urethral stricture


Summary: Narrowing of any part of the URETHRA. It is characterized by decreased urinary stream and often other obstructive voiding symptoms.

Top Publications

  1. Lumen N, Hoebeke P, Willemsen P, De Troyer B, Pieters R, Oosterlinck W. Etiology of urethral stricture disease in the 21st century. J Urol. 2009;182:983-7 pubmed publisher
    We determined the current etiology of urethral stricture disease in the developed world and whether there are any differences in etiology by patient age and stricture site.
  2. Lumen N, Hoebeke P, Troyer B, Ysebaert B, Oosterlinck W. Perineal anastomotic urethroplasty for posttraumatic urethral stricture with or without previous urethral manipulations: a review of 61 cases with long-term followup. J Urol. 2009;181:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..We retrospectively analyzed cases of anastomotic urethroplasty for posttraumatic urethral strictures that were done at our center. Surgical and functional outcomes were evaluated. The impact of previous urethral manipulations was assessed...
  3. Singh B, Andankar M, Swain S, Das K, Dassi V, Kaswan H, et al. Impact of prior urethral manipulation on outcome of anastomotic urethroplasty for post-traumatic urethral stricture. Urology. 2010;75:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the impact of earlier urethral interventions on the outcomes of anastomotic urethroplasty in post-traumatic stricture urethra...
  4. Agarwal M, Mandal A, Sarkar D, Mavuduru R, Singh S. Unusual cause of failure of end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty for traumatic obliterative bulbar urethral stricture. Urology. 2011;78:331-3 pubmed publisher
    End-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty (EEA) for traumatic bulbar urethral stricture has excellent long-term success rate...
  5. Jackson M, Chaudhury I, Mangera A, Brett A, Watkin N, Chapple C, et al. A prospective patient-centred evaluation of urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture using a validated patient-reported outcome measure. Eur Urol. 2013;64:777-82 pubmed publisher
    Studies of interventions for urethral stricture have inferred patient benefit from clinician-driven outcomes or questionnaires lacking scientifically robust evidence of their measurement properties for men with this disease.
  6. Earley J, Abdelbaky A, Cunningham M, Chadwick E, Langley S, Laing R. Correlation between prostate brachytherapy-related urethral stricture and peri-apical urethral dosimetry: a matched case-control study. Radiother Oncol. 2012;104:187-91 pubmed publisher
    Radiation dose to the bulbomembranous urethra has been shown to correlate with urethral stricture formation...
  7. Tijani K, Adesanya A, Ogo C. The new pattern of urethral stricture disease in Lagos, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2009;16:162-5 pubmed
    The study is a follow up to two separate studies done in this centre 42 and 20 years ago on the changing pattern of urethral stricture disease(USD). It assesses the aetiology,the general pattern and treatment outcome in our centre.
  8. Sievert K, Selent Stier C, Wiedemann J, Greiner T, Amend B, Stenzl A, et al. Introducing a large animal model to create urethral stricture similar to human stricture disease: a comparative experimental microscopic study. J Urol. 2012;187:1101-9 pubmed publisher
    In this tissue engineering study we investigated urethral stricture formation to evaluate different treatment modalities in the large animal model and validate the most current, comparable effect of human stricture development for ..
  9. Fu W, Zhang X, Zhang B, Zhang P, Hong B, Gao J, et al. Biodegradable urethral stents seeded with autologous urethral epithelial cells in the treatment of post-traumatic urethral stricture: a feasibility study in a rabbit model. BJU Int. 2009;104:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rabbit urethral epithelial cells (UECs) on a biodegradable unbraided mesh urethral stent, and to assess the feasibility and effect of the cell-seeded urethral stent for treating post-traumatic urethral stricture (PTUS) in a rabbit model.

