renal insufficiency


Summary: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.

Top Publications

  1. Yamashita T, Makino H, Nakatani R, Ohata Y, Miyamoto Y, Kishimoto I. Renal insufficiency without albuminuria is associated with peripheral artery atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013;20:790-7 pubmed
    ..We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of such patients, including the associations between these characteristics and atherosclerosis...
  2. Lee J, Lee J, Han J. Gitelman's syndrome with vomiting manifested by severe metabolic alkalosis and progressive renal insufficiency. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2013;231:165-9 pubmed
    ..Symptoms and renal outcomes of Gitelman's syndrome are, in general, mild and benign, and renal insufficiency from Gitelman's syndrome associated with long-standing hypokalemia and volume depletion is extremely rare...
  3. Lindner G, Funk G, Pfortmueller C, Leichtle A, Fiedler G, Schwarz C, et al. D-dimer to rule out pulmonary embolism in renal insufficiency. Am J Med. 2014;127:343-7 pubmed publisher
    D-dimer levels are often elevated in renal insufficiency. The diagnostic accuracy of D-dimer to rule out pulmonary embolism in patients with renal insufficiency is unclear...
  4. Carubelli V, Metra M, Lombardi C, Bettari L, Bugatti S, Lazzarini V, et al. Renal dysfunction in acute heart failure: epidemiology, mechanisms and assessment. Heart Fail Rev. 2012;17:271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..New biomarkers of renal injury seem promising but still need to be validated. Thus, despite the epidemiological evidence, we are still lacking of satisfactory tools to assess renal injury and function and its prognostic significance. ..
  5. Choi J, Kim C, Bae E, Ma S, Jeong M, Kim Y, et al. Suboptimal medical care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and renal insufficiency: results from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:110 pubmed publisher
    The clinical outcomes of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are poor in patients with renal insufficiency. This study investigated changes in the likelihood that patients received optimal medical care throughout the ..
  6. Neofytos D, Lombardi L, Shields R, Ostrander D, Warren L, Nguyen M, et al. Administration of voriconazole in patients with renal dysfunction. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:913-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The intravenous use of voriconazole requires coadministration with sulphobutylether-?-cyclodextrin, which may accumulate in patients with impaired renal function...
  7. Owiredu W, Quaye L, Amidu N, Addai Mensah O. Renal insufficiency in Ghanaian HIV infected patients: need for dose adjustment. Afr Health Sci. 2013;13:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..lead to clinically significant nephrotoxicity and as such will require dose adjustments in the presence of renal insufficiency. To explore renal function estimating equations as alternatives for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ..
  8. Ohno Y, Nakashima J, Ohori M, Hashimoto T, Iseki R, Hatano T, et al. Impact of tumor size on renal function and prediction of renal insufficiency after radical nephrectomy in patients with renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2011;186:1242-6 pubmed publisher
    ..38 ± 17.70 ml per minute/1.73 m(2) and 56 patients (20%) had renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate less than 60 ml per minute/1.73 m(2))...
  9. Bootsma J, Warlé van Herwaarden M, Verbeek A, Füssenich P, De Smet P, Olde Rikkert M, et al. Adherence to biochemical monitoring recommendations in patients starting with renin angiotensin system inhibitors: a retrospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Drug Saf. 2011;34:605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, serum creatinine monitoring was significantly less often performed in high-risk patients compared with low-risk patients. ..

More Information


  1. Elmholdt T, Pedersen M, Jørgensen B, Søndergaard K, Jensen J, Ramsing M, et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is found only among gadolinium-exposed patients with renal insufficiency: a case-control study from Denmark. Br J Dermatol. 2011;165:828-36 pubmed publisher
    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a systemic fibrosing disease associated with exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) in patients with renal insufficiency.
  2. Outinen T, Makela S, Ala Houhala I, Huhtala H, Hurme M, Libraty D, et al. High activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is associated with renal insufficiency in Puumala hantavirus induced nephropathia epidemica. J Med Virol. 2011;83:731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1,900 ml/day, P<0.001) and longer hospital stays (8 vs. 5 days, P<0.001). In conclusion, high serum IDO activity was associated with increased disease severity and renal impairment in NE. ..
