urethritis

Summary

Summary: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.

Top Publications

  1. Yokoi S, Maeda S, Kubota Y, Tamaki M, Mizutani K, Yasuda M, et al. The role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 in postgonococcal urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:866-71 pubmed
    There are few studies on coinfection with genital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in men with gonococcal urethritis (GU). The role of these species in postgonococcal urethritis (PGU) is poorly understood...
  2. Deguchi T, Yoshida T, Miyazawa T, Yasuda M, Tamaki M, Ishiko H, et al. Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) with nongonococcal urethritis. Sex Transm Dis. 2004;31:192-5 pubmed
    ..urealyticum (biovar 2), but association of each of these species with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) remains unclear.
  3. Kilic D, Basar M, Kaygusuz S, Yilmaz E, Basar H, Batislam E. Prevalence and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Mycoplasma hominis in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:17-20 pubmed
    ..the occurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum in non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) and to determine the bacterial resistance to six antibiotics in order to determine the most suitable ..
  4. Falk L, Fredlund H, Jensen J. Signs and symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis among women with or without Mycoplasma genitalium or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:73-8 pubmed
    ..Attendees were examined for urethritis and cervicitis. First void urine and endocervical samples were tested for M genitalium and C trachomatis...
  5. Bradshaw C, Jensen J, Tabrizi S, Read T, Garland S, Hopkins C, et al. Azithromycin failure in Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1149-52 pubmed
    ..interval 15%-45%) after administering 1 g azithromycin to men with Mycoplasma genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro evidence supported reduced susceptibility of M. genitalium to macrolides...
  6. Jensen J, Bradshaw C, Tabrizi S, Fairley C, Hamasuna R. Azithromycin treatment failure in Mycoplasma genitalium-positive patients with nongonococcal urethritis is associated with induced macrolide resistance. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1546-53 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma genitalium is a common cause of nongonococcal urethritis. Treatment trials have shown that doxycycline is inefficient, whereas a 5-day course of azithromycin eradicates the bacterium from 95% of infected men...
  7. Yasuda M, Maeda S, Deguchi T. In vitro activity of fluoroquinolones against Mycoplasma genitalium and their bacteriological efficacy for treatment of M. genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis in men. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;41:1357-9 pubmed
    ..genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis. In vitro, levofloxacin was less active than gatifloxacin, tosufloxacin, and sparfloxacin...
  8. Shimada Y, Ito S, Mizutani K, Sugawara T, Seike K, Tsuchiya T, et al. Bacterial loads of Ureaplasma urealyticum contribute to development of urethritis in men. Int J STD AIDS. 2014;25:294-8 pubmed publisher
    Ureaplasma urealyticum could be a pathogen of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men. However, ureaplasma is often detected in men without NGU, and the proportion of cases possibly attributable to this pathogen is still undefined...
  9. Lee J, Moon H, Lee T, Hwang H, Ahn M, Ryu J. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis. Between June 2001 and December 2003, a total of 33 patients visited the Department of Urology, Hanyang ..

More Information

Publications74

  1. Taylor Robinson D, Horner P. Mycoplasma genitalium and asymptomatic chlamydia-negative non-gonococcal urethritis revisited. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:768-9 pubmed
  2. Stamm W, Batteiger B, McCormack W, Totten P, Sternlicht A, Kivel N. A randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose rifalazil with single-dose azithromycin for the empirical treatment of nongonococcal urethritis in men. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:545-52 pubmed
    ..the safety and effectiveness of single-dose rifalazil, a new rifamycin, for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). Randomized, double-blind trial comparing rifalazil, 2.5, 12.5 or 25 mg, with 1...
  3. Takahashi S, Kurimura Y, Hashimoto J, Takeyama K, Koroku M, Tanda H, et al. Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection in oral-throat wash specimens of male patients with urethritis. J Infect Chemother. 2008;14:442-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of oral-throat wash specimens to detect the organism in heterosexual men with gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis. In our cohort of 79 male patients with urethritis, oral throat wash specimens were collected after they had ..
