Summary: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to MENSTRUATION, usually in females without regular MENSTRUAL CYCLE. The irregular and unpredictable bleeding usually comes from a dysfunctional ENDOMETRIUM.

Top Publications

  1. Chemaitilly W, Thalassinos C, Emond S, Thibaud E. Metrorrhagia and precocious puberty revealing primary hypothyroidism in a child with Down's syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88:330-1 pubmed
    We report a child with Down's syndrome in whom metrorrhagia and precocious puberty revealed primary autoimmune hypothyroidism...
  2. Mishell D, Guillebaud J, Westhoff C, Nelson A, Kaunitz A, Trussell J, et al. Combined hormonal contraceptive trials: variable data collection and bleeding assessment methodologies influence study outcomes and physician perception. Contraception. 2007;75:4-10 pubmed
  3. Nakajima S, Archer D, Ellman H. Efficacy and safety of a new 24-day oral contraceptive regimen of norethindrone acetate 1 mg/ethinyl estradiol 20 micro g (Loestrin 24 Fe). Contraception. 2007;75:16-22 pubmed
    ..Extending the duration of active hormonal treatment may reduce the frequency of intracyclic bleeding/spotting while maintaining efficacy and tolerability...
  4. Ahrendt H, Makalová D, Parke S, Mellinger U, Mansour D. Bleeding pattern and cycle control with an estradiol-based oral contraceptive: a seven-cycle, randomized comparative trial of estradiol valerate/dienogest and ethinyl estradiol/levonorgestrel. Contraception. 2009;80:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..E2V releases estradiol (E2), which is identical to endogenously produced 17beta-estradiol...
  5. Mishell D, Guillebaud J, Westhoff C, Nelson A, Kaunitz A, Trussell J, et al. Recommendations for standardization of data collection and analysis of bleeding in combined hormone contraceptive trials. Contraception. 2007;75:11-5 pubmed
    ..This manuscript provides recommendations regarding best practices in trial design, data collection and analysis regarding bleeding data in combined hormone contraception trials...
  6. Endrikat J, Milchev N, Kapamadzija A, Georgievska J, Gerlinger C, Schmidt W, et al. Bleeding pattern, tolerance and patient satisfaction with a drospirenone-containing oral contraceptive evaluated in 3488 women in Europe, the Middle East and Canada. Contraception. 2009;79:428-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to assess the bleeding pattern, tolerance and patient satisfaction associated with an oral contraceptive (OC) containing 3 mg of drospirenone and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol under real-life conditions...
  7. Anttila L, Kunz M, Marr J. Bleeding pattern with drospirenone 3 mg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 24/4 combined oral contraceptive compared with desogestrel 150 mcg+ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg 21/7 combined oral contraceptive. Contraception. 2009;80:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was conducted to compare cycle control, bleeding pattern and efficacy of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives...
  8. Hasan R, Baird D, Herring A, Olshan A, Jonsson Funk M, Hartmann K. Association between first-trimester vaginal bleeding and miscarriage. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:860-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Heavy bleeding in the first trimester, particularly when accompanied by pain, is associated with higher risk of miscarriage. Spotting and light episodes are not, especially if lasting only 1-2 days. II. ..
  9. Bricou A, Demaria F, Benifla J. [Menstrual cycle disorders. Metrorrhagia]. Rev Prat. 2008;58:777-82 pubmed

More Information

Publications110 found, 100 shown here

  1. Warner P, Guttinger A, Glasier A, Lee R, Nickerson S, Brenner R, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of CDB-2914 in new users of a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system shows only short-lived amelioration of unscheduled bleeding. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, only 3% (4/136) of all women discontinued LNG-IUS. These findings give insight into possible mechanisms and suggest future research directions. ISRCTN Trial no. ISRCTN58283041; EudraCT no. 2006-006511-72. ..
  2. Teichmann A, Apter D, Emerich J, Greven K, Klasa Mazurkiewicz D, Melis G, et al. Continuous, daily levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol vs. 21-day, cyclic levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol: efficacy, safety and bleeding in a randomized, open-label trial. Contraception. 2009;80:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of AEs was similar to that of the cyclic OC (except for metrorrhagia and vaginal bleeding in the first 6 months)...
  3. Baron M, Dessogne P, d Anjou J. [The uterine sarcoma, a new risk identified for tamoxifen]. Presse Med. 2004;33:321-2 pubmed
  4. Cheng M, Chao H, Wang P. Unusual clinical presentation of uterine myomas. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;46:323-4 pubmed publisher
  5. Diri H, Karaburgu S, Acmaz B, Unluhizarci K, Tanriverdi F, Karaca Z, et al. Comparison of spironolactone and spironolactone plus metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016;32:42-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, FGSs were significantly decreased in both groups; however, combination therapy was not more effective than spironolactone alone in terms of BMI, FGS, hormone levels, or insulin resistance. ..
  6. Radhia O, Channoufi M, Adnane T, Nadia e, Kaies N, Ezeddine S, et al. [Endometrial ossification. 6 cases]. Tunis Med. 2001;79:234-7 pubmed
    ..Six cases of endometrial ossification diagnosis and treated at obstetrics and gynaecology department A of centre of La Rabta teaching hospital (Tunis) are reported. ..
  7. Kotru M, Chandra H, Singh N, Bhatia A. Localized amyloidosis in endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus: a rare association. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007;276:383-4 pubmed
    ..This is an unusual case of amyloidosis associated with endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus. ..
  8. Weisberg E, Hickey M, Palmer D, O CONNOR V, Salamonsen L, Findlay J, et al. A randomized controlled trial of treatment options for troublesome uterine bleeding in Implanon users. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:1852-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However there was no improvement in subsequent bleeding patterns. ACTR # 012605000206628. ..
  9. Godfrey E, Whiteman M, Curtis K. Treatment of unscheduled bleeding in women using extended- or continuous-use combined hormonal contraception: a systematic review. Contraception. 2013;87:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Limited data suggest that prophylactic low-dose daily oral doxycycline may induce earlier amenorrhea among new extended combined hormonal contraceptive users. ..
  10. Seravalli V, Linari S, Peruzzi E, Dei M, Paladino E, Bruni V. Prevalence of hemostatic disorders in adolescents with abnormal uterine bleeding. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2013;26:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results highlight the importance of screening for coagulation disorders in adolescents with AUB, independently from the gynecologic age at onset. ..
  11. Gallinat A. An impedance-controlled system for endometrial ablation: five-year follow-up of 107 patients. J Reprod Med. 2007;52:467-72 pubmed
    ..NovaSure yields high amenorrhea and success rates and low surgical reintervention rates 5 years after treatment. ..
  12. Archer D. Endometrial bleeding in postmenopausal women: with and without hormone therapy. Menopause. 2011;18:416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The major cause of hormone therapy-related bleeding is unknown. Alterations in angiogenic factors that could result in vascular dysfunction and vessel breakdown provide a working hypothesis as to the potential cause of vessel breakdown. ..
  13. Doubilet P. Diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding with imaging. Menopause. 2011;18:421-4 pubmed publisher
  14. Lenhard S, Untch M, Himsl I, Ditsch N, Bittmann I, Friese K, et al. The high-grade endometrial sarcoma: a rare entity. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2006;274:56-9 pubmed
    ..Due to missing clinical data, it remains a multidisciplinary therapeutic challenge requiring individual decisions. To receive more information on this rare disease, treatment should be performed according to international protocols. ..
  15. Poiget B, Cheynier J. [Mesenteric infarction and arterial hypertension following haemostasis-aimed estroprogestational therapy]. Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet. 1973;68:325-9 pubmed
    ..The part played by estroprogestational agents in general in the development of vascular, and more especially arterial thrombosis, was discussed on that occasion. ..
  16. Fernández Parra J, Rodríguez Oliver A, López Criado S, Parrilla Fernández F, Montoya Ventoso F. Hysteroscopic evaluation of endometrial polyps. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;95:144-8 pubmed
    ..Carcinoma was found in only 3.9% of the women who consulted for menopausal metrorrhagia and were diagnosed as having a polyp...
  17. Panjari M, Bell R, Jane F, Adams J, Morrow C, Davis S. The safety of 52 weeks of oral DHEA therapy for postmenopausal women. Maturitas. 2009;63:240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of 50mg oral DHEA did not significantly alter lipid profile, insulin sensitivity or adversely affect the endometrium in postmenopausal women. ..
  18. Kuppermann M, Learman L, Schembri M, Gregorich S, Jackson R, Jacoby A, et al. Predictors of hysterectomy use and satisfaction. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Providers should discuss health-related quality of life, sexual function, and attitudes with patients to help identify those who are most likely to benefit from this procedure. ..
  19. Bondiau P, Largillier R, Foa C, Rasendrarijao D, Frenay M, Gerard J. [Treatment of brain metastasis from ovarian cancer]. Cancer Radiother. 2003;7:184-6 pubmed
    ..Taking into account the increase in the incidence of the CMOC and their early occurrence, some authors have proposed a prophylactic brain radiotherapy in patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. ..
  20. Rogers P, Martinez F, Girling J, Lederman F, Cann L, Farrell E, et al. Influence of different hormonal regimens on endometrial microvascular density and VEGF expression in women suffering from breakthrough bleeding. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:3341-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong evidence that unopposed progestins reduce endometrial BVD and that there is no link between VEGF immunostaining and BVD or BTB. ..
  21. Gueye M, Gaye Y, Diouf A, Mbaye M, Niang M, Gueye S, et al. [Trancesarean intra-uterine device. Pilot study performed at Dakar teaching hospital]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2013;42:585-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The rate of expulsion was 2.2%. The insertion of the IUD following cesarean delivery has an acceptable rate of expulsion and no increased rate of adverse effects. This technique should be popularized. ..
  22. Ayers D, Montgomery M. Putting a stop to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Nursing. 2009;39:44-50; quiz 51 pubmed publisher
    ..Learn how to search for the source of abnormal bleeding and help your patient get back on track. ..
  23. Ozkan Z, Kumbak B, Cilgin H, Simsek M, Turk B. Coexistence of adenomyosis in women operated for benign gynecological diseases. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28:212-5 pubmed publisher
    ..AG is an enigmatic disease frequently causing gynecologic complaints and endomyometrial junction deterioration during endometrial sampling may be a trigger point for developing AG. ..
  24. Wade S, Magee G, Metz L, Broder M. Cost-effectiveness of treatments for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. J Reprod Med. 2006;51:553-62 pubmed
    ..Hysterectomy cost-effectiveness might improve if evaluated over more time. Cost-effectiveness and patient preference must all play a role in treatment decisions. ..
  25. Kilic G, Boruban M, Bueco Ramos C, Konoplev S. Granulocytic sarcoma involving the uterus and right fallopian tube with negative endometrial biopsy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2007;28:270-2 pubmed
    ..Granulocytic sarcoma of the uterus and fallopian tube is very rare, and in AML patients with abnormal uterine bleeding but negative endometrial biopsy it should still be considered in the differential diagnosis. ..
  26. Dickersin K, Munro M, Clark M, Langenberg P, Scherer R, Frick K, et al. Hysterectomy compared with endometrial ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:1279-89 pubmed
    ..Hysterectomy (as the index surgery) was associated with more adverse events and a substantial number of patients receiving endometrial ablation had reoperation.,, NCT00114088 I. ..
  27. Skaznik Wikiel M, Jelovsek J, Andrews B, Bradley L. Accuracy of endometrial thickness in detecting benign endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2010;17:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..With an endometrial thickness cutoff of 5 mm a considerable amount of benign endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women with bleeding is missed, and SIS or hysteroscopy may be warranted. ..
  28. Neumann G, Rasmussen K, Olesen H. Premenopausal metrorrhagia as a symptom of sarcoidosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;104:171-3 pubmed
    Sarcoidosis rarely affects the female genitalia. We report a 36-year-old woman who had a hysterectomy for metrorrhagia. Histologic examination showed sarcoid granulomas in the endometrium and myometrium...
  29. Rukhliada N, Bagnenko S, Tsvelev I. [Rational surgical strategy in urgent non-gravidic metrorrhagia]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2002;161:79-81 pubmed
    ..The authors have analyzed the causes of the development of UNM, revealed high incidence of adenomyosis (44.3%). ..
  30. Joshi S, Dutta S, Bell B, Profy A, Kuruc J, Fang G, et al. Documenting intermenstrual bleeding in a vaginal microbicide study: case reports and lessons learned. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:294-6 pubmed
  31. Anttila L, Neunteufel W, Petraglia F, Marr J, Kunz M. Cycle control and bleeding pattern of a 24/4 regimen of drospirenone 3?mg/ethinylestradiol 20??g compared with a 21/7 regimen of desogestrel 150??g/ethinylestradiol 20??g: a pooled analysis. Clin Drug Investig. 2011;31:519-525 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, similar bleeding patterns were observed with both treatments. DRSP 3?mg/EE 20??g 24/4 is associated with a bleeding profile and cycle control that is comparable to that of an established, low-dose COC formulation. ..
  32. Kaneshiro B, Edelman A, Carlson N, Nichols M, Forbes M, Jensen J. A randomized controlled trial of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline to prevent unscheduled bleeding with continuous oral contraceptive pill use. Contraception. 2012;85:351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7 (7.7), placebo 85.2 (6.7), p=.03]. The coadministration of subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline during initiation of continuous OCPs results in a significant reduction in the length of time needed to achieve amenorrhea. ..
  33. Gupta B, Mittal S, Misra R, Deka D, Dadhwal V. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs. transcervical endometrial resection for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;95:261-6 pubmed
    ..Satisfaction rates were about 80% in the 2 groups. Both treatments were found to be equally effective but LNG-IUS placement requires less operator skill and entails no operative hazards, and the device provides effective contraception. ..
  34. Gerlinger C, Wessel J, Kallischnigg G, Endrikat J. Pattern recognition in menstrual bleeding diaries by statistical cluster analysis. BMC Womens Health. 2009;9:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclic and non cyclic bleeding patterns were well separated. Using this cluster analysis with the method of Ward medications and devices having an impact on bleeding can be easily compared and categorized. ..
  35. Chapa H. Utility of in-office endometrial ablation: a prospective cohort study of endometrial ablation under local anesthesia. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:827-31 pubmed
    ..Serious adverse events were not encountered when performed by properly trained practitioners. ..
  36. Jarrell A, Olsen M. Patient satisfaction with thermal balloon endometrial ablation. A retrospective review. J Reprod Med. 2003;48:635-6 pubmed
    ..Thirteen of 28 women underwent subsequent hysterectomy. Less than 60% of women reported satisfaction with balloon endometrial ablation, and 40% underwent hysterectomy within 1 year of it. ..
  37. Garba M, Almoustapha T, Garba A, Nouhou H. [Extra uterine pregnancy associated with a tubal schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. A case report from Niger]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2004;97:41-2 pubmed
    ..The implementation of a control programme based on chemotherapy by praziquantel will enable the reduction of their frequency. ..
  38. Chesnais A, Le Breton F, Devouassoux Shisheboran M, Huissoud C, Massardier J, Quilichini B, et al. [Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: report of a non-antenatal diagnosed case]. Ann Pathol. 2011;31:299-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical study and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a complete hydatiform mole. No persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia was observed during the follow-up. ..
  39. Grio R, Giobbe C, Cellula A, Zaccheo F, Porpiglia M, Malara D, et al. [Inflammation of the uterine corpus: endometritis]. Minerva Ginecol. 1990;42:99-102 pubmed
    ..In order to treat the symptoms of genito-pelvic infection, an early diagnosis and adequate medical therapy are indispensable. In this event it may be possible to prevent invalidating effects on fertility and chronic pelvic pain...
  40. Dornhöfer T, Mueller M, Triller J. [The AV-malformation of the uterus: a rare cause of dysmenorrhea and menometrorrhagia]. Rofo. 2004;176:124-5 pubmed
  41. Pitkin J. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding. BMJ. 2007;334:1110-1 pubmed
  42. van der Voet L, Bij de Vaate A, Veersema S, Brolmann H, Huirne J. Long-term complications of caesarean section. The niche in the scar: a prospective cohort study on niche prevalence and its relation to abnormal uterine bleeding. BJOG. 2014;121:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of women 6-12 weeks after caesarean section, when examined by GIS. Postmenstrual spotting is more prevalent in women with a niche and in women with a residual myometrial thickness of <50% of the adjacent myometrium. ..
  43. Holder N. Gonococcal infections. Pediatr Rev. 2008;29:228-34 pubmed publisher
  44. Karakus S, Kiran G, Ciralik H. Efficacy of micronised vaginal progesterone versus oral dydrogestrone in the treatment of irregular dysfunctional uterine bleeding: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009;49:685-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This needs to be further evaluated in adequately controlled randomised trials against other effective treatments. ..
  45. Guerci P, Vial F, Raft J, Meistelman C, Bouaziz H. [Prolonged residual paralysis after a single intubating dose of rocuronium: an unexpected cause]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2012;31:632-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Different etiologies can cause a prolonged block. We report the case of a misdiagnosis of prolonged neuromuscular blockade by a failure in the monitoring system of curarization. ..
  46. Fitzhugh V, Murphy G, Heller D. Adenomyomatous polyp of the endometrium: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2008;53:231-4 pubmed
    ..No history of tamoxifen use was present in this case. The diagnosis of perivascular epithelioid cell tumor was ruled out. We found 1 other report of a similar lesion, which may have represented a hamartoma. ..
  47. Rager K, Fowler A, Omar H. Successful treatment of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate-related vaginal bleeding improves continuation rates in adolescents. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006;6:353-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that vaginal bleeding due to DMPA can be successfully treated, leading to improvement in continuation rates...
  48. Gervaise A, de Tayrac R, Fernandez H. Contraceptive information after endometrial ablation. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:1746-7 pubmed
    ..Their use reduces the rate of hysterectomies for this common problem. Because of their effects on the endometrium and uterine cavity (synechiae), these treatments are indicated only for patients who do not wish to remain fertile...
  49. Matytsina L, Zoloto E, Sinenko L, Greydanus D. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding in adolescents: concepts of pathophysiology and management. Prim Care. 2006;33:503-15 pubmed
    ..Specific management depends on the underlying cause, presence and extent of any existing anemia, and duration of the irregular menstrual pattern...
  50. Lohr P, Creinin M. Oral contraceptives and breakthrough bleeding: what patients need to know. J Fam Pract. 2006;55:872-80 pubmed
  51. Morison N, Zhang J, Kaitu u Lino T, Fraser I, Salamonsen L. The long-term actions of etonogestrel and levonorgestrel on decidualized and non-decidualized endometrium in a mouse model mimic some effects of progestogen-only contraceptives in women. Reproduction. 2007;133:309-21 pubmed
    ..MMP7 was primarily associated with tissue repair. Therefore, this model mimics some of the changes observed in endometria of women using p-only contraceptives and provides an opportunity for functional studies...
  52. Hickey M, Agarwal S. Unscheduled bleeding in combined oral contraceptive users: focus on extended-cycle and continuous-use regimens. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2009;35:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..If abnormal bleeding persists beyond 3-4 months and causes such as incorrect usage can be ruled out, other causes should be considered...
  53. Maillet L, De Saint Hilaire P, Rudigoz R, Dubernard G. [Evaluation of endometrectomy by radiofrequency for premenopausal women: a retrospective study]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2013;42:458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In present study, we are assessing the efficiency of endometrial ablation by radiofrequency (Novasure(®)) for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding...
  54. Machado L, Mathew M, Al Hassani A, Vaclavinkova V. Correlation of endometrial thickness, cycle day and histopathology in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:260-3 pubmed
  55. Polena V, Mergui J, Zerat L, Sananes S. The role of Pipelle Mark II sampling in endometrial disease diagnosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;134:233-7 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of Pipelle Mark II sampling (designed for combined cytology and histology testing) in the diagnosis of endometrial disease...
  56. Maia H, Casoy J, Correia T, Athayde C, Valente J, Coutinho E. Activation of NF-kappaB and COX-2 expression is associated with breakthrough bleeding in patients using oral contraceptives in extended regimens. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2010;26:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of breakthrough bleeding in patients with uterine pathology using combined oral contraceptives is associated with the activation of endometrial inflammation through the NF-kappaB pathway...
  57. Sotnikova L, Zhdanov V, Udut V, Dygai A. Influence of poetam preparation on the state of autonomic nervous system in patients with severe anemia caused by dysfunctional uterine bleedings. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2009;148:508-10 pubmed
    ..The use of poetam in the treatment of anemia in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleedings promotes recovery of the major parameters of the tone and reactivity of the autonomic nervous system...
  58. Stapley S, Hamilton W. Gynaecological symptoms reported by young women: examining the potential for earlier diagnosis of cervical cancer. Fam Pract. 2011;28:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Aim. To identify the frequency of attendance for gynaecological conditions by young English women...
  59. Nirgianakis K, Oehler R, Mueller M. The Rendez-vous technique for treatment of caesarean scar defects: a novel combined endoscopic approach. Surg Endosc. 2016;30:770-1 pubmed publisher
    ..However, before further studies evaluate the efficacy of this method, the routine repair of caesarean scar defects cannot be recommended. A video of the technique is presented. ..
  60. Descargues G, Lemercier E, David C, Genevois A, Lemoine J, Marpeau L. [Which initial tests should be performed to evaluate meno-metrorrhagias? A comparison of hysterography, transvaginal sonohysterography and hysteroscopy]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2001;30:59-64 pubmed
    ..Statistical study of sensitivity, specificity and Positive and Negative Predictive Value (PPV-NPV) of each investigation; rate of agreement by the coefficient of Kappa...
  61. Fernandez H, Kadoch O, Capella Allouc S, Gervaise A, Taylor S, Frydman R. [Hysteroscopic resection of submucous myomas: long term results]. Ann Chir. 2001;126:58-64 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the follow-up after operative hysteroscopic resection of submucous leiomyomas