More Information


  1. Fall B, Sow Y, Mansouri I, Sarr A, Thiam A, Diao B, et al. Etiology and current clinical characteristics of male urethral stricture disease: experience from a public teaching hospital in Senegal. Int Urol Nephrol. 2011;43:969-74 pubmed publisher
    To identify the etiology and current clinical characteristics of male urethral stricture disease (USD) in Senegal.
  2. Chong T, Fu D, Li H, Zhang H, Zhang P, Gan W, et al. Rapamycin inhibits formation of urethral stricture in rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;338:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Fibrosis is also involved in urethral stricture. Therefore, we investigated the effect of rapamycin on the inhibition of urethral stricture formation in a ..
  3. Jackson M, Sciberras J, Mangera A, Brett A, Watkin N, N dow J, et al. Defining a patient-reported outcome measure for urethral stricture surgery. Eur Urol. 2011;60:60-8 pubmed publisher
    A systematic literature review did not identify a formally validated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) for urethral stricture surgery.
  4. Zehri A, Ather M, Afshan Q. Predictors of recurrence of urethral stricture disease following optical urethrotomy. Int J Surg. 2009;7:361-4 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the predictors of recurrence in Optical urethrotomy (OU) for male urethral strictures...
  5. Okorie C, Pisters L, Ndasi H, Fekadu A. A simplified protocol for evaluating and monitoring urethral stricture patients minimizes cost without compromising patient outcome. Trop Doct. 2010;40:134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Follow-up can be done via phone calls and personal contact in many African countries where compliance is frequently less than encouraging. The spread of mobile phone networks across the continent has been remarkable...
  6. Kim B, Kim H, Kwon S, Chun S, Choi K, Park M, et al. Nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using autologous saphenous vein graft in a rabbit model of urethral stricture. Urology. 2014;83:225-31 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of nontransected ventral onlay-augmented urethroplasty using an autologous saphenous vein graft in a rabbit model of urethral stricture.
  7. Barbagli G, De Angelis M, Romano G, Lazzeri M. Clinical outcome and quality of life assessment in patients treated with perineal urethrostomy for anterior urethral stricture disease. J Urol. 2009;182:548-57 pubmed publisher
    We performed a quality of life assessment for patients treated with perineal urethrostomy for anterior urethral stricture disease.
  8. Gormley E. Vaginal flap urethroplasty for female urethral stricture disease. Neurourol Urodyn. 2010;29 Suppl 1:S42-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Urethral stricture disease in females is uncommon and is often treated with repeat dilation or internal urethrotomies...
  9. Park J, Lee S, Han S, Kim S, Choi K, Kim M. Is warm temperature necessary to prevent urethral stricture in combined transurethral resection and vaporization of prostate?. Urology. 2009;74:125-9 pubmed publisher
    To compare the effect of warm and room temperature irrigation solution on the incidence of urethral stricture during combined transurethral resection and vaporization of the prostate (CTURVP)...
  10. Wang K, Miao X, Wang L, Li H. Dorsal onlay versus ventral onlay urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture: a meta-analysis. Urol Int. 2009;83:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As the advantages and disadvantages of these two sites are still unclear, we systemically analyzed clinical articles reported in the literature...
  11. Dakum N, Ramyil V, Amu C. Outcome of urethroplasty for urethral stricture at Jos Universitry Teaching Hospital. Niger J Clin Pract. 2008;11:300-4 pubmed
    The treatment of urethral stricture disease has remained a challenge over the years. The outcome has also been varied, with recurrent stricture being a major concern...
  12. Djordjevic M, Kojovic V, Bizic M, Majstorovic M, Vukadinovic V, Korac G. "Hanging" of the buccal mucosal graft for urethral stricture repair after failed hypospadias. J Urol. 2011;185:2479-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Urethral stricture is the second most common complication of hypospadias repair after urethrocutaneous fistula. Usually more than 1 procedure is needed for correction due to a lack of available tissue after previous repairs...
  13. Langston J, Robson C, Rice K, Evans L, Morey A. Synchronous urethral stricture reconstruction via 1-stage ascending approach: rationale and results. J Urol. 2009;181:2161-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We present our experience with the reconstruction of synchronous urethral strictures...
  14. Nuss G, Granieri M, Zhao L, Thum D, Gonzalez C. Presenting symptoms of anterior urethral stricture disease: a disease specific, patient reported questionnaire to measure outcomes. J Urol. 2012;187:559-62 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the spectrum of symptoms in men with urethral stricture presenting for urethroplasty.
  15. El Dahshoury Z. Modified annular penile skin flap for repair of pan-anterior urethral stricture. Int Urol Nephrol. 2009;41:889-94 pubmed publisher
    ..To review our experience with a zigzag shape annular penile fasciocutaneous flap (modified McAninch flap) for reconstruction of pan-anterior urethral strictures...
  16. Atak M, Tokgoz H, Akduman B, Erol B, Dönmez I, Hanci V, et al. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for urethral stricture disease: comparison of outcomes with the cold-knife technique. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011;27:503-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No intra- or postoperative complications were encountered. Use of Ho:YAG laser in the management of urethral stricture disease is a safe and effective method...
  17. Levine L, Strom K, Lux M. Buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture repair: evaluation of the impact of stricture location and lichen sclerosus on surgical outcome. J Urol. 2007;178:2011-5 pubmed
    ..When lichen sclerosus is present, careful consideration should be given to complete excision of the diseased urethra with multistage repair vs accepting a higher rate of stricture recurrence with 1-stage repair. ..
  18. Singh I, Ansari M. Bulbar urethral polyp mimicking a urethral stricture--report of case with review of literature. Int Urol Nephrol. 2004;36:375-7 pubmed
    ..of such a case of recurrent bulbar urethral poly in a young adult who had presented with obstructive voiding symptoms mimicking a urethral stricture. He was successfully managed by urethrotomy excision and primary urethral repair.
  19. Pansadoro V, Emiliozzi P, Gaffi M, Scarpone P, DePaula F, Pizzo M. Buccal mucosa urethroplasty in the treatment of bulbar urethral strictures. Urology. 2003;61:1008-10 pubmed
    ..Minor complications occurred in 9 patients (14%). Buccal mucosa dorsal onlay urethroplasty is an excellent option for the treatment of bulbar urethral strictures. ..
  20. Elliott S, Meng M, Elkin E, McAninch J, Duchane J, Carroll P. Incidence of urethral stricture after primary treatment for prostate cancer: data From CaPSURE. J Urol. 2007;178:529-34; discussion 534 pubmed
    We determined the incidence of treatment for urethral stricture, including bladder neck contracture, after primary treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer...
  21. Wood M, Vaden S, Cerda Gonzalez S, Keene B. Cystoscopic-guided balloon dilation of a urethral stricture in a female dog. Can Vet J. 2007;48:731-3 pubmed
    ..Cystoscopic examination revealed a urethral stricture in the proximal urethra that was dilated by use of an angioplasty balloon (Gruntzig angioplasty balloon) ..
  22. Hayashi T, Yoshinaga A, Ohno R, Ishii N, Watanabe T, Yamada T, et al. Successful treatment of recurrent vesicourethral stricture after radical prostatectomy with holmium laser: report of three cases. Int J Urol. 2005;12:414-6 pubmed
    ..There were two specific characteristics in these three cases: the early onset of the stricture and the pinhole opening located on the top (12-o'clock) of the stricture wall...
  23. Guralnick M, Webster G. The augmented anastomotic urethroplasty: indications and outcome in 29 patients. J Urol. 2001;165:1496-501 pubmed
    ..Greater than 90% of the patients are stricture-free and the results seem durable, although longer followup is needed. Complications are few and minor. ..
  24. Dogra P, Nabi G. Neodymium-YAG laser core through urethrotomy in obliterative posttraumatic urethral strictures after failed initial urethroplasty. Urol Int. 2002;68:265-7 pubmed
    ..Auxiliary procedures were required in 2 cases. Nd-YAG laser core through urethrotomy is a feasible day care option for patients of obliterative urethral strictures following failed initial urethroplasty with successful outcome. ..
  25. Kamp S, Knoll T, Osman M, Köhrmann K, Michel M, Alken P. Low-power holmium:YAG laser urethrotomy for treatment of urethral strictures: functional outcome and quality of life. J Endourol. 2006;20:38-41 pubmed
    To evaluate the efficacy of endourethrotomy with the holmium:YAG laser as a minimally invasive treatment for urethral stricture. Between January 2002 and January 2004, 32 male patients with symptomatic urethral strictures (8 bulbar, 9 ..
  26. Dogra P, Nabi G. Core-through urethrotomy using the neodymium: YAG laser for obliterative urethral strictures after traumatic urethral disruption and/or distraction defects: long-term outcome. J Urol. 2002;167:543-6 pubmed
    ..efficacy and long-term outcome of neodymium (Nd):YAG laser core-through urethrotomy for posttraumatic urethral stricture. Between May 1997 and April 2000, 65 patients 5 to 62 years old underwent laser core-through urethrotomy for ..
  27. Goel A, Dalela D, Sinha R, Sankhwar S. Harvesting buccal mucosa graft under local infiltration analgesia--mitigating need for general anesthesia. Urology. 2008;72:675-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A technique of graft harvesting under local anesthesia using 2% lidocaine solution with adrenaline (1:200,000) is described. This method requires a cooperative patient but saves the morbidity of general anesthesia. ..
  28. Matsuoka K, Inoue M, Iida S, Tomiyasu K, Noda S. Endoscopic antegrade laser incision in the treatment of urethral stricture. Urology. 2002;60:968-72 pubmed
    ..Of the 31 incisions, 23 (74%) were eventually successful. Antegrade incision using the narrow-diameter ureteroscope and holmium:YAG laser is a safe and easy method. This method is especially effective in cases of long strictures. ..
  29. Sugimoto M, Kakehi Y, Yamashita M, Matsuki T, Inui M, Taketa S. Ten cases of congenital urethral stricture in childhood with enuresis. Int J Urol. 2005;12:558-62 pubmed
    To report short-term clinical outcomes of endoscopic correction of congenital urethral stricture in 10 boys who suffer from enuresis resistant to conservative therapy...
  30. Monga M, Gordon Z, Alexandrescu B. Obliterated urethra: holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet cut-to-light with urolume stenting. Tech Urol. 2001;7:266-70 pubmed
    ..With the goal of reducing the stricture recurrence rate, we performed a modified cut-to-light procedure using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and UroLume stenting in a 76-year-old man with urethral obliteration. ..
  31. Dogra P, Ansari M, Gupta N, Tandon S. Holmium laser core-through urethrotomy for traumatic obliterative strictures of urethra: initial experience. Urology. 2004;64:232-5; discussion 235-6 pubmed
    ..To determine the safety and efficacy of holmium laser core-through urethrotomy (HolCTU) for the treatment of post-traumatic obliterative stricture of the urethra...
  32. Hossain A, Khan S, Hossain S, Salam M. Holmium laser urethrotomy for urethral stricture. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2004;30:78-80 pubmed
    ..Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) to evaluate the outcome of Laser urethrotomy for the treatment of urethral stricture. For this purpose, 30 male patients aged 15 to 60 years with short segment anterior urethral stricture (>..
  33. Ayyildiz A, Nuhoglu B, Gülerkaya B, Caydere M, Ustun H, Germiyanoglu C, et al. Effect of intraurethral Mitomycin-C on healing and fibrosis in rats with experimentally induced urethral stricture. Int J Urol. 2004;11:1122-6 pubmed
    In the pathogenesis of urethral stricture, fibrosis is associated with an excessive collagen increase...