  4. Taylor Robinson D, Gilroy C, Thomas B, Hay P. Mycoplasma genitalium in chronic non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15:21-5 pubmed
    Seventy-eight men with a history of chronic urethritis were referred for investigation...
  5. Maeda S, Kubota Y, Senda Y, Tamaki M, Yasuda M, Deguchi T. Failure to detect urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Japanese men with or without urethritis. Int J Urol. 2006;13:1418-20 pubmed
    Trichomonas vaginalis may cause symptomatic or asymptomatic urethritis in men. There are few recent studies on the prevalence of T...
  6. Wetmore C, Manhart L, Lowens M, Golden M, Jensen N, Astete S, et al. Ureaplasma urealyticum is associated with nongonococcal urethritis among men with fewer lifetime sexual partners: a case-control study. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1274-82 pubmed publisher
    Ureaplasmas have been inconsistently associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)...
  7. Lewis D, Chirwa T, Msimang V, Radebe F, Kamb M, Firnhaber C. Urethritis/cervicitis pathogen prevalence and associated risk factors among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients in South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39:531-6 pubmed publisher
    ..sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, and patient characteristics associated with detection of urethritis/cervicitis pathogens, among HIV-infected individuals offered voluntary STI screening at a South African HIV ..
  8. Schmidt K, Schneider H, Lindstrom J, Boslego J, Warren R, Van de Verg L, et al. Experimental gonococcal urethritis and reinfection with homologous gonococci in male volunteers. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28:555-64 pubmed
    ..Reinfection, a common occurrence with gonorrhea, may result from a lack of protective immune response, or from the tremendous gonococcal strain variation...
  9. Kojima M, Masuda K, Yada Y, Hayase Y, Muratani T, Matsumoto T. Single-dose treatment of male patients with gonococcal urethritis using 2g spectinomycin: microbiological and clinical evaluations. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of 2g spectinomycin administered by intramuscular injection were studied in 365 male patients with gonococcal urethritis. A total of 210 patients (57.5%) could be evaluated, in 28 (13...
  10. Mena L, Mroczkowski T, Nsuami M, Martin D. A randomized comparison of azithromycin and doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium-positive urethritis in men. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:1649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study compared the efficacy of 1 g of azithromycin given as a single dose with that of 100 mg of doxycycline given twice a day for 7 days in eliminating M. genitalium infection...
  11. Hilton J, Azariah S, Reid M. A case-control study of men with non-gonococcal urethritis at Auckland Sexual Health Service: rates of detection of Mycoplasma genitalium. Sex Health. 2010;7:77-81 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies have identified Mycoplasma genitalium as a cause of urethritis in men...
  12. Kane B, Degutis L, Sayward H, D ONOFRIO G. Compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Acad Emerg Med. 2004;11:371-7 pubmed
    ..Little is known about gaps in quality and the extent to which clinical standards are used in emergency department (ED) practice...
  13. Jensen J. Mycoplasma genitalium: the aetiological agent of urethritis and other sexually transmitted diseases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:1-11 pubmed
    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated in 1980 from two of 13 men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). It shares several features with M. pneumoniae, a recognized respiratory tract pathogen...
  14. Wendel K, Erbelding E, Gaydos C, Rompalo A. Use of urine polymerase chain reaction to define the prevalence and clinical presentation of Trichomonas vaginalis in men attending an STD clinic. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:151-3 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence and clinical features of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in men...
  15. Yoshida T, Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H. Phylogeny-based rapid identification of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas from urethritis patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:105-10 pubmed
    Some strains of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas (family Mycoplasmataceae) are associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) or other genitourinary infections...
  16. Falchi A, Lasserre A, Gallay A, Blanchon T, Sednaoui P, Lassau F, et al. A survey of primary care physician practices in antibiotic prescribing for the treatment of uncomplicated male gonoccocal urethritis. BMC Fam Pract. 2011;12:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to describe the practice patterns of general practitioners (GPs) in managing the antibiotic treatment of patients with symptoms suggestive of uncomplicated male urethritis.
  17. Papadogeorgakis H, Pittaras T, Papaparaskevas J, Pitiriga V, Katsambas A, Tsakris A. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection in male patients with urethritis in Greece. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece...
  18. Jensen J, Björnelius E, Dohn B, Lidbrink P. Use of TaqMan 5' nuclease real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Mycoplasma genitalium DNA in males with and without urethritis who were attendees at a sexually transmitted disease clinic. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:683-92 pubmed
    Mycoplasma genitalium is a cause of nongonococcal urethritis, particularly in patients not infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. A quantitative 5' nuclease assay (TaqMan PCR) was developed and validated...
  19. Parsons C. The role of the urinary epithelium in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/prostatitis/urethritis. Urology. 2007;69:9-16 pubmed
    ..Groups of patients who have been given a diagnosis of IC, chronic prostatitis, and urethritis have been shown to have IC by virtue of their shared potassium sensitivity...
  20. Herida M, Kreplack G, Cardon B, Desenclos J, de Barbeyrac B. First case of urethritis due to Chlamydia trachomatis genovar L2b. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:268-9 pubmed
  21. Khadra A, Fletcher P, Luzzi G, Shattock R, Hay P. Interleukin-8 levels in seminal plasma in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and nonspecific urethritis. BJU Int. 2006;97:1043-6 pubmed
    ..of cytokines were detectable in the seminal plasma and urine of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and nonspecific urethritis (NSU), and whether cytokine levels correlated with symptom severity in CP/CPPS.
  22. Okoli A, Iroegbu C. Evaluation of extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Nauclea latifolia and Uvaria afzalii for activity against bacterial isolates from cases of non-gonococcal urethritis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:135-44 pubmed
    ..against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus and two of Escherichia coli isolated from cases of STD and or urethritis. Four typed bacterial strains, S aureus ATCC 12600, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC ..
  23. Maeda S, Deguchi T, Ishiko H, Matsumoto T, Naito S, Kumon H, et al. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis using polymerase chain reaction-microtiter plate hybridization. Int J Urol. 2004;11:750-4 pubmed
    ..plate hybridization assays to detect Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum (biovar 1) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) in first-voided urine specimens from patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU).
  24. Yoshida T, Ishiko H, Yasuda M, Takahashi Y, Nomura Y, Kubota Y, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-based subtyping of ureaplasma parvum and ureaplasma urealyticum in first-pass urine samples from men with or without urethritis. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:454-7 pubmed
    Our previous study suggested a significant association between Ureaplasma urealyticum and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). However, association of the serovars of U. urealyticum with NGU remains unclear...
  25. Chowdhry S, Pandhi D, Vidhani S, Bhalla P, Reddy B. High incidence of treatment failure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to ciprofloxacin in male gonococcal urethritis in Delhi. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13:564-7 pubmed
    ..Thirty-five male patients with gonococcal urethritis were included in the study...
  26. Gaydos C, Maldeis N, Hardick A, Hardick J, Quinn T. Mycoplasma genitalium compared to chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomonas as an aetiological agent of urethritis in men attending STD clinics. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:438-40 pubmed publisher
    ..gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in men, frequency of co-infections, and association of organisms with urethritis in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 290 men (age range 19-34 years) attending Baltimore City STD clinics...
  27. Ondondo R, Whittington W, Astete S, Totten P. Differential association of ureaplasma species with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual men. Sex Transm Infect. 2010;86:271-5 pubmed publisher
    To assess the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum in patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) using specimens from a previously reported study of NGU.
