acute kidney injury


Summary: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.

Top Publications

  1. Bosch X, Poch E, Grau J. Rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:62-72 pubmed publisher
  2. Bellomo R, Cass A, Cole L, Finfer S, Gallagher M, Lo S, et al. Intensity of continuous renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1627-38 pubmed publisher
    ..delivered at two different levels of intensity, on 90-day mortality among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. We randomly assigned critically ill adults with acute kidney injury to continuous renal-replacement ..
  3. Kellum J, Ronco C. Dialysis: Results of RENAL--what is the optimal CRRT target dose?. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010;6:191-2 pubmed publisher
  4. Brochard L, Abroug F, Brenner M, Broccard A, Danner R, Ferrer M, et al. An Official ATS/ERS/ESICM/SCCM/SRLF Statement: Prevention and Management of Acute Renal Failure in the ICU Patient: an international consensus conference in intensive care medicine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:1128-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal replacement therapy is a life-sustaining intervention that can provide a bridge to renal recovery; no method has proven to be superior, but careful management is essential for improving outcome. ..
  5. Bagshaw S, Brophy P, Cruz D, Ronco C. Fluid balance as a biomarker: impact of fluid overload on outcome in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2008;12:169 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with acute kidney injury and/or oliguria, a positive fluid balance is almost universal...
  6. Lima R, da Silva Júnior G, Libório A, Daher E. Acute kidney injury due to rhabdomyolysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008;19:721-9 pubmed
    ..b>Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 33-50% of patients with rhabdomyolysis...
  7. Legrand M, Dupuis C, Simon C, Gayat E, Mateo J, Lukaszewicz A, et al. Association between systemic hemodynamics and septic acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R278 pubmed publisher
    The role of systemic hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of septic acute kidney injury (AKI) has received little attention...
  8. Balakumar V, Murugan R, Sileanu F, Palevsky P, Clermont G, Kellum J. Both Positive and Negative Fluid Balance May Be Associated With Reduced Long-Term Survival in the Critically Ill. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e749-e757 pubmed publisher
    Among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury, exposure to positive fluid balance, compared with negative fluid balance, has been associated with mortality and impaired renal recovery...
  9. Hjortrup P, Haase N, Wetterslev M, Perner A. Clinical review: Predictive value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin for acute kidney injury in intensive care patients. Crit Care. 2013;17:211 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may be an early marker of acute kidney injury (AKI), but elevated NGAL occurs in a wide range of systemic diseases...

More Information


  1. Thongprayoon C, Cheungpasitporn W, Srivali N, Kittanamongkolchai W, Sakhuja A, Greason K, et al. The association between renal recovery after acute kidney injury and long-term mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183350 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to examine the association between renal recovery status at hospital discharge after acute kidney injury (AKI) and long-term mortality following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)...
  2. Gammelager H, Christiansen C, Johansen M, Tønnesen E, Jespersen B, Sørensen H. One-year mortality among Danish intensive care patients with acute kidney injury: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2012;16:R124 pubmed publisher
    There are few studies on long-term mortality among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute kidney injury (AKI)...
  3. Yuan W, Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Zou Y, Lu H, Qian Z. Risk Factors and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure. Am J Med Sci. 2017;353:452-458 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF); however, few studies concerning the risk factors and recovery patterns of renal function have been published...
  4. Levey A, Inker L. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Health and Disease: A State of the Art Review. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017;102:405-419 pubmed publisher
  5. Aceituno D, Fica A, Fasce R, Andrade W, Díaz C. [Acute glomerulonephritis with hemodialysis requirement secondary to influenza A H1N1pdm09 infection: Report of two cases]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2017;34:81-86 pubmed publisher
    ..ARF with RRT appears to be an uncommon complication of patients hospitalized for influenza A H1N1pdm09 and may be secondary to acute glomerulonephritis...
  6. Oh H, Lee M, Kim C, Kim D, Lee H, Park J, et al. The benefit of specialized team approaches in patients with acute kidney injury undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy: propensity score matched analysis. Crit Care. 2014;18:454 pubmed publisher
    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been widely used in critically ill acute kidney injury (AKI) patients...
  7. Bentzer P, Broman M, Kander T. Effect of dextran-70 on outcome in severe sepsis; a propensity-score matching study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2017;25:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcomes were highest acute kidney injury network (AKIN) score the first 10 days in the ICU, use of renal replacement therapy, days alive and free ..