  34. Shah D, Paul E, Badlani G. 11-year outcome analysis of endourethral prosthesis for the treatment of recurrent bulbar urethral stricture. J Urol. 2003;170:1255-8 pubmed
    In a North American multicenter trial of endourethral prosthesis for the treatment of recurrent bulbar urethral stricture we reported 2-year followup results for patients treated with the UroLume endoprosthesis (American Medical Systems, ..
  35. Futao S, Wentong Z, Yan Z, Qingyu D, Aiwu L. Application of endoscopic Ho:YAG laser incision technique treating urethral strictures and urethral atresias in pediatric patients. Pediatr Surg Int. 2006;22:514-8 pubmed
    ..With the advantages of safety, efficacy and minimal invasion, endoscopic Ho:YAG laser incision technique could be used as a primary treatment in urethral stricture patients and is worthy to be popularized further in pediatric surgery.
  36. Asopa H, Garg M, Singhal G, Singh L, Asopa J, Nischal A. Dorsal free graft urethroplasty for urethral stricture by ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach. Urology. 2001;58:657-9 pubmed
    To explore the feasibility of applying a dorsal free graft to treat urethral stricture by the ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach without mobilizing the urethra.
  37. Fabbroni G, Loukota R, Eardley I. Buccal mucosal grafts for urethroplasty: surgical technique and morbidity. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005;43:320-3 pubmed
    ..There were four early (less than 6 weeks) complaints of mild trismus and one late complaint. All the grafts were successful...
  38. Simonato A, Gregori A, Lissiani A, Galli S, Ottaviani F, Rossi R, et al. The tongue as an alternative donor site for graft urethroplasty: a pilot study. J Urol. 2006;175:589-92 pubmed
    ..The mucosa covering the lateral and under surface of the tongue is identical in structure with that lining the rest of the oral cavity. We evaluated LMGs for urethroplasty...
  39. Wu D, Jin S, Zhang J, Chen Y, Jin C, Xu Y. Staged pendulous-prostatic anastomotic urethroplasty followed by reconstruction of the anterior urethra: an effective treatment for long-segment bulbar and membranous urethral stricture. Eur Urol. 2007;51:504-10; discussion 510-11 pubmed
    To describe a novel surgical technique for male long-segment urethral stricture after pelvic trauma using the intact and pedicled pendulous urethra to replace the bulbar and membranous urethra, followed by reconstruction of the anterior ..
  40. Al Ali M, Al Hajaj R. Johanson's staged urethroplasty revisited in the salvage treatment of 68 complex urethral stricture patients: presentation of total urethroplasty. Eur Urol. 2001;39:268-71 pubmed
    ..To show our experience with the staged Johanson's urethroplasty as a salvage treatment of difficult and complicated groups of patients, and to present the total urethroplasty technique...
  41. da Silva E, Sampaio F, Dornas M, Damiao R, Cardoso L. Extracellular matrix changes in urethral stricture disease. J Urol. 2002;168:805-7 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the molecular environment in urethral stricture and the majority of the studies available focused on collagen analysis...
  42. Dogra P, Nabi G. Nd-YAG laser core-through urethrotomy in obliterative posttraumatic urethral strictures in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2003;19:652-5 pubmed
    ..Four required optical urethrotomy/endoscopic dilatation at least twice. Nd-YAG laser core-through urethrotomy is a safe and effective procedure for the management of obliterative posttraumatic urethral strictures in children..
  43. Mazdak H, Meshki I, Ghassami F. Effect of mitomycin C on anterior urethral stricture recurrence after internal urethrotomy. Eur Urol. 2007;51:1089-92; discussion 1092 pubmed
    b>Urethral stricture is one of the oldest known urologic diseases and remains a common problem with high morbidity. Internal urethrotomy refers to any procedure that opens the stricture by incising or ablating it transurethrally...