  28. le Roux M, Ramoncha M, Adam A, Hoosen A. Aetiological agents of urethritis in symptomatic South African men attending a family practice. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..3% C. trachomatis, 8.0% T. vaginalis and 17.3% M. genitalium. With regard to microscopic evidence of urethritis, significant associations were found for N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, but not for M. genitalium and T...
  29. Lautenschlager S, Eichmann A. Urethritis: an underestimated clinical variant of genital herpes in men?. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;46:307-8 pubmed
    Two men had a first clinical episode of genital herpes presenting as nongonococcal urethritis in the absence of any penile lesions...
  30. Wiggins R, Holmes C, Andersson M, Ibrahim F, Low N, Horner P. Quantifying leukocytes in first catch urine provides new insights into our understanding of symptomatic and asymptomatic urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2006;17:289-95 pubmed
    ..Leukocytes in the first catch urine (FCU) from 87 men with and without urethritis were quantitated using haemocytometer counts and stained with an anti-CD45 pan-leukocyte antibody...
  31. Hamasuna R. Identification of treatment strategies for Mycoplasma genitalium-related urethritis in male patients by culturing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. J Infect Chemother. 2013;19:1-11 pubmed publisher
    Mycoplasma genitalium was first isolated from urethral swab specimens of male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis. However, the isolation of M. genitalium strains from clinical specimens has been difficult...
  32. Seike K, Maeda S, Kubota Y, Tamaki M, Yasuda M, Deguchi T. Prevalence and morbidity of urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Japanese men with or without urethritis. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:528-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to determine the prevalence and morbidity of T. vaginalis infection in Japanese men with and without urethritis.
  33. Mugo P, Duncan S, Mwaniki S, Thiong o A, Gichuru E, Okuku H, et al. Cross-sectional survey of treatment practices for urethritis at pharmacies, private clinics and government health facilities in coastal Kenya: many missed opportunities for HIV prevention. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess STI treatment and HIV testing referral practices among health providers in Kenya...
  34. Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Yokoi S, Ishida K, Ito M, Ishihara S, et al. Treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis by double-dosing of 200 mg cefixime at a 6-h interval. J Infect Chemother. 2003;9:35-9 pubmed
    The efficacy of antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis depends partially upon the period of time (therapeutic time) during which the drug concentration in the blood after the concentration peak is ..
  35. Price M, Zimba D, Hoffman I, Kaydos Daniels S, Miller W, Martinson F, et al. Addition of treatment for trichomoniasis to syndromic management of urethritis in Malawi: a randomized clinical trial. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30:516-22 pubmed
    Male urethritis is generally treated syndromically, but failure of empirical treatment is common.
  36. Sadiq S, Taylor S, Kaye S, Bennett J, Johnstone R, Byrne P, et al. The effects of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1 RNA loads in seminal plasma in HIV-positive patients with and without urethritis. AIDS. 2002;16:219-25 pubmed
    High seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA loads (SVL) have been reported during gonococcal, non-gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis in patients not taking antiretroviral therapy.
  37. Couldwell D, Gidding H, Freedman E, McKechnie M, Biggs K, Sintchenko V, et al. Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:337-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of urethral symptoms/signs was defined as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for this study...
  38. Schwebke J, Hook E. High rates of Trichomonas vaginalis among men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic: implications for screening and urethritis management. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:465-8 pubmed
    Trichomonas is a cause of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); however, studies of its prevalence in men have been hampered by the lack of sensitive diagnostics. DNA amplification allows for reappraisal of the extent of infection in men...
  39. Shigehara K, Sasagawa T, Kawaguchi S, Kobori Y, Nakashima T, Shimamura M, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the urinary tract of men with urethritis. Int J Urol. 2010;17:563-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the genital and urinary tract of men with urethritis.
  40. Taylor Robinson D, Renton A, Jensen J, Ison C, Filatova E, Dmitriev G, et al. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium with acute non-gonococcal urethritis in Russian men: a comparison with gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the 42 men uninfected by gonococci but chlamydia infected, 39 (93%) had symptoms and/or signs of urethritis. M. genitalium was detected in 45 (26%) of the 172 men, in nine (22%) of the 41 men infected with N...