  8. Md Ralib A, Pickering J, Shaw G, Endre Z. The urine output definition of acute kidney injury is too liberal. Crit Care. 2013;17:R112 pubmed publisher
    The urine output criterion of 0.5 ml/kg/hour for 6 hours for acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been prospectively validated. Urine output criteria for AKI (AKIUO) as predictors of in-hospital mortality or dialysis need were compared...
  9. Imai E, Abe K. Blood pressure drop in summer may cause acute kidney injury with irreversible reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013;17:1-2 pubmed publisher
  10. Jacobs R, Honore P, Spapen H. Some metabolic issues should not be neglected when using citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy!. Crit Care. 2015;19:50 pubmed publisher
  11. Ronco C, McCullough P, Chawla L. Kidney attack versus heart attack: evolution of classification and diagnostic criteria. Lancet. 2013;382:939-40 pubmed publisher
  12. Danobeitia J, Ziemelis M, Ma X, Zitur L, Zens T, Chlebeck P, et al. Complement inhibition attenuates acute kidney injury after ischemia-reperfusion and limits progression to renal fibrosis in mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183701 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that early complement blockade in the context of IRI constitutes an effective strategy in the prevention of fibrosis after ischemic acute kidney injury.
  13. Fenhammar J, Rundgren M, Hultenby K, Forestier J, Taavo M, Kenne E, et al. Renal effects of treatment with a TLR4 inhibitor in conscious septic sheep. Crit Care. 2014;18:488 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and feared complication of sepsis. The pathogenesis of sepsis-induced AKI is largely unknown, and therapeutic interventions are mainly supportive...
  14. Chauvet S, Courbebaisse M, Ronco P, Plaisier E. Pemetrexed-induced acute kidney injury leading to chronic kidney disease. Clin Nephrol. 2014;82:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the observation of two patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancer who developed acute kidney injury (AKI) after administration of pemetrexed. In one case, pemetrexed was used as a single agent treatment...
  15. Momeni M, Nkoy Ena L, Van Dyck M, Matta A, Kahn D, Thiry D, et al. The dose of hydroxyethyl starch 6% 130/0.4 for fluid therapy and the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: A retrospective matched study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186403 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed whether the incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) differed taking into account a weight-adjusted cumulative dose of HES 6% 130/0...
  16. Göcze I, Renner P, Graf B, Schlitt H, Bein T, Pfister K. Simplified approach for the assessment of kidney perfusion and acute kidney injury at the bedside using contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Intensive Care Med. 2015;41:362-3 pubmed publisher
  17. Maciel A, Park M. Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury in a critically ill patient using a combination of blood and urinary physicochemical parameters. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67:525-6 pubmed
  18. Cho J, Shim J, Soh S, Kim M, Kwak Y. Perioperative dexmedetomidine reduces the incidence and severity of acute kidney injury following valvular heart surgery. Kidney Int. 2016;89:693-700 pubmed
    b>Acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is closely interrelated with hemodynamic instability and sympathetic activity, and adversely influences prognosis...
  19. Mongardon N, Max A, Bouglé A, Pène F, Lemiale V, Charpentier J, et al. Epidemiology and outcome of severe pneumococcal pneumonia admitted to intensive care unit: a multicenter study. Crit Care. 2012;16:R155 pubmed publisher
    ..In ICU, mortality of pneumococcal CAP remains high despite adequate antimicrobial treatment. Baseline demographic data and renal replacement therapy have a major impact on adverse outcome. ..
  20. Chawla L, Davison D, Brasha Mitchell E, Koyner J, Arthur J, Shaw A, et al. Development and standardization of a furosemide stress test to predict the severity of acute kidney injury. Crit Care. 2013;17:R207 pubmed publisher
    In the setting of early acute kidney injury (AKI), no test has been shown to definitively predict the progression to more severe stages. We investigated the ability of a furosemide stress test (FST) (one-time dose of 1.0 or 1...
  21. Doshi P. Data too important to share: do those who control the data control the message?. BMJ. 2016;352:i1027 pubmed publisher
  22. Kang H, Lee S, Cho Y, Jeon J, Noh H, Han D, et al. A decrease in serum creatinine after ICU admission is associated with increased mortality. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183156 pubmed publisher
    The elevation of serum creatinine (SCr), acute kidney injury (AKI), is associated with an increase of mortality in critically ill patients...
  23. Zhou Y, Cai T, Xu J, Jiang L, Wu J, Sun Q, et al. UCP2 attenuates apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F926-F937 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about UCP2 in acute kidney injury (AKI)...