  3. Choi J, Kim C, Park J, Bae E, Ma S, Jeong M, et al. Renal dysfunction as a risk factor for painless myocardial infarction: results from Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry. Clin Res Cardiol. 2012;101:795-803 pubmed
  4. Cartery C, Faguer S, Karras A, Cointault O, Buscail L, Modesto A, et al. Oxalate nephropathy associated with chronic pancreatitis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:1895-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Extrinsic triggering factors should be prevented. ..
  5. Shahin J, DeVarennes B, Tse C, Amarica D, Dial S. The relationship between inotrope exposure, six-hour postoperative physiological variables, hospital mortality and renal dysfunction in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Crit Care. 2011;15:R162 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Postoperative inotrope exposure was independently associated with worse outcomes in this cohort study. Further research is needed to better elucidate the appropriate use of inotropes in cardiac surgery. ..
  6. Pugliese G, Solini A, Fondelli C, Trevisan R, Vedovato M, Nicolucci A, et al. Reproducibility of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects. Findings from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:3950-4 pubmed publisher
    ..collected in a 3- to 6-month period from 4062 of the 15?773 type 2 diabetic subjects participating in the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicentre Study in 2007-08...
  7. Bhardwaja B, Carroll N, Raebel M, Chester E, Korner E, Rocho B, et al. Improving prescribing safety in patients with renal insufficiency in the ambulatory setting: the Drug Renal Alert Pharmacy (DRAP) program. Pharmacotherapy. 2011;31:346-56 pubmed publisher
    ..decrease the rate of medication errors in drug selection or dosing for 15 target drugs in patients with renal insufficiency. Randomized, controlled, population-based effectiveness trial...
  8. Li J, Lu L, Wang L, Zhang F, Shen W. Increased serum levels of S100B are related to the severity of cardiac dysfunction, renal insufficiency and major cardiac events in patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Biochem. 2011;44:984-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the correlations between S100B and the severity of cardiac dysfunction, renal insufficiency (RI) and prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF)...
  9. Hosoda J, Ishikawa T, Matsushita K, Matsumoto K, Kimura Y, Miyamoto M, et al. Impact of renal insufficiency on long-term clinical outcome in patients with heart failure treated by cardiac resynchronization therapy. J Cardiol. 2012;60:301-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Renal insufficiency is recognized as a predictor of mortality and adverse outcome in heart failure (HF) patients...
  10. Lee S, Kim W, Kim Y, Park S, Park D, Yun S, et al. Preventive strategies of renal insufficiency in patients with diabetes undergoing intervention or arteriography (the PREVENT Trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:1447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, hydration with sodium bicarbonate is not superior to hydration with sodium chloride in preventing CIN in patients with diabetic nephropathy undergoing coronary or endovascular angiography or intervention. ..
  11. Geng W, Fu X, Gu X, Wang Y, Wang X, Li W, et al. Preventive effects of anisodamine against contrast-induced nephropathy in type 2 diabetics with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography or angioplasty. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125:3368-72 pubmed
    ..the preventive effects of anisodamine against contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in type 2 diabetics with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography or angioplasty...
  12. Bocchetta A, Ardau R, Carta P, Ligas F, Sardu C, Pani A, et al. Duration of lithium treatment is a risk factor for reduced glomerular function: a cross-sectional study. BMC Med. 2013;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..See related commentary article here ..
  13. Msango L, Downs J, KALLUVYA S, Kidenya B, Kabangila R, Johnson W, et al. Renal dysfunction among HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2011;25:1421-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This highlights the critical and underappreciated need to monitor renal function in HIV-positive patients in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly given the increasing use of tenofovir in first-line ART. ..
  14. Briguori C, Visconti G, Ricciardelli B, Condorelli G. Renal insufficiency following contrast media administration trial II (REMEDIAL II): RenalGuard system in high-risk patients for contrast-induced acute kidney injury: rationale and design. EuroIntervention. 2011;6:1117-22, 7 pubmed publisher
    ..3 mg/dL in the serum creatinine concentration 48 hours after the procedure. The REMEDIAL II trial will give important answers on how to prevent CI-AKI in high and very high risk patients undergoing contrast media exposure. ..
  15. Wen Z, Cai M, Mai Z, Chen Y, Geng D, Wang J. Protection of renal impairment by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker in rats with post-infarction heart failure. Ren Fail. 2013;35:766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..AT1R blockers modulated local angiotensin II receptors, as well as inflammatory reaction and profibrotic effects, providing potential clinical application in the setting of cardiorenal syndrome post-MI. ..