  41. Porter E, Yang H, Yavagal S, Preza G, Murillo O, Lima H, et al. Distinct defensin profiles in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis reveal novel epithelial cell-neutrophil interactions. Infect Immun. 2005;73:4823-33 pubmed
    ..in urethral secretions of healthy men and men with Chlamydia trachomatis- and Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated urethritis by immunoblotting for the epithelial defensins HBD1, HBD2, and HD5 and the neutrophil defensins HNP1 to -3 (HNP1-..
  42. Ballard R, Fehler H, Htun Y, Radebe F, Jensen J, Taylor Robinson D. Coexistence of urethritis with genital ulcer disease in South Africa: influence on provision of syndromic management. Sex Transm Infect. 2002;78:274-7 pubmed
    ..To assess whether syndromic management of genital ulcer disease was sound, if based on the premise that men with genital ulcers rarely have a concomitant urethral infection...
  43. Bradshaw C, Tabrizi S, Read T, Garland S, Hopkins C, Moss L, et al. Etiologies of nongonococcal urethritis: bacteria, viruses, and the association with orogenital exposure. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:336-45 pubmed
    The purpose of the present study was to determine pathogens and behaviors associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and the usefulness of the urethral smear in predicting the presence of pathogens.
  44. Maeda S, Tamaki M, Kubota Y, Nguyen P, Yasuda M, Deguchi T. Treatment of men with urethritis negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Int J Urol. 2007;14:422-5 pubmed
    Some patients with symptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) are negative for Chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas...
  45. Mena L, Wang X, Mroczkowski T, Martin D. Mycoplasma genitalium infections in asymptomatic men and men with urethritis attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in New Orleans. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1167-73 pubmed
    ..of a study of Mycoplasma genitalium (detected with a modified polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay) in men with urethritis and in asymptomatic control subjects at a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in New Orleans...
  46. Falk L, Fredlund H, Jensen J. Symptomatic urethritis is more prevalent in men infected with Mycoplasma genitalium than with Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:289-93 pubmed
    To study the prevalence, symptoms, and signs of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in men attending a Swedish STD clinic and to study the criteria for urethritis.
  47. Moi H, Reinton N, Moghaddam A. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:15-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in a large number of male patients attending a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and to determine if there is an association with objective non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in patients with and without clinical symptoms.
  48. Vats V, Rastogi S, Kumar A, Ahmed M, Singh V, Mittal A, et al. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in male patients with non-gonococcal urethritis attending an STD clinic. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:327-8 pubmed
  49. Dupin N, Bijaoui G, Schwarzinger M, Ernault P, Gerhardt P, Jdid R, et al. Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma genitalium in male patients with urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:602-5 pubmed
    Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma genitalium were evaluated in 83 patients with urethritis (group 1), 60 patients with urethral symptoms but no urethritis (group 2), and 50 asymptomatic men (group 3). Quantification of M...
  50. Horner P, Thomas B, Gilroy C, Egger M, Taylor Robinson D. Do all men attending departments of genitourinary medicine need to be screened for non-gonococcal urethritis?. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13:667-73 pubmed
    ..trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms (ureaplasmas) in men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU)...
  51. Brill J. Diagnosis and treatment of urethritis in men. Am Fam Physician. 2010;81:873-8 pubmed
    Symptoms of urethritis in men typically include urethral discharge, penile itching or tingling, and dysuria...
  52. Sperling H, Bastian H, Boeminghau F, Ludwig G, Terhorst B, Rubben H. Local antiseptic therapy for non-gonococcal urethritis: phase II study with Instillagel. World J Urol. 2002;20:45-7 pubmed
    Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is conventionally treated with oral antibiotics. With this Phase II study, we investigated the action of a locally disinfecting substance, Instillagel, in symptomatic NGU...