  44. Barbagli G, Palminteri E, Guazzoni G, Montorsi F, Turini D, Lazzeri M. Bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa grafts placed on the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra: are results affected by the surgical technique?. J Urol. 2005;174:955-7; discussion 957-8 pubmed
    The use of buccal mucosa graft onlay urethroplasty represents the most widespread method of bulbar urethral stricture repair. The graft may be placed on the ventral or dorsal urethral surface according to surgeon experience and preference...
  45. Gupta N, Dubey D, Mandhani A, Srivastava A, Kapoor R, Kumar A. Urethral stricture assessment: a prospective study evaluating urethral ultrasonography and conventional radiological studies. BJU Int. 2006;98:149-53 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the accuracy of urethral ultrasonography (sono-urethrography, SUG) in determining the length of anterior urethral strictures, and for predicting the degree of spongiofibrosis...
  46. Tsivian A, Sidi A. Dorsal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. J Urol. 2006;176:611-3; discussion 613 pubmed
    Urethral strictures in females are uncommon, and treatment options and outcome are not well-defined with scanty reports. We describe a new method of urethroplasty for the repair of female urethral stricture.
  47. Bennett S, Edwards G, Tyrrell D. Balloon dilation of a urethral stricture in a dog. Aust Vet J. 2005;83:552-4 pubmed
    ..The urethral obstruction was resolved by balloon dilation of the stricture under fluoroscopic guidance...
  48. Kamp S, Knoll T, Osman M, Häcker A, Michel M, Alken P. Donor-site morbidity in buccal mucosa urethroplasty: lower lip or inner cheek?. BJU Int. 2005;96:619-23 pubmed
    ..To evaluate donor-site complications of buccal mucosa urethroplasty and whether there is a difference in morbidity between harvesting the mucosa graft from the inner cheek or the lower lip...
  49. Kessler T, Fisch M, Heitz M, Olianas R, Schreiter F. Patient satisfaction with the outcome of surgery for urethral stricture. J Urol. 2002;167:2507-11 pubmed
    ..We assessed patient satisfaction with the outcome of surgery for urethral strictures and compared it with objective clinical data...
  50. Hussain M, Greenwell T, Shah J, Mundy A. Long-term results of a self-expanding wallstent in the treatment of urethral stricture. BJU Int. 2004;94:1037-9 pubmed
    To report the long-term outcome over 12 years of using the urethral Urolume wallstent (AMS, Minnetonka, MI, USA) for treating recurrent bulbar urethral stricture disease.
  51. Raber M, Naspro R, Scapaticci E, Salonia A, Scattoni V, Mazzoccoli B, et al. Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin or buccal mucosa for repair of bulbar urethral stricture: results of a prospective single center study. Eur Urol. 2005;48:1013-7 pubmed
    ..To compare the outcomes of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin (PS) or buccal mucosa (BM) free grafts in the repair of adult bulbourethral strictures...
  52. Orabi S, Badawy H, Saad A, Youssef M, Hanno A. Post-traumatic posterior urethral stricture in children: how to achieve a successful repair. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We present our experience of the management of children presenting with post-traumatic posterior urethral stricture.
  53. Wessells H, McAninch J. Current controversies in anterior urethral stricture repair: free-graft versus pedicled skin-flap reconstruction. World J Urol. 1998;16:175-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, for reconstruction of complex anterior urethral strictures, both free-graft and flap procedures remain indispensable...
  54. Montgomery J, Gayed B, Daignault S, Latini J, Wood D, Montie J, et al. Early urinary retention after catheter removal following radical prostatectomy predicts for future symptomatic urethral stricture formation. Urology. 2007;70:324-7 pubmed
    ..Its effect on subsequent urethral stricture formation has not been established...
  55. Sullivan L, Williams S, Tai K, Foroudi F, Cleeve L, Duchesne G. Urethral stricture following high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2009;91:232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the incidence, timing, nature and outcome of urethral strictures following high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for prostate carcinoma...
  56. Naude A, Heyns C. What is the place of internal urethrotomy in the treatment of urethral stricture disease?. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2005;2:538-45 pubmed
    As a treatment for male urethral stricture, internal urethrotomy (IU) has the advantages of ease, simplicity, speed and short convalescence...
  57. Sung D, Kim Y, Cho S, Oh Y, Lee N, Kim J, et al. Obliterative urethral stricture: MR urethrography versus conventional retrograde urethrography with voiding cystourethrography. Radiology. 2006;240:842-8 pubmed
    ..study was to prospectively evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) urethrography for the depiction of obliterative urethral stricture. Twelve patients with obliterative urethral stricture were examined preoperatively with T2-weighted, T1-..
  58. Shirazi M, Khezri A, Samani S, Monabbati A, Kojoori J, Hassanpour A. Effect of intraurethral captopril gel on the recurrence of urethral stricture after direct vision internal urethrotomy: Phase II clinical trial. Int J Urol. 2007;14:203-8 pubmed
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of intraurethral captopril gel as an antifibrotic agent on patients with urethral stricture.
  59. Anger J, Raj G, Delvecchio F, Webster G. Anastomotic contracture and incontinence after radical prostatectomy: a graded approach to management. J Urol. 2005;173:1143-6 pubmed
    ..It is particularly important that AC should be resolved before artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) implantation, because instrumentation through the AUS can risk erosion...
  60. Santucci R, Joyce G, Wise M. Male urethral stricture disease. J Urol. 2007;177:1667-74 pubmed
    The incidence of urethral stricture disease in the United States is unknown...
  61. Romero Pérez P, Mira Llinares A. [Male urethral stenosis: review of complications]. Arch Esp Urol. 2004;57:485-511 pubmed
    ..To study risk factors for the development of such complications and, based on them, identify groups of patients more susceptible to complications with the aim to establish prophylactic, therapeutic or follow-up actions...
  62. Jaidane M, Ali el Dein B, Ounaies A, Hafez A, Mohsen T, Bazeed M. The use of halofuginone in limiting urethral stricture formation and recurrence: an experimental study in rabbits. J Urol. 2003;170:2049-52 pubmed
    We developed a reproducible animal model for the induction of urethral stricture in the rabbit and evaluated the role of halofuginone in limiting stricture formation.
  63. Hegele A, Olbert P, Wille S, Heidenreich A, Hofmann R. Giant calculus of the posterior urethra following recurrent penile urethral stricture. Urol Int. 2002;69:160-1 pubmed
    A case of an unusually large, proximal urethral calculus located very close to the external sphincter and caused by recurrent urethral stricture is presented.
  64. Whitson J, McAninch J, Elliott S, Alsikafi N. Long-term efficacy of distal penile circular fasciocutaneous flaps for single stage reconstruction of complex anterior urethral stricture disease. J Urol. 2008;179:2259-64 pubmed publisher
    We determined the overall efficacy and predictors of success of the distal penile circular fasciocutaneous flap in the management of complex anterior urethral stricture disease not due to lichen sclerosus.
  65. Aggarwal S, Goel D, Gupta C, Ghosh S, Ojha H. The use of pedicled appendix graft for substitution of urethra in recurrent urethral stricture. J Pediatr Surg. 2002;37:246-50 pubmed
    ..Skin or mucosal grafts, currently used for this purpose, have a high complication rate. The authors describe the use of pedicled appendix for posterior urethral substitution...
  66. Wang P, Fan M, Zhang Y, Huang C, Feng J, Xiao Y. Modified urethral pull-through operation for posterior urethral stricture and long-term outcome. J Urol. 2008;180:2479-85 pubmed publisher
    We present our experience, technique and long-term results of the modified urethral pull-through operation for posttraumatic posterior urethral stricture.
  67. Peterson A, Webster G. Management of urethral stricture disease: developing options for surgical intervention. BJU Int. 2004;94:971-6 pubmed