  24. Hutton H, Dowling J, Kerr P. Acute renal failure due to an aristolochic acid containing herbal remedy. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17:522-3 pubmed publisher
  25. Im D, Shin H, Yang K, Jung S, Song H, Hwang H, et al. Cilastatin attenuates vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity via P-glycoprotein. Toxicol Lett. 2017;277:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, vancomycin (400mg/kg, 600mg/kg IP, 7days) induced acute kidney injury, as demonstrated by elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine...
  26. Blakeman T, Harding S, O Donoghue D. Acute kidney injury in the community: why primary care has an important role. Br J Gen Pract. 2013;63:173-4 pubmed publisher
  27. Levey A, James M. Acute Kidney Injury. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:ITC66-ITC80 pubmed publisher
    b>Acute kidney injury is a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by a sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate, manifested by an increase in serum creatinine concentration or oliguria, and classified by stage and cause...
  28. Haase M, Haase Fielitz A. NGAL--from discovery to a new era of "acute renal disease" diagnosis?. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:499-500 pubmed publisher
  29. Martensson J, Bellomo R. Attenuating Acute Kidney Injury: Does It Pay to Be "Noble"?. Crit Care Med. 2015;43:1554-5 pubmed publisher
  30. Baron Stefaniak J, Schiefer J, Miller E, Berlakovich G, Baron D, Faybik P. Comparison of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 to predict acute kidney injury after liver transplantation: An observational pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183162 pubmed publisher
    Several biomarkers have been suggested as early predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT)...
  31. Ando T, Akintoye E, Telila T, Briasoulis A, Takagi H, Slovut D, et al. Comparison of Hospital Outcome of Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus (from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample). Am J Cardiol. 2017;119:1250-1254 pubmed publisher
    ..003). Length of stay (median 6 vs 8 days, p <0.001) was shorter in TAVR patients. In conclusion, TAVR may result in better in-hospital outcome than SAVR in DM patients. ..
  32. Heringlake M, Heinze H, Schubert M, Nowak Y, Guder J, Kleinebrahm M, et al. A perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate does not improve renal function in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational cohort study. Crit Care. 2012;16:R156 pubmed publisher
    ..Routine perioperative administration of sodium bicarbonate failed to improve postoperative renal function in a large population of cardiac surgical patients. ..
  33. Viazzi F, Piscitelli P, Giorda C, Ceriello A, Genovese S, Russo G, et al. Metabolic syndrome, serum uric acid and renal risk in patients with T2D. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176058 pubmed publisher
    ..25, p = 0.005) as compared to the reference group. HU and Mets are independent predictors of CKD and its individual components in patients with T2D. ..
  34. Page E, Little D, Vesely S, George J. Quinine-Induced Thrombotic Microangiopathy: A Report of 19 Patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70:686-695 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients had microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. All were initially misdiagnosed as having TTP or hemolytic uremic syndrome, and adverse reactions to ..
  35. Bello A, Levin A, Tonelli M, Okpechi I, Feehally J, Harris D, et al. Assessment of Global Kidney Health Care Status. JAMA. 2017;317:1864-1881 pubmed publisher
    ..Health information system (renal registry) availability was limited, particularly for acute kidney injury (8 countries [7%]) and nondialysis CKD (9 countries [8%])...
  36. Schweizer H, Boehm J, Winterer J, Wild D, Neumann H, Wiech T, et al. Phaeochromocytoma and thrombotic microangiopathy: favourable outcome despite advanced renal failure. J Clin Pathol. 2010;63:754-6 pubmed publisher
  37. Doi K, Urata M, Katagiri D, Inamori M, Murata S, Hisagi M, et al. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in acute kidney injury superimposed on chronic kidney disease after cardiac surgery: a multicenter prospective study. Crit Care. 2013;17:R270 pubmed publisher
    Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is reportedly useful for post-cardiac surgery acute kidney injury (AKI)...
  38. Latus J, Kitterer D, Kimmel M, Alscher M, Braun N. The case: fever, myalgia, visual disorders, and acute kidney failure in a pregnant woman. Diagnosis: Severe acute hantavirus infection. Kidney Int. 2013;84:629-31 pubmed publisher
  39. Zambetti B, Thomas F, Hwang I, Brown A, Chumpia M, Ellis R, et al. A web-based tool to predict acute kidney injury in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Development, internal validation and comparison. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181658 pubmed publisher
    In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), acute kidney injury (AKI) may increase subsequent morbidity and mortality. Still, it remains difficult to predict AKI risk in these patients...