  53. Taylor Robinson D, Jensen J, Fehler G, Radebe F, Ballard R. Observations on the microbiology of urethritis in black South African men. Int J STD AIDS. 2002;13:323-5 pubmed
    ..molecular techniques in urine specimens from 182 black South African men who had symptoms and/or overt signs of urethritis. Eighty-six (47.3%) of these men were infected with N. gonorrhoeae...
  54. Van Howe R. Genital ulcerative disease and sexually transmitted urethritis and circumcision: a meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:799-809 pubmed
    ..relationship of circumcision status to the risk for genital ulcerative disease (GUD) and sexually transmitted urethritis. A MEDLINE search and a review of references in published articles identified studies addressing the risk of ..
  55. Mellenius H, Boman J, Lundqvist E, Jensen J. [Mycoplasma genitalium should be suspected in unspecific urethritis and cervicitis. A study from Vasterbotten confirms the high prevalence of the bacteria]. Lakartidningen. 2005;102:3538, 3540-1 pubmed
    The microbe Mycoplasma genitalium has in several studies been proposed as an individual cause of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men, and has been associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and salpingitis...
  56. Znazen A, Trigui B, Zghal Trigui Y, Gdoura R, Zouari N, Hammami A. [Male gonococcal urethritis in the region of Sfax (1996-2000)]. Tunis Med. 2003;81:329-33 pubmed
    ..our study was to determine the sociological, epidemiological and bacteriological characteristics of gonococcal urethritis in the area of Sfax...
  57. Uuskula A, Plank T, Lassus A, Bingham J. Sexually transmitted infections in Estonia--syndromic management of urethritis in a European country?. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12:493-8 pubmed
    ..The use of syndromic management, in general, is also discussed...
  58. Deguchi T, Maeda S. Mycoplasma genitalium: another important pathogen of nongonococcal urethritis. J Urol. 2002;167:1210-7 pubmed
    We reviewed findings on the pathogenic role of Mycoplasma genitalium in nongonococcal urethritis and the treatment of men with M. genitalium positive nongonococcal urethritis.
  59. Deguchi T, Yoshida T, Yokoi S, Ito M, Tamaki M, Ishiko H, et al. Longitudinal quantitative detection by real-time PCR of Mycoplasma genitalium in first-pass urine of men with recurrent nongonococcal urethritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3854-6 pubmed
    ..genitalium-positive nongonococcal urethritis. We observed regrowth of M...
  60. Wikstrom A, Jensen J. Mycoplasma genitalium: a common cause of persistent urethritis among men treated with doxycycline. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82:276-9 pubmed
    Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is commonly observed in men attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics...
  61. Donati M, Di Francesco A, D Antuono A, Pignanelli S, Shurdhi A, Moroni A, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other concurrent sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men with urethritis in Italy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:523-6 pubmed publisher
    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74...
  62. Manhart L, Gillespie C, Lowens M, Khosropour C, Colombara D, Golden M, et al. Standard treatment regimens for nongonococcal urethritis have similar but declining cure rates: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:934-42 pubmed publisher
    Azithromycin or doxycycline is recommended for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); recent evidence suggests their efficacy has declined...
  63. Handsfield H. Nongonococcal urethritis: a few answers but mostly questions. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:333-5 pubmed
  64. Pitts M, Smith A, Mischewski A, Fairley C. Men, bodily change and urethritis: a qualitative study. Sex Health. 2005;2:25-8 pubmed
    ..To describe how men narrate the process of bodily change as a trigger to presentation for a suspected sexually transmissible infection...
  65. Manhas A, Sethi S, Sharma M, Wanchu A, Kanwar A, Kaur K, et al. Association of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with nongonococcal urethritis attending STD & HIV clinics. Indian J Med Res. 2009;129:305-10 pubmed
    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men. The role of genital mycoplasmas including Mycoplasma genitalium in HIV infected men with NGU is still not known...