  16. Baldwin D, Zander J, Munoz C, Raghu P, DeLange Hudec S, Lee H, et al. A randomized trial of two weight-based doses of insulin glargine and glulisine in hospitalized subjects with type 2 diabetes and renal insufficiency. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1970-4 pubmed
    b>Renal insufficiency may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients with diabetes who are treated with insulin...
  17. Kim C, Choi J, Bae E, Ma S, Ahn Y, Jeong M, et al. Association of metabolic syndrome and renal insufficiency with clinical outcome in acute myocardial infarction. Metabolism. 2013;62:669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, few studies have examined the combined effects of MetS and renal insufficiency after acute myocardial infarction (AMI)...
  18. Clark W, Hildebrand A. Attending rounds: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with renal insufficiency. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:342-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The discussion attempts to provide a simple clinical approach to the diagnosis, treatment options, and future course of adults and children suffering from a thrombotic microangiopathy. ..
  19. Tang W, Shrestha K, Shao Z, Borowski A, Troughton R, Thomas J, et al. Usefulness of plasma galectin-3 levels in systolic heart failure to predict renal insufficiency and survival. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, high plasma galectin-3 levels were associated with renal insufficiency and poorer survival in patients with chronic systolic HF...
  20. Surquin M, Tielemans C, Nortier J, Jadoul M, Peeters P, Ryba M, et al. Anti-HBs antibody persistence following primary vaccination with an investigational AS02(v)-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in patients with renal insufficiency. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..been shown to induce more rapid seroprotection and higher anti-HBs antibody concentrations in patients with renal insufficiency than four doses of FENDrix™ (HB-AS04), an adjuvanted HBV vaccine licensed in Europe for use in this ..
  21. Murakami R, Hayashi H, Sugizaki K, Yoshida T, Okazaki E, Kumita S, et al. Contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT. Eur Radiol. 2012;22:2147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted a retrospective review of 938 patients with stable renal insufficiency (eGFR between 15 and 60 ml/min) who underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT...
  22. Khan M, Jehangir W, Daood M, Khan A, Mallick N. Frequency of anaemia and renal insufficiency in patients with heart failure. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2010;22:87-9 pubmed
    ..40% (106) had moderate to severe renal failure (GFR < 60 ml/min). The prevalence of anaemia and renal failure was high in this population and was associated with the severity of the HF (functional classes III and IV). ..
  23. Martin F, McKie P, Cataliotti A, Sangaralingham S, Korinek J, Huntley B, et al. Experimental mild renal insufficiency mediates early cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction: a kidney-heart connection. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;302:R292-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that mild renal insufficiency in the rat results in early cardiac fibrosis and impaired diastolic function, which progresses to more ..
  24. Pohl M, Mentzel H, Vogt S, Walther M, Rönnefarth G, John U. Risk factors for renal insufficiency in children with urethral valves. Pediatr Nephrol. 2012;27:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..3%, positive/negative predictive value 37.5/94.4%). Ultrasound promises to be a valuable tool for identifying endangered patients. ..
  25. Sezer S, Karakan S, Erismis B, Colak T, Haberal M. Risk factors for kidney impairment and differential impact of liver transplantation on renal function. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:609-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In the long term, smoking and dyslipidemia were the main predictors of CKD. Patients with high basal serum creatinine values were at increased risk of mortality. ..
  26. Sottas P, Kapke G, Leroux J. Adaptive Bayesian analysis of serum creatinine as a marker for drug-induced renal impairment in an early-phase clinical trial. Clin Chem. 2012;58:1592-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that SCr monitoring is able to detect early kidney dysfunction when individual-based reference intervals are used. ..
  27. Struik G, den Exter R, Munthali C, Chipeta D, van Oosterhout J, Nouwen J, et al. The prevalence of renal impairment among adults with early HIV disease in Blantyre, Malawi. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal dysfunction has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for (early) mortality. These results are relevant for ART programmes, such as those in Malawi, where renal function is not routinely assessed. ..
  28. Strøm T, Johansen R, Prahl J, Toft P. Sedation and renal impairment in critically ill patients: a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. Crit Care. 2011;15:R119 pubmed publisher
    ..A no sedation strategy to patients undergoing mechanical ventilation increases the urine output and decreases the number of patients with renal impairments. ..
  29. Pugliese G, Solini A, Zoppini G, Fondelli C, Zerbini G, Vedovato M, et al. High prevalence of advanced retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;98:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..DR and its correlation with risk factors and complications in subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study...
  30. Fujisaki K, Ono Fujisaki A, Kura Nakamura N, Komune N, Hirakawa N, Tsuruya K, et al. Rapid deterioration of renal insufficiency after magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-based contrast agent. Clin Nephrol. 2011;75:251-4 pubmed
    ..The patient developed rapid deterioration of preexisting renal insufficiency, and developed uremic symptoms and pulmonary edema. The patient was hemodialyzed 3 times...
  31. Chapman A, Bost J, Torres V, Guay Woodford L, Bae K, Landsittel D, et al. Kidney volume and functional outcomes in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:479-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine if height-adjusted TKV (htTKV) predicts the onset of renal insufficiency. This prospective, observational, longitudinal, multicenter study included 241 adults with ADPKD and ..
  32. Yaghoubian A, Ge P, Tolan A, Saltmarsh G, Kaji A, Neville A, et al. Renal insufficiency predicts mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery. Am Surg. 2011;77:1322-5 pubmed
    ..7; CI, 1.7 to 67; P = 0.01). Morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergency surgery remains high with the most significant predictor of mortality being the presence of renal insufficiency on admission.
  33. Iwamoto J, Seki A, Sato Y, Matsumoto H. Vitamin K(2) improves renal function and increases femoral bone strength in rats with renal insufficiency. Calcif Tissue Int. 2012;90:50-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Renal insufficiency induces cortical bone loss in rats. The present study examined the influence of vitamin K(2) on renal function, cortical bone mass, and bone strength in rats with renal insufficiency...
  34. Yan P, Zhu X, Li H, Shrubsole M, Shi H, Zhang M, et al. Association of high blood pressure with renal insufficiency: role of albuminuria, from NHANES, 1999-2006. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37837 pubmed publisher
    ..However, among participants with albuminuria, the prevalence of moderate-severe renal insufficiency substantially and progressively increased from normal subjects to prehypertensive and undiagnosed ..
  35. Ronden R, Houben A, Teerlink T, Bakker J, Bierau J, Stehouwer C, et al. Reduced renal plasma clearance does not explain increased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine in hypertensive subjects with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) increase already in the early stages of renal insufficiency. There is no agreement as to whether reduced renal plasma clearance (RPCL) contributes to this increase...
  36. Grantham J, Mulamalla S, Swenson Fields K. Why kidneys fail in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7:556-66 pubmed publisher
  37. Dimopoulos M, Roussou M, Gkotzamanidou M, Nikitas N, Psimenou E, Mparmparoussi D, et al. The role of novel agents on the reversibility of renal impairment in newly diagnosed symptomatic patients with multiple myeloma. Leukemia. 2013;27:423-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Bollée G, Flamant M, Schordan S, Fligny C, Rumpel E, Milon M, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor promotes glomerular injury and renal failure in rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis. Nat Med. 2011;17:1242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that targeting the HB-EGF-EGFR pathway could also be beneficial in treatment of human RPGN. ..
  39. Murakami R, Kumita S, Hayashi H, Sugizaki K, Okazaki E, Kiriyama T, et al. Anemia and the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82:e521-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Institutional review board approval was waived for this retrospective review of 843 patients with stable renal insufficiency (eGFR between 15 and 60 mL/min) who had undergone contrast-enhanced MDCT...
  40. Briguori C, Visconti G, Focaccio A, Airoldi F, Valgimigli M, Sangiorgi G, et al. Renal Insufficiency After Contrast Media Administration Trial II (REMEDIAL II): RenalGuard System in high-risk patients for contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circulation. 2011;124:1260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Renal Insufficiency After Contrast Media Administration Trial II (REMEDIAL II) trial is a randomized, multicenter, investigator-..
  41. Pinney S, Balakrishnan R, Dikman S, Nair A, Hammond K, Domanski M, et al. Histopathology of renal failure after heart transplantation: a diverse spectrum. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012;31:233-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further defining the renal injuries that precede heart transplantation and predispose to the progression of kidney disease after transplant may assist in treating this population. ..
  42. Kim C, Choi J, Park J, Bae E, Ma S, Jeong M, et al. Concomitant renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus as prognostic factors for acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:95 pubmed publisher
    ..However, few studies have assessed the effects of renal insufficiency in association with diabetes in the context of AMI...
  43. Oude Lashof A, Sobel J, Ruhnke M, Pappas P, Viscoli C, Schlamm H, et al. Safety and tolerability of voriconazole in patients with baseline renal insufficiency and candidemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:3133-7 pubmed publisher
    Acutely ill patients with candidemia frequently suffer from renal insufficiency. Voriconazole's intravenous formulation with sulfobutylether beta-cyclodextrin (SBECD) is restricted in patients with renal insufficiency...
  44. Leibowitz D, Maaravi Y, Stessman Lande I, Jacobs J, Gilon D, Stessman J. Cardiac structure and function and renal insufficiency in the oldest old. Clin Cardiol. 2012;35:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, using the clinically accepted cutoff, no association between abnormal GFR and cardiac structure or function was observed. ..
  45. Suhre K, Shin S, Petersen A, Mohney R, Meredith D, Wägele B, et al. Human metabolic individuality in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Nature. 2011;477:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The study advances our knowledge of the genetic basis of metabolic individuality in humans and generates many new hypotheses for biomedical and pharmaceutical research. ..
  46. Xiao J, Niu J, Ye X, Yu Q, Gu Y. Combined biomarkers evaluation for diagnosing kidney injury in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2013;32:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..20%. Urine KIM-1 is the most potential biomarker for renal injury in preeclampsia. The more biomarkers combined, the more sensitivity and specificity were increased. ..
  47. Chen R, Li J, Hu W, Wang M, Zou S, Miao L. Circadian variability of pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma: analysis with the NONMEM program. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013;72:1111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that circadian could influence the metabolism of cisplatin and suggested the conventional dose adjustment of cisplatin based on BSA. ..
  48. Zaman R, Ettenger R, Cheam H, Malekzadeh M, Tsai E. A novel treatment regimen for BK viremia. Transplantation. 2014;97:1166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..001). This approach resulted in a BKVN rate of only 1%. This analysis demonstrates for the first time that, used in a stepwise fashion, ciprofloxacin and leflunomide are effective and safe treatments for BK viremia in PRTR. ..
  49. Rozanski M, Richter T, Grittner U, Endres M, Fiebach J, Jungehulsing G. Elevated levels of hemoglobin A1c are associated with cerebral white matter disease in patients with stroke. Stroke. 2014;45:1007-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This may suggest that chronic disturbance of glycemia measured by HbA1c plays a role in the pathophysiology of WMD. Unique identifier: NCT00715533. ..
  50. Cocero N, Mozzati M, Ambrogio M, Bisi M, Morello M, Bergamasco L. Bleeding rate during oral surgery of oral anticoagulant therapy patients with associated systemic pathologic entities: a prospective study of more than 500 extractions. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014;72:858-67 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 2.8 for mechanical prosthesis and 2.0 to 2.3 otherwise) or be switched to heparin. Alternatively, we propose applying to the socket, a platelet-rich growth factor preparation to foster hemostasis. ..
  51. Luan Y, Mosheir E, Menon M, Wilson D, Woytovich C, Ochando J, et al. Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells accumulate in renal transplant patients and mediate CD4(+) Foxp3(+) Treg expansion. Am J Transplant. 2013;13:3123-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are necessary to determine the alloimmune regulatory function of MDSC in human transplant recipients. ..
  52. Mundi I, D Cruz S, Punia R, Kaur R, Sachdev A. Clinico-pathological study of glomerular diseases in patients with significant proteinuria in North India. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2014;25:443-9 pubmed
    ..IF provides additional information that can make the morphologic diagnosis considerably more precise. ..
  53. Crawford T, Magruder J, Grimm J, Suarez Pierre A, Zhou X, Ha J, et al. Impaired Renal Function Should Not Be a Barrier to Transplantation in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;104:1231-1236 pubmed publisher
    ..94]; p = 0.29). Although PRD has historically served as a relative contraindication to LT, our study is the first to suggest that among CF recipients, PRD was not associated with increased hazard for mortality out to 5 years after LT. ..