, and void volume. These results suggest a role for CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling in both normal micturition and with bladder hyperreflexia following bladder inflammation. ..
  37. Anderson G, GOLLER C, Justice S, Hultgren S, Seed P. Polysaccharide capsule and sialic acid-mediated regulation promote biofilm-like intracellular bacterial communities during cystitis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:963-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate the complex but important roles of UPEC polysaccharide encapsulation and sialic acid signaling in multiple stages of UTI pathogenesis...
  38. Wada N, Matsumoto S, Kita M, Watanabe M, Hashizume K, Kakizaki H. Effect of intrathecal administration of E-series prostaglandin 1 receptor antagonist in a cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis rat model. Int J Urol. 2013;20:235-40 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the effect of intrathecal administration of E-series prostaglandin 1 antagonist in cyclophosphamide-induced murine cystitis.
  39. Kim M, Park H, Park C, Lee E, Rho M, Park N, et al. Eosinophilic cystitis associated with eosinophilic enterocolitis: case reports and review of the literature. Br J Radiol. 2010;83:e122-5 pubmed publisher
    We report three cases of eosinophilic cystitis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed characteristic bladder wall thickening exceeding 10 mm, with preservation of the mucosal lining and intense, progressive contrast ..
  40. Matsunami M, Miki T, Nishiura K, Hayashi Y, Okawa Y, Nishikawa H, et al. Involvement of the endogenous hydrogen sulfide/Ca(v) 3.2 T-type Ca2+ channel pathway in cystitis-related bladder pain in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167:917-28 pubmed publisher
    ..2 T-type Ca(2+) channels. Here, we assessed the involvement of the CSE/H(2) S/Ca(v) 3.2 pathway in cystitis-related bladder pain.
  41. Santos A, Leal P, Edelweiss M, Lopes T, Calixto J, Morrone F, et al. Effects of the compounds MV8608 and MV8612 obtained from Mandevilla velutina in the model of hemorrhagic cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010;382:399-407 pubmed publisher
    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect observed in patients under chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYP)...
  42. Zhang Q, Qiao L. Regulation of IGF-1 but not TGF-?1 by NGF in the smooth muscle of the inflamed urinary bladder. Regul Pept. 2012;177:73-8 pubmed publisher
    Intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) causes hemorrhagic cystitis with excess growth of muscular layer leading to bladder hypertrophy; this could be attributable to changes in the expression profiles of growth factors in the ..
  43. Miller A, Glode A, Hogan K, Schaub C, Kramer C, Stuart R, et al. Efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin for prophylaxis of polyomavirus BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17:1176-81 pubmed publisher
    Polyoma virus BK-induced hemorrhagic cystitis is an important cause of morbidity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
  44. Haines H, Laskin B, Goebel J, Davies S, Yin H, Lawrence J, et al. Blood, and not urine, BK viral load predicts renal outcome in children with hemorrhagic cystitis following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011;17:1512-9 pubmed publisher
    BK virus is a significant cause of hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, its role in nephropathy post-HSCT is less studied...
  45. Hatipoglu S, Sevketoglu E, Gedikbasi A, Yilmaz A, Kiyak A, Mulazimoglu M, et al. Urinary MMP-9/NGAL complex in children with acute cystitis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:1263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of NGAL-MMP-9/cr levels in the urine of suspected UTI patients may also be useful to differentiate between contamination and infection and for monitoring of treatment response in children...
  46. Colgan R, Williams M. Diagnosis and treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:771-6 pubmed
    ..Most urinary tract infections are acute uncomplicated cystitis. Identifiers of acute uncomplicated cystitis are frequency and dysuria in an immunocompetent woman of ..
  47. Lemberger S, Dorsch R, Hauck S, Amann B, Hirmer S, Hartmann K, et al. Decrease of Trefoil factor 2 in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis. BJU Int. 2011;107:670-7 pubmed publisher
    To obtain new insights into aetiological backgrounds, and to search for diagnostic biomarkers by assessing the difference in urinary proteins between cats with spontaneous feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) and healthy controls.
  48. Abraham P, Isaac B, Ramamoorthy H, Natarajan K. Oral glutamine attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in the bladder but does not prevent hemorrhagic cystitis in rats. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7:118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemorrhagic cystitis is a major dose-limiting side effect of CP...
  49. Medeiros P, Abagge K, Carvalho V, Bonfim C, Raboni S. Polyomavirus BK: possibly associated skin eruption in a patient with hemorrhagic cystitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28:76-7 pubmed publisher
    ..After 17 days she developed hemorrhagic cystitis due to polyoma BK virus (BKV), confirmed by PCR (polymerase chain reaction)...
  50. Schnegelsberg B, Sun T, Cain G, Bhattacharya A, Nunn P, Ford A, et al. Overexpression of NGF in mouse urothelium leads to neuronal hyperinnervation, pelvic sensitivity, and changes in urinary bladder function. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R534-47 pubmed publisher
    ..NGF-overexpressing mice may, therefore, provide a useful transgenic model for exploring the role of NGF in urinary bladder dysfunction...
  51. Megged O, Stein J, Ben Meir D, Shulman L, Yaniv I, Shalit I, et al. BK-virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011;33:190-3 pubmed publisher
    BK-virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (BK-HC) is a serious complication in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data of BK-HC in children undergoing HSCT are still limited.
  52. Gaziev J, Paba P, Miano R, Germani S, Sodani P, Bove P, et al. Late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis in children after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia and sickle cell anemia: a prospective evaluation of polyoma (BK) virus infection and treatment with cidofovir. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010;16:662-71 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) in children, its relationship to BK virus, and treatment with cidofovir (CDV) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
  53. Kwon H, Kang J, Lee J, Chung N, Kim H, Cho B. Treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with cidofovir: a single-center experience. Transpl Infect Dis. 2013;15:569-74 pubmed publisher
    BK virus (BKV)-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (BKV-HC) is a severe complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...