vaginal discharge

Summary

Summary: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.

Top Publications

  1. French L, Horton J, Matousek M. Abnormal vaginal discharge: what does and does not work in treating underlying causes. J Fam Pract. 2004;53:890-4 pubmed
    ..Women may be inclined to self-diagnose yeast infections with any vaginal discharge or other vulvovaginal symptoms that they deem abnormal...
  2. Patel V, Weiss H, Kirkwood B, Pednekar S, Nevrekar P, Gupte S, et al. Common genital complaints in women: the contribution of psychosocial and infectious factors in a population-based cohort study in Goa, India. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:1478-85 pubmed
    The genital complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge is common in South Asia. We describe the risk factors for the incidence of the complaint in women of reproductive age. Method Population-based cohort study in Goa, India...
  3. Sannmann I, Burfeind O, Suthar V, Bos A, Bruins M, Heuwieser W. Technical note: Evaluation of odor from vaginal discharge of cows in the first 10 days after calving by olfactory cognition and an electronic device. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:5773-9 pubmed publisher
    ..variability, intraassay variability, sensitivity, and specificity) of an evaluation of odor from vaginal discharge (VD) of cows in the first 10 d postpartum conducted by olfactory cognition and an electronic device, ..
  4. Kassem H, Majoud O. Trichomoniasis among women with vaginal discharge in Benghazi city, Libya. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2006;36:1007-16 pubmed
    ..29/2450, (1.2%) had T. vaginalis. The infected women suffered vaginalis discharge (93.10%), burning (81.48%), vulvar pruritus (79.39%), dyspareuria (40.47%), dysuria (21.43%) and strawberry appearance (75.86%)...
  5. Spence D, Melville C. Vaginal discharge. BMJ. 2007;335:1147-51 pubmed
  6. Pepin J, Deslandes S, Khonde N, Kintin D, Diakite S, Sylla M, et al. Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:230-5 pubmed
    To measure prevalence and risk factors for cervical infections among a large sample of women consulting for vaginal discharge in west Africa and to evaluate its syndromic management through a two visit algorithm.
  7. Shaio M, Lin P, Liu J. Colorimetric one-tube nested PCR for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal discharge. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:132-8 pubmed
    A colorimetric one-tube nested PCR was developed for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in clinical vaginal discharge specimens. A family of 650-bp specific DNA repeats from the T. vaginalis genome was targeted...
  8. Geva A, Bornstein J, Dan M, Shoham H, Sobel J. The VI-SENSE-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;195:1351-6 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (VI-SENSE) (Common Sense, Caesarea, Israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level...
  9. Pepin J, Sobela F, Khonde N, Agyarko Poku T, Diakité S, Deslandes S, et al. The syndromic management of vaginal discharge using single-dose treatments: a randomized controlled trial in West Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:729-38 pubmed
    To evaluate whether single-dose treatments are as effective as standard therapy in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge.

More Information

Publications84

  1. Farage M, Miller K, Ledger W. Determining the cause of vulvovaginal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2008;63:445-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The focus is on the clinical presentation, specifically 1) the absence or presence and characteristics of vaginal discharge; 2) the nature of sensory symptoms (itch and/or pain, localized or generalized, provoked, intermittent, or ..
  2. Kjetland E, Kurewa E, Ndhlovu P, Midzi N, Gwanzura L, Mason P, et al. Female genital schistosomiasis--a differential diagnosis to sexually transmitted disease: genital itch and vaginal discharge as indicators of genital Schistosoma haematobium morbidity in a cross-sectional study in endemic rural Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:1509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the association between schistosomiasis and reproductive tract symptoms...
  3. Anorlu R, Fagbenro Beyioku A, Fagorala T, Abudu O, Galadanci H. Prevalence of trichomonas vaginalis in patients with vaginal discharge in Lagos, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2001;8:183-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among women with vaginal discharge attending a gynaecologic clinic in Lagos and to identify the common characteristics of the vaginal discharge ..
  4. Washington E, Holmes M, Haines S, Ringwood J. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration presenting with vaginal discharge and hydrosalpinx in a 16-year-old patient. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2002;18:28-30 pubmed
  5. Sherrard J, Donders G, White D, Jensen J. European (IUSTI/WHO) guideline on the management of vaginal discharge, 2011. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:421-9 pubmed publisher
    Three common infections are associated with vaginal discharge: bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, of which trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI)...
  6. Wohlrab K, Erekson E, Myers D. Postoperative erosions of the Mersilene suburethral sling mesh for antiincontinence surgery. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20:417-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common presenting symptom was vaginal discharge reported in 37% of women...
  7. Kostick K, Schensul S, Jadhav K, Singh R, Bavadekar A, Saggurti N. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai. Cult Med Psychiatry. 2010;34:529-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care...
  8. Haggerty C, Totten P, Ferris M, Martin D, Hoferka S, Astete S, et al. Clinical characteristics of bacterial vaginosis among women testing positive for fastidious bacteria. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:242-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As the aetiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not well understood, this study sought to determine the relationships between several fastidious microbes, BV and selected clinical characteristics of BV...
  9. McDougall S, Hussein H, Aberdein D, Buckle K, Roche J, Burke C, et al. Relationships between cytology, bacteriology and vaginal discharge scores and reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 2011;76:229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Cows in the highest quartile for PMN% at both D28 and D42 had lower pregnancy rates, took longer to conceive, and had a lower milk yield than those in the lower PMN% categories...
  10. Patel V, Andrew G, Pelto P. The psychological and social contexts of complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge: a study of illness narratives in India. J Psychosom Res. 2008;64:255-62; discussion 263-4 pubmed publisher
    ..studies have reported strong associations between psychosocial adversity and complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge (AVD) in South Asia. We aimed to explore the mechanism of these associations through qualitative research.
  11. Parren P, Marx P, Hessell A, Luckay A, Harouse J, Cheng Mayer C, et al. Antibody protects macaques against vaginal challenge with a pathogenic R5 simian/human immunodeficiency virus at serum levels giving complete neutralization in vitro. J Virol. 2001;75:8340-7 pubmed
    ..The significance of such substerilizing neutralizing antibody titers in the context of a potent cellular immune response is an important area for further study...
  12. Alzanbagi N, Salem H, Al Braiken F. Trichomoniasis among women with vaginal discharge in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2005;35:1071-80 pubmed
    During the year of 2003, vaginal discharge specimens were collected from 1767 women aged (15-50) in 6 cardinal hospitals in Jeddah city of Saudi Arabia. The samples were examined for Trichomonas vaginalis, a prevalence rate of 12 (0...
  13. Thulkar J, Kriplani A, Agarwal N. Utility of pH test & Whiff test in syndromic approach of abnormal vaginal discharge. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:445-8 pubmed
    ..National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) introduced syndromic approach to treat patients with abnormal vaginal discharge without a need for laboratory tests...
  14. Rahman S, Garland S, Currie M, Tabrizi S, Rahman M, Nessa K, et al. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in health clinic attendees complaining of vaginal discharge in Bangladesh. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:772-4 pubmed publisher
    ..to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of health clinic attendees complaining of vaginal discharge. A subsample of 399 vaginal and cervical swabs was randomly selected from 2579 samples collected during a ..
  15. Kobeissi L, Araya R, El Kak F, Ghantous Z, Khawaja M, Khoury B, et al. The relaxation exercise and social support trial-resst: study protocol for a randomized community based trial. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:142 pubmed publisher
    Studies suggests a possible link between vaginal discharge and common mental distress, as well as highlight the implications of the subjective burden of disease and its link with mental health.
  16. John G, Nduati R, Mbori Ngacha D, Overbaugh J, Welch M, Richardson B, et al. Genital shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA during pregnancy: association with immunosuppression, abnormal cervical or vaginal discharge, and severe vitamin A deficiency. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:57-62 pubmed
    ..8-34.2). Detection of vaginal HIV- 1 DNA was associated with abnormal vaginal discharge, lower absolute CD4 cell count, and severe vitamin A deficiency...
  17. West B, Morison L, Schim van der Loeff M, Gooding E, Awasana A, Demba E, et al. Evaluation of a new rapid diagnostic kit (FemExam) for bacterial vaginosis in patients with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia. Sex Transm Dis. 2003;30:483-9 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in resource-poor primary health care settings is often overlooked; there is a need for a cheap, rapid, objective point-of-care diagnostic test...
  18. Moodley P, Sturm A. Management of vaginal discharge syndrome: how effective is our strategy?. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;24 Suppl 1:S4-7 pubmed
    ..Rapid reinfection from a large pool of infected symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals as well as the non-specific nature of presenting symptoms in women with vaginal discharge syndrome are major causes.
  19. LeBlanc S, Duffield T, Leslie K, Bateman K, Keefe G, Walton J, et al. Defining and diagnosing postpartum clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2002;85:2223-36 pubmed
    ..73 for pregnancy (took 27% longer to become pregnant), and were 1.7 times more likely to be culled for reproductive failure than cows without endometritis...
  20. Mylonas I, Bergauer F. Diagnosis of vaginal discharge by wet mount microscopy: a simple and underrated method. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2011;66:359-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Vaginal discharge is highly variable in quality and quantity among different individuals, and even in the same individual during different periods of life...
  21. Runciman D, Anderson G, Malmo J. Comparison of two methods of detecting purulent vaginal discharge in postpartum dairy cows and effect of intrauterine cephapirin on reproductive performance. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:369-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Part 2: assess the effect of a single intrauterine infusion of 500 mg cephapirin in cows diagnosed with vaginal purulent or mucopurulent discharge 7 to 28 days after calving on reproductive performance...
  22. Trollope Kumar K. Limitations of the syndromic approach in South Asia. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:1173 pubmed
  23. Damelin L, Paximadis M, Mavri Damelin D, Birkhead M, Lewis D, Tiemessen C. Identification of predominant culturable vaginal Lactobacillus species and associated bacteriophages from women with and without vaginal discharge syndrome in South Africa. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:180-3 pubmed publisher
    ..A significant effect of vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) on the distribution of predominant Lactobacillus species was ..
  24. Modak T, Arora P, Agnes C, Ray R, Goswami S, Ghosh P, et al. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in cases of abnormal vaginal discharge: comparison of clinical and microbiological criteria. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:353-60 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic ability of the Amsel criteria with that of Nugent's score among patients presenting with abnormal vaginal discharge.
  25. Mlisana K, Naicker N, Werner L, Roberts L, van Loggerenberg F, Baxter C, et al. Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a poor predictor of sexually transmitted infections and genital tract inflammation in high-risk women in South Africa. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:6-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory diagnosis of STIs, and evaluated the association between STI diagnosis and the risk of HIV acquisition in a cohort of high-risk women...
  26. Patel V, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Rodrigues M, Barros P, Nayak B, et al. Why do women complain of vaginal discharge? A population survey of infectious and pyschosocial risk factors in a South Asian community. Int J Epidemiol. 2005;34:853-62 pubmed
    b>Vaginal discharge is a common complaint, particularly among women in Asia. Although presumed to be caused by reproductive tract infections (RTIs), the association between the complaint and the presence of RTIs is weak...
  27. Romoren M, Sundby J, Velauthapillai M, Rahman M, Klouman E, Hjortdahl P. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea in pregnant Batswana women: time to discard the syndromic approach?. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:27 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of chlamydia was 8%, and gonorrhoea was found in 3% of the attendees. Symptoms and signs of vaginal discharge did not predict cervical infection, and a syndromic approach failed to identify infected women...
  28. Cotton S, Sharp L, Cochran C, Gray N, Cruickshank M, Smart L, et al. After-effects reported by women having follow-up cervical cytology tests in primary care: a cohort study within the TOMBOLA trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61:e333-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Informing women about possible after-effects could better prepare them and provide reassurance, thereby minimising potential non-adherence with follow-up or non-participation with screening in the future. ..
  29. Lima T, Teles L, de Oliveira A, Campos F, Barbosa R, Pinheiro A, et al. [Vaginal discharge in pregnant women: comparison between syndromic approach and examination of clinical nursing practice]. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2013;47:1265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings were obtained by two means, flowchart of vaginal discharge, and typical examinations in the clinical nursing practice...
  30. Biström M, Moisander Jylhä A, Heinikainen S, Pelkola K, Raunio Saarnisto M. Isolation of Clostridium limosum from an outbreak of metritis in farmed mink. Acta Vet Scand. 2016;58:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Major pathological findings included hemorrhagic vaginal discharge, severely inflamed uteri with luminal hemorrhagic exudate and dead fetuses...
  31. Logsdon M, Davis D, Myers J, Masterson K, Rushton J, Lauf A. Do New Mothers Understand the Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality?. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2018;43:201-205 pubmed publisher
    ..4 °F or higher, and odor with vaginal discharge. Courses of action new mothers would take if experiencing any of the warning signs included 18% of mothers ..
  32. Plöntzke J, Madoz L, de la Sota R, Heuwieser W, Drillich M. Prevalence of clinical endometritis and its impact on reproductive performance in grazing dairy cattle in Argentina. Reprod Domest Anim. 2011;46:520-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Vaginal discharge was scored into the categories VDS 0 (transparent, clear mucus), VDS 1 (mucupurulent discharge), VDS 2 (..
  33. Fule S, Fule R, Tankhiwale N. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in rural area. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30:314-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Three vaginal infections are frequent causes of a vaginal discharge: (1) bacterial vaginosis, (2) vulvovaginal candidiasis and (3) trichomonas vaginitis...
  34. Holman H, Gailbreath K. UTERINE ADENOMYOSIS AND AN ENDOMETRIAL POLYP IN A ROCK HYRAX (PROCAVIA CAPENSIS). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2016;47:1114-1117 pubmed publisher
    ..No further vaginal discharge was observed. This is the first report of uterine adenomyosis and endometrial polyp in a rock hyrax.
  35. Heatley M. The association between clinical and pathological features in histologically identified chronic endometritis. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004;24:801-3 pubmed
    ..0259). Thus this study confirms the findings of others that there is no specific clinical syndrome that is associated with the presence of plasma cells in the endometrium. ..
  36. Baum M. Current status of aromatase inhibitors in the management of breast cancer and critique of the NCIC MA-17 trial. Cancer Control. 2004;11:217-21 pubmed
  37. Olson K, Boohaker L, Schwebke J, Aslibekyan S, Muzny C. Comparisons of vaginal flora patterns among sexual behaviour groups of women: implications for the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis. Sex Health. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    b>Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge. The objective was to compare the prevalence of BV by Nugent score among African-American women who have sex with women (WSW) and women who have ..
  38. Talla P, Ekotomati M, Brunisholz Y, Bouquet de la Jolinière J, Fagan B, Feki A, et al. Consider the Risk of Vesicouterine Fistula in the Event of Intermittent Fluid Vaginal Discharge after a Cesarean Section. Front Surg. 2017;4:58 pubmed publisher
    ..In this case study, we will review the presenting symptoms of this complication and suggest an updated management protocol...
  39. Pillay K, Coutsoudis A, Agadzi Naqvi A, Kuhn L, Coovadia H, Janoff E. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in vaginal fluids and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:653-6 pubmed
    ..174 virions/mL; P=.09). Increased concentrations of selected innate mucosal immune factors, such as SLPI, seem to be associated with reduced rates of perinatal HIV-1 transmission and may contribute to natural antiretroviral defense. ..
  40. Karg E, Bereczki C, Kovacs J, Korom I, Varkonyi A, Megyeri P, et al. Primary lymphoedema associated with xanthomatosis, vaginal lymphorrhoea and intestinal lymphangiectasia. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:134-7 pubmed
    ..Biopsy also revealed intestinal lymphangiectasia. This paper also presents a brief review of the literature and draws attention to the significance of the xanthomatous eruption in the diagnosis of a chylous reflux. ..
  41. Cemek F, OdabaÅŸ D, Åženel Ã, Kocaman A. Personal Hygiene and Vulvovaginitis in Prepubertal Children. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016;29:223-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The most common symptoms among the patients were vaginal discharge (44.4%, vulvar erythema (37.8%), and vaginal itch (24.4%)...
  42. Ozmen O, Haligur M, Kocamuftuoglu M. Clinocopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of multiple genital leiomyomas and mammary adenocarcinomas in a bitch. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43:377-381 pubmed publisher
    A 13-year-old female Pointer dog was presented for evaluation of mammary tumours and bloody vaginal discharge at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine...
  43. Cerna M, Kuntová B, Talacko P, Stopkova R, Stopka P. Differential regulation of vaginal lipocalins (OBP, MUP) during the estrous cycle of the house mouse. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11674 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the mouse vaginal discharge contains lipocalins including those from the odorant binding (OBP) and major urinary (MUP) protein families...
  44. Saccone G, Maruotti G, Giudicepietro A, Martinelli P. Effect of Cervical Pessary on Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Women With Singleton Pregnancies and Short Cervical Length: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;318:2317-2324 pubmed publisher
    ..48 [95% CI, 0.24-0.95]). During follow-up, the pessary group had a higher rate of increased or new vaginal discharge (86.7% vs 46.0%; between-group difference, +40.7% [95% CI, +30.1%-+50.3%]; relative risk, 1.88 [95% CI, 1...
  45. El Sayed Zaki M, Raafat D, El Emshaty W, Azab M, Goda H. Correlation of Trichomonas vaginalis to bacterial vaginosis: a laboratory-based study. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:156-63 pubmed
    ..The Nugent score method revealed that the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of vaginal discharge by direct rapid microscopic methods were 30% and 80% and for clue cells sensitivity and specificity were 37% ..
  46. Christman N, Oakley M, Cronin S. Developing and using preparatory information for women undergoing radiation therapy for cervical or uterine cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001;28:93-8 pubmed
    ..of the women reported difficulty sleeping, fatigue, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, urinary frequency, dysuria, vaginal discharge, and perineal irritation...
  47. Parish W, Hao Y, Laumann E, Schneider J. Genitourinary symptoms in urban China: a population-based study. Int J STD AIDS. 2007;18:736-40 pubmed
    ..The results also reveal factors other than sexual behaviour as predictors for GU symptoms. ..
  48. Sheeley A. Sorting out common causes of abnormal vaginal discharge. JAAPA. 2004;17:15-6, 18-20, 22 pubmed
    A chief complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge requires a broad differential diagnosis of both infectious and noninfectious causes...
  49. Giuliodori M, Magnasco R, Becu Villalobos D, Lacau Mengido I, Risco C, de la Sota R. Metritis in dairy cows: risk factors and reproductive performance. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:3621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cows having a watery, purulent, or brown, and fetid vaginal discharge (VD) and rectal temperature ? 39...
  50. Engberts M, Boon M, van Haaften M, Heintz A. Symptomatic candidiasis: Using self sampled vaginal smears to establish the presence of Candida, lactobacilli, and Gardnerella vaginalis. Diagn Cytopathol. 2007;35:635-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida...
  51. Marsh F, Rogerson L. Groin abscess secondary to trans obturator tape erosion: case report and literature review. Neurourol Urodyn. 2007;26:543-546 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a case of groin abscess secondary to trans obturator tape erosion and review the literature on the incidence, predisposing factors, symptoms and management of tape erosion...
  52. Richman S, Drickamer M. Gynecologic care of elderly women. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2007;8:219-23 pubmed
    ..Evaluation and management strategies for addressing abnormal bleeding, discharge, urinary symptoms, and sexuality amongst elderly women are presented...
  53. Fischer Tenhagen C, von Krueger X, Heuwieser W. Short communication: Evaluation of vaginal discharge following treatment with a progesterone insert. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:4447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Heifers identified in estrus were artificially inseminated on d 9 or 10. Vaginal discharge was scored on a 4-point scale [vaginal discharge score (VDS) 0 to 3] and vaginal swabs were taken for ..
  54. Hainer B, Gibson M. Vaginitis. Am Fam Physician. 2011;83:807-15 pubmed
    ..Most patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis are diagnosed by the presence of vulvar inflammation plus vaginal discharge or with microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 10 percent potassium hydroxide solution...
  55. Kustritz M. Theriogenology question of the month. Cause of postestral vulvar discharge. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232:841-3 pubmed publisher
  56. Khan S, Amir F, Altaf S, Tanveer R. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2009;21:90-3 pubmed
    b>Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge...
  57. Dada Adegbola H, Oni A. Review of cases of children with gonorrhoea--source of infection. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2001;30:347-51 pubmed
    ..Clinical manifestations of the 84 children include vaginal discharge (97.6%), urethritis (2.4%) and combined genital and eye infection (8.3%)...
  58. Walid M, Agarwala N, Heaton R. Laparoscopic removal of infected mesh colposacropexy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;280:103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We are reporting three cases of infected mesh colposacropexies which were successfully removed using the laparoscopic technique...
  59. Peeling R, Holmes K, Mabey D, Ronald A. Rapid tests for sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the way forward. Sex Transm Infect. 2006;82 Suppl 5:v1-6 pubmed
  60. LeBlanc S. Interactions of metabolism, inflammation, and reproductive tract health in the postpartum period in dairy cattle. Reprod Domest Anim. 2012;47 Suppl 5:18-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of metritis is typically 10-20%, with 5-15% of cows having purulent vaginal discharge (PVD), 15-40% having cervicitis approximately 1 month after calving, and 10-30% having cytological ..
  61. Lewis J, Garnett G, Nyamukapa C, Donnelly C, Mason P, Gregson S. Patterns of uptake of treatment for self reported sexually transmitted infection symptoms in rural Zimbabwe. Sex Transm Infect. 2005;81:326-32 pubmed
    ..To determine the extent of self reported symptoms perceived to be related to sexually transmitted infections and the patterns of subsequent treatment seeking behaviour in a predominantly rural population of Zimbabwe...
  62. Mahmood M, Saniotis A. Use of syndromic management algorithm for sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections management in community settings in Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2011;61:453-7 pubmed
    ..This research was conducted to assess the diagnosis and prescription patterns using syndromic management algorithms as part of a community-based reproductive health programme...
  63. Sheikhan F, Jahdi F, Khoei E, Shamsalizadeh N, Sheikhan M, Haghani H. Episiotomy pain relief: Use of Lavender oil essence in primiparous Iranian women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18:66-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Complementary medicine is increasingly used and Lavender oil is frequently prescribed due to its antiseptic and healing properties...
  64. Vural B, Ozkan S, Ciftci E, Bodur H, Yucesoy I. Spontaneous vaginal expulsion of an infected necrotic cervical fibroid through a cervical fistula after uterine artery embolization: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:563-6 pubmed
    ..Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is promising, minimally invasive therapy being offered to women for treatment of fibroids. Although it seems to be safe and effective, major complications and adverse outcomes have been reported...
  65. Al Zanbagi N, Al Jehani E. Recent diagnostic study for the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007;37:361-70 pubmed
    ..4% positive predictive value and 95% negative predictive value. InPouch TV culture showed 86.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 98.7% negative predictive value. The results were discussed...
  66. Brotman R, Melendez J, Ghanem K. A case control study of anovaginal distance and bacterial vaginosis. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22:231-3 pubmed publisher
    ..attending two sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, who complained of a vaginal discharge were asked to participate in a study to measure mucosal immune responses...
  67. Giraldo Isaza M, Jaspan D, Cohen A. Postpartum endometritis caused by herpes and cytomegaloviruses. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:466-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A pathologically confirmed case of postpartum endometritis secondary to herpes and cytomegalovirus in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient is reported...
  68. Kingston M, Bansal D, Carlin E. 'Shelf life' of Trichomonas vaginalis. Int J STD AIDS. 2003;14:28-9 pubmed
    ..vaginalis (TV) infection in women may be made by observing motile trichomonads in wet-mount preparations of vaginal discharge. The duration for which these organisms can be identified in such samples is unknown...
  69. von Eye Corleta H, Moretto M, D Avila Â, Berger M. Immediate ureterovaginal fistula secondary to oocyte retrieval--a case report. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2006.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a case of ureterovaginal fistula secondary to transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR)...
  70. Rodrigues A, Teixeira R, Teixeira T, Conde S, Soares P, Torgal I. Impact of pelvic radiotherapy on female sexuality. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess physical and psychological morbidity, sexual functioning and social and relationship satisfaction among women treated with pelvic radiotherapy...
  71. Yanikkerem E, Yasayan A. Vaginal douching practice: Frequency, associated factors and relationship with vulvovaginal symptoms. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66:387-92 pubmed
    ..To determine the frequency, associated factors and relationship with vulvovaginal symptoms and vaginal douching among Turkish women...
  72. Moon T, Kennedy A, Knight K. Vaginal discharge due to undiagnosed bilateral duplicated collecting system with ectopic ureters in a three-year-old female: an initial high index of suspicion for sexual abuse. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002;15:213-6 pubmed
    In prepubertal girls with vaginal discharge, consideration of the etiology must be given to respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria ..
  73. Xiao B, Liu Z, Liao Q. [Microecological investigation of vaginal microflora in women with varying degree gynecologic symptoms in clinics]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2009;44:6-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the microecological status of vaginal microflora in the women with different vaginal symptoms...
  74. Evans H. Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal child. Pediatr Case Rev. 2003;3:194-202 pubmed
  75. Noble H, Estcourt C, Ison C, Goold P, Tite L, Carter Y. How is the high vaginal swab used to investigate vaginal discharge in primary care and how do GPs' expectations of the test match the tests performed by their microbiology services?. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:204-6 pubmed
    To describe the management of vaginal discharge in general practice, with particular regard to the use of the high vaginal swab (HVS), and to compare GPs' expectations of this test with the processing and reporting undertaken by ..