  40. Pamukçu Günaydın G, Gürü S, Aslan Taş E, Tanriverdi F, Kurtoğlu Çelik G. Transient vocal cord paralysis following central venous hemodialysis catheter insertion. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35:1790.e1-1790.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Expectant treatment is a good choice ensuring the patient's airway is safe. Emergency physicians should be aware of this rare complication and its right management. ..
  41. Maoujoud O, Zajjari Y, Asseraji M, Aatif T, Ahid S, Oualim Z. Commentary: the practice of dialysis in the intensive care unit in a developing country. Ethn Dis. 2014;24:226-8 pubmed
    In developing countries, little is known about renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients...
  42. Schilder L, Nurmohamed S, ter Wee P, Paauw N, Girbes A, Beishuizen A, et al. The plasma level and biomarker value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are not affected by continuous venovenous hemofiltration and anticoagulation applied. Crit Care. 2014;18:R78 pubmed publisher
    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI), and levels reflect severity of disease in critically ill patients...
  43. Schefold J, von Haehling S, Pschowski R, Bender T, Berkmann C, Briegel S, et al. The effect of continuous versus intermittent renal replacement therapy on the outcome of critically ill patients with acute renal failure (CONVINT): a prospective randomized controlled trial. Crit Care. 2014;18:R11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings add to mounting data demonstrating that intermittent and continuous RRTs may be considered equivalent approaches for critically ill patients with dialysis-dependent acute renal failure. NCT01228123, ..
  44. Wlodzimirow K, Abu Hanna A, Slabbekoorn M, Chamuleau R, Schultz M, Bouman C. A comparison of RIFLE with and without urine output criteria for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2012;16:R200 pubmed publisher
    ..02). The use of RIFLE without the urine criteria significantly underscores the incidence and grade of AKI, significantly delays the diagnosis of AKI and is associated with higher mortality. ..
  45. Honore P, Jacobs R, Joannes Boyau O, Boer W, De Waele E, Van Gorp V, et al. Fractional excretion of urea to differentiate transient from persistent acute kidney injury: should we still trust old tools in the biomarker era?. J Crit Care. 2012;27:514-5 pubmed publisher
  46. Kim Campbell N, Gretchen C, Callaway C, Felmet K, Kochanek P, Maul T, et al. Cell-Free Plasma Hemoglobin and Male Gender Are Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Low Risk Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e1123-e1130 pubmed publisher
    To determine the relationship between the production of cell-free plasma hemoglobin and acute kidney injury in infants and children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery. Prospective observational study...
  47. Lee H, Fujimoto M, Ohkawara T, Honda H, Serada S, Terada Y, et al. Leucine rich α-2 glycoprotein is a potential urinary biomarker for renal tubular injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:1045-1051 pubmed publisher
    ..tubular injury plays a key role in deterioration of renal function in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI)...
  48. Pantham G, Post A, Venkat D, Einstadter D, Mullen K. A New Look at Precipitants of Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy in Cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:2166-2173 pubmed publisher
    ..8 in the retrospective group and 22.7 ± 7.2 in the prospective group. Dehydration (46-76%), acute kidney injury (32-76%), lactulose nonadherence (about 50%), constipation (about 40%), and infections (20-42%) were the ..
  49. Groeneveld A, Navickis R, Wilkes M. Mixed colloids and acute kidney injury: a case of selection bias?. Crit Care. 2015;19:207 pubmed publisher
  50. Schiffl H. Prevention of acute kidney injury by intravenous sodium bicarbonate: the end of a saga. Crit Care. 2014;18:672 pubmed publisher
  51. Luciano R, Castano E, Fogazzi G, Perazella M. Light chain crystalline kidney disease: diagnostic urine microscopy as the "liquid kidney biopsy". Clin Nephrol. 2014;82:387-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present two patients with MM complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI) where LC crystalline casts were observed on urinary sediment analysis...
  52. Weir M, Beyea M, Gomes T, Juurlink D, Mamdani M, Blake P, et al. Orlistat and acute kidney injury: an analysis of 953 patients. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:703-4 pubmed publisher
  53. Dlamini T, Heering P, Chivese T, Rayner B. A prospective study of the demographics, management and outcome of patients with acute kidney injury in Cape Town, South Africa. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177460 pubmed publisher
    To study the demographics and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa...