Summary: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.

Top Publications

  1. Hein G, Richter D, Manz F, Weitzel D, Kalhoff H. Development of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:616-20 pubmed
    ..However, Ca and P supplementation can be associated with some risks, for example development of nephrocalcinosis. We investigated pathophysiological risk factors in premature very low birth weight (VLBW) infants associated ..
  2. Zimmermann B, Plank C, Konrad M, Stöhr W, Gravou Apostolatou C, Rascher W, et al. Hydrochlorothiazide in CLDN16 mutation. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:2127-32 pubmed
    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is applied in the therapy of familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) caused by claudin-16 (CLDN16) mutation...
  3. Verhulst A, Asselman M, De Naeyer S, Vervaet B, Mengel M, Gwinner W, et al. Preconditioning of the distal tubular epithelium of the human kidney precedes nephrocalcinosis. Kidney Int. 2005;68:1643-7 pubmed
    Preterm neonates and renal transplant patients frequently develop nephrocalcinosis. Experimental studies revealed that crystal retention in the distal nephron, a process that may lead to nephrocalcinosis, is limited to proliferating/..
  4. Vargas Poussou R, Cochat P, Le Pottier N, Roncelin I, Liutkus A, Blanchard A, et al. Report of a family with two different hereditary diseases leading to early nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:149-53 pubmed
    The etiologies of early onset nephrocalcinosis in consanguineous families include five major inherited recessive disorders: primary hyperoxaluria (PH), familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), distal renal ..
  5. Konrad M, Hou J, Weber S, Dotsch J, Kari J, Seeman T, et al. CLDN16 genotype predicts renal decline in familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:171-81 pubmed
  6. Gambaro G, Abaterusso C, Fabris A, Ruggera L, Zattoni F, Del Prete D, et al. The origin of nephrocalcinosis, Randall's plaque and renal stones: a cell biology viewpoint. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2009;81:166-70 pubmed
    Medullary nephrocalcinosis is a rare condition typically observed in metabolic conditions prone to renal calcium stones. Randall's plaques are very frequently observed in the common idiopathic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis...
  7. Gigliotti J, Smith A, Jaczynski J, Tou J. Consumption of krill protein concentrate prevents early renal injury and nephrocalcinosis in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Urol Res. 2011;39:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nephrocalcinosis, a common renal abnormality found in rats, has been implicated in subsequent renal failure...
  8. Dyment D, Smith A, Alcantara D, Schwartzentruber J, Basel Vanagaite L, Curry C, et al. Mutations in PIK3R1 cause SHORT syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2013;93:158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings show that PIK3R1 mutations are the major cause of SHORT syndrome and suggest that the molecular mechanism of disease might involve downregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway...
  9. Kist van Holthe J, van Zwieten P, Schell Feith E, Zonderland H, Holscher H, Wolterbeek R, et al. Is nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates harmful for long-term blood pressure and renal function?. Pediatrics. 2007;119:468-75 pubmed
    The aim of our study was to examine long-term effects of nephrocalcinosis in prematurely born children.

More Information


  1. Kato Y, Wada N, Numata A, Kakizaki H. Case of hypoparathyroidism, deafness and renal dysplasia (HDR) syndrome associated with nephrocalcinosis and distal renal tubular acidosis. Int J Urol. 2007;14:440-2 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report a case of HDR syndrome associated with nephrocalcinosis and distal renal tubular acidosis...
  2. Ozcelik U, Besbas N, Gocmen A, Akata D, Akhan O, Ozguc M, et al. Hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in cystic fibrosis patients. Turk J Pediatr. 2004;46:22-7 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of nephrocalcinosis and hypercalciuria in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to search possible causes of this phenomenon. Forty-three CF children (24 boys, 19 girls; mean age 64...
  3. Desmeules S, Bergeron M, Isenring P. Acute phosphate nephropathy and renal failure. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1006-7 pubmed
  4. Günther W, Piwon N, Jentsch T. The ClC-5 chloride channel knock-out mouse - an animal model for Dent's disease. Pflugers Arch. 2003;445:456-62 pubmed proteinuria, hyperphosphaturia and hypercalciuria, which eventually lead to kidney stones and nephrocalcinosis. As it was unclear how mutations in a chloride channel might cause these symptoms, we and others have ..
  5. Kirsch A, Smaczny N, Riegelbauer V, Sedej S, Hofmeister A, Stojakovic T, et al. Regulatory T cells improve nephrocalcinosis but not dystrophic cardiac calcinosis in DBA/2 mice. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:382-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Nephrocalcinosis is characterized by aberrant deposition of calcium in the kidneys and is seen in phosphate nephropathy, primary hyperparathyroidism, and distal renal tubular acidosis...
  6. Devuyst O, Christie P, Courtoy P, Beauwens R, Thakker R. Intra-renal and subcellular distribution of the human chloride channel, CLC-5, reveals a pathophysiological basis for Dent's disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:247-57 pubmed
    ..These results help to elucidate further the patho-physiological basis of the renal tubular defects of Dent's disease...
  7. Paula L, Melo N, Silva Guerra E, Mestrinho D, Acevedo A. Case report of a rare syndrome associating amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis in a consanguineous family. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:237-42 pubmed
    A rare syndrome associating amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) with nephrocalcinosis has been reported...
  8. Patel V, Emmett M, Santa Ana C, Fordtran J. Pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis after sodium phosphate catharsis to prepare for colonoscopy: Intestinal phosphate absorption and its effect on urine mineral and electrolyte excretion. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:193-4; author reply 194-5 pubmed
  9. Sayer J, Carr G, Simmons N. Nephrocalcinosis: molecular insights into calcium precipitation within the kidney. Clin Sci (Lond). 2004;106:549-61 pubmed
    b>Nephrocalcinosis may be defined as a generalized increase in the calcium content of the kidneys. This renal calcification may occur at a molecular, microscopic or macroscopic level leading to progressive amounts of renal damage...
  10. Cockell K, L Abbé M, Belonje B. The concentrations and ratio of dietary calcium and phosphorus influence development of nephrocalcinosis in female rats. J Nutr. 2002;132:252-6 pubmed
    b>Nephrocalcinosis (NC) in female rats can complicate the interpretation of nutritional or toxicological studies involving the kidney...
  11. Vivante A, Lotan D, Pode Shakked N, Landau D, Svec P, Nampoothiri S, et al. Familial autosomal recessive renal tubular acidosis: importance of early diagnosis. Nephron Physiol. 2011;119:p31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We reviewed the clinical features of patients with mutations in two genes causing RTA and evaluated their developmental expression assuming that timing, symptom severity and complications may be related to its occurrence...
  12. Moudgil A, Rodich G, Jordan S, Kamil E. Nephrocalcinosis and renal cysts associated with apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;15:60-2 pubmed
    ..hypokalemia, alkalosis, reduced plasma renin activity (PRA), low aldosterone levels, and occasionally nephrocalcinosis. Here we describe a 13-year-old boy who presented with severe hypertension, hypokalemia, low PRA and ..
  13. Wedenoja S, Ormälä T, Berg U, Halling S, Jalanko H, Karikoski R, et al. The impact of sodium chloride and volume depletion in the chronic kidney disease of congenital chloride diarrhea. Kidney Int. 2008;74:1085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The main feature of the renal injury was nephrocalcinosis, without hypercalciuria or nephrolithiasis with small sized kidneys and commensurately reduced glomerular ..
  14. Manz F, Scharer K, Janka P, Lombeck J. Renal magnesium wasting, incomplete tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis in siblings. Eur J Pediatr. 1978;128:67-79 pubmed
    Polyuria, hyposthenuria, hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, advanced nephrocalcinosis, low citrate excretion and low glomerular filtration rates were observed in two female siblings who were followed over 10 years...
  15. Thakker R. The role of renal chloride channel mutations in kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 1998;7:385-8 pubmed
    ..These molecular genetic studies have increased our understanding of the renal tubular mechanisms that regulate mineral homeostasis...
  16. Hoppe B, von Unruh G, Blank G, Rietschel E, Sidhu H, Laube N, et al. Absorptive hyperoxaluria leads to an increased risk for urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis in cystic fibrosis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2005;46:440-5 pubmed
    Hyperoxaluria has been incriminated to account for the increased incidence of urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  17. Sharma A, Linshaw M. A novel compound heterozygous ROMK mutation presenting as late onset Bartter syndrome associated with nephrocalcinosis and elevated 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D levels. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2011;15:572-6 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D levels, possibly due to increase prostaglandin E(2) levels, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitors resolved her hypercalciuria and improved her height and weight; renal ..
  18. Kirzioglu Z, Ulu K, Sezer M, Yuksel S. The relationship of amelogenesis imperfecta and nephrocalcinosis syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009;14:e579-82 pubmed
    To analyze the prevalence and associated oral findings of nephrocalcinosis in a group of patients affected with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). The relationship between types of AI and nephrocalcinosis were also evaluated.
  19. Breiderhoff T, Himmerkus N, Stuiver M, Mutig K, Will C, Meij I, et al. Deletion of claudin-10 (Cldn10) in the thick ascending limb impairs paracellular sodium permeability and leads to hypermagnesemia and nephrocalcinosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that claudin-10 determines paracellular sodium permeability, and that its loss leads to hypermagnesemia and nephrocalcinosis. In isolated perfused TAL tubules of claudin-10-deficient mice, paracellular permeability of sodium is ..
  20. Grujic D, Salido E, SHENOY B, Langman C, McGrath M, Patel R, et al. Hyperoxaluria is reduced and nephrocalcinosis prevented with an oxalate-degrading enzyme in mice with hyperoxaluria. Am J Nephrol. 2009;29:86-93 pubmed publisher
    Hyperoxaluria is a major risk factor for recurrent urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. We tested an oral therapy with a crystalline, cross-linked formulation of oxalate-decarboxylase (OxDc-CLEC) on the reduction of urinary oxalate and ..
  21. Jaureguiberry G, de la Dure Molla M, Parry D, Quentric M, Himmerkus N, Koike T, et al. Nephrocalcinosis (enamel renal syndrome) caused by autosomal recessive FAM20A mutations. Nephron Physiol. 2012;122:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of these systems in the kidney results in nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, important medical problems whose pathogenesis is incompletely understood...
  22. Stapenhorst L, Sassen R, Beck B, Laube N, Hesse A, Hoppe B. Hypocitraturia as a risk factor for nephrocalcinosis after kidney transplantation. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:652-6 pubmed
    ..Both findings can increase the risk for urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis.
  23. Weber S, Hoffmann K, Jeck N, Saar K, Boeswald M, Kuwertz Broeking E, et al. Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis maps to chromosome 3q27 and is associated with mutations in the PCLN-1 gene. Eur J Hum Genet. 2000;8:414-22 pubmed
    Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC, MIM 248250) is a complex renal tubular disorder characterised by hypomagnesaemia, hypercalciuria, advanced nephrocalcinosis, hyposthenuria and progressive renal ..
  24. Lloyd S, Pearce S, Gunther W, Kawaguchi H, Igarashi T, Jentsch T, et al. Idiopathic low molecular weight proteinuria associated with hypercalciuric nephrocalcinosis in Japanese children is due to mutations of the renal chloride channel (CLCN5). J Clin Invest. 1997;99:967-74 pubmed
    ..proximal renal tubular disorder characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. The disorder, which has a familial predisposition and occurs predominantly in males, has similarities to ..
  25. Hoppe B, Kemper M. Diagnostic examination of the child with urolithiasis or nephrocalcinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:403-13 pubmed publisher
    Urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis are more frequent in children then currently anticipated, but still remain under- or misdiagnosed in a significant proportion of patients, since symptoms and signs may be subtle or misleading...
  26. Kausalya P, Amasheh S, Gunzel D, Wurps H, Muller D, Fromm M, et al. Disease-associated mutations affect intracellular traffic and paracellular Mg2+ transport function of Claudin-16. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:878-91 pubmed the CLDN16 gene have been identified in patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC), a disease of excessive renal Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion...
  27. Gunther W, Lüchow A, Cluzeaud F, Vandewalle A, Jentsch T. ClC-5, the chloride channel mutated in Dent's disease, colocalizes with the proton pump in endocytotically active kidney cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:8075-80 pubmed
  28. O Connor R, Worcester E, Evan A, Meehan S, Kuznetsov D, Laven B, et al. Nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in rats with small bowel resection. Urol Res. 2005;33:105-15 pubmed
    ..This new rat model of nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis resembles the pattern of urinary abnormalities and tissue calcification that may be seen in humans with small ..
  29. Blanchard A, Jeunemaitre X, Coudol P, Dechaux M, Froissart M, May A, et al. Paracellin-1 is critical for magnesium and calcium reabsorption in the human thick ascending limb of Henle. Kidney Int. 2001;59:2206-15 pubmed
    ..However, no functional experiments have demonstrated that TAL magnesium and calcium reabsorption were actually impaired in patients with HHS...
  30. Matsuzaki H, Masuyama R, Uehara M, Nakamura K, Suzuki K. Greater effect of dietary potassium tripolyphosphate than of potassium dihydrogenphosphate on the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats from the intake of a high-phosphorus diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:928-34 pubmed
    ..and potassium tripolyphosphate (K5P3O10) as dietary phosphorus sources could differentially effect the nephrocalcinosis and proximal tubular function in female rats...
  31. Hoppe B, Duran I, Martin A, Kribs A, Benz Bohm G, Michalk D, et al. Nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants: a single center experience. Pediatr Nephrol. 2002;17:264-8 pubmed
    The risk of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants is considerable, but conflicting numbers are given for the actual incidence (10-65%). Furosemide induced hypercalciuria is said to be the main risk factor...
  32. Gonlusen G, Akgun H, Ertan A, Olivero J, Truong L. Renal failure and nephrocalcinosis associated with oral sodium phosphate bowel cleansing: clinical patterns and renal biopsy findings. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130:101-6 pubmed
    ..The renal biopsies in each of these patients showed nephrocalcinosis as the possible cause of ARF...
  33. Neuhaus T, Belzer T, Blau N, Hoppe B, Sidhu H, Leumann E. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis. Arch Dis Child. 2000;82:322-6 pubmed
    To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
  34. Claverie Martin F, Garcia Nieto V, Loris C, Ariceta G, Nadal I, Espinosa L, et al. Claudin-19 mutations and clinical phenotype in Spanish patients with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53151 pubmed publisher
    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is an autosomal recessive tubular disorder characterized by excessive renal magnesium and calcium excretion and chronic kidney failure...
  35. Tasic V, Dervisov D, Koceva S, Weber S, Konrad M. Hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: case report and a family study. Pediatr Nephrol. 2005;20:1003-6 pubmed
    ..The ultrasound examination of his kidneys demonstrated bilateral diffuse medullary nephrocalcinosis. His serum and urine biochemistry revealed hypomagnesemia (0...
  36. Robijn S, Vervaet B, Hoppe B, D Haese P, Verhulst A. Lanthanum carbonate inhibits intestinal oxalate absorption and prevents nephrocalcinosis after oxalate loading in rats. J Urol. 2013;189:1960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..urinary oxalate excretion (secondary hyperoxaluria) and calcium oxalate crystal formation, contributing to nephrocalcinosis/lithiasis...
  37. Godron A, Harambat J, Boccio V, Mensire A, May A, Rigothier C, et al. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: phenotype-genotype correlation and outcome in 32 patients with CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7:801-9 pubmed publisher
    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disease. It is caused by mutations in CLDN16 and CLDN19, encoding claudin-16 and -19, respectively...
  38. Cranefield D, Odd D, Harding J, Teele R. High incidence of nephrocalcinosis in extremely preterm infants treated with dexamethasone. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34:138-42 pubmed
    The use of postnatal corticosteroids to treat or prevent chronic lung disease is common in very preterm infants. Medullary nephrocalcinosis has been noted as a possible side effect.
  39. Nicholson J, Jones C, Powell H, Walker R, McCredie D. Familial hypomagnesaemia--hypercalciuria leading to end-stage renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol. 1995;9:74-6 pubmed
    ..two sisters from a consanguineous marriage with the syndrome of renal magnesium wasting, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis are presented...
  40. Schell Feith E, Kist van Holthe J, Conneman N, van Zwieten P, Holscher H, Zonderland H, et al. Etiology of nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates: association of nutritional intake and urinary parameters. Kidney Int. 2000;58:2102-10 pubmed
    b>Nephrocalcinosis (NC) in preterm neonates has been described frequently, and small-scale studies suggest an unfavorable effect on renal function. The etiologic factors have not yet been fully clarified...
  41. Laube G, Leonard J, Van t Hoff W. Nephrocalcinosis and medullary cysts in 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:712-3 pubmed
    ..with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria in whom renal ultrasonography showed echogenic medullae consistent with nephrocalcinosis. One patient also developed medullary cysts...
  42. Gunzel D, Yu A. Function and regulation of claudins in the thick ascending limb of Henle. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:77-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Mg(2+) wasting in patients with the rare inherited disorder of familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC)...
  43. Hou J, Renigunta A, Konrad M, Gomes A, Schneeberger E, Paul D, et al. Claudin-16 and claudin-19 interact and form a cation-selective tight junction complex. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the TJ proteins claudin-16 (CLDN16)..
  44. Atabek M, Pirgon O, Sert A. Oral alendronate therapy for severe vitamin D intoxication of the infant with nephrocalcinosis. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19:169-72 pubmed
    ..alendronate for the treatment of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication in a 7 month-old infant with nephrocalcinosis. The serum calcium levels were normalized without complications...
  45. Weber S, Schneider L, Peters M, Misselwitz J, Rönnefarth G, Böswald M, et al. Novel paracellin-1 mutations in 25 families with familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12:1872-81 pubmed
    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an autosomal recessive tubular disorder that is frequently associated with progressive renal failure...
  46. Hou J, Goodenough D. Claudin-16 and claudin-19 function in the thick ascending limb. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2010;19:483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review describes recent findings of the physiological function of claudin-16 and claudin-19 underlying normal transport function for magnesium reabsorption in the TAL...
  47. Tajima T, Nakae J, Fujieda K. Two heterozygous mutations of CLDN16 in a Japanese patient with FHHNC. Pediatr Nephrol. 2003;18:1280-2 pubmed
    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC, MIN 248250) is a rare autosomal recessive tubular disorder that eventually progresses to renal failure...
  48. Peng L, Logan J, James S, Scott K, Lien Y. Cinacalcet-associated graft dysfunction and nephrocalcinosis in a kidney transplant recipient. Am J Med. 2007;120:e7-9 pubmed
  49. Manley P, Somerfield J, Simpson I, Barber A, Zwi J. Bilateral uraemic optic neuritis complicating acute nephrocalcinosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21:2957-8 pubmed
  50. Naeem M, Hussain S, Akhtar N. Mutation in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) and familial hypomagnesemia, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and severe ocular disease. Am J Nephrol. 2011;34:241-8 pubmed publisher
    Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare renal tubular disorder complicated by progressive renal failure during childhood or adolescence...
  51. Hampson G, Konrad M, Scoble J. Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC): compound heterozygous mutation in the claudin 16 (CLDN16) gene. BMC Nephrol. 2008;9:12 pubmed publisher
    Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an autosomal recessive disorder of renal calcium and magnesium wasting frequently complicated by progressive chronic renal failure in childhood or adolescence.
  52. Karunarathne S, Udayakumara Y, Govindapala D, Fernando H. Medullary nephrocalcinosis, distal renal tubular acidosis and polycythaemia in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. BMC Nephrol. 2012;13:66 pubmed publisher
    Medullary nephrocalcinosis and distal renal tubular acidosis are closely associated and each can lead to the other...
  53. Ketkeaw K, Thaithumyanon P, Punnahitananda S. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants: a single center experience. J Med Assoc Thai. 2004;87 Suppl 2:S72-7 pubmed
    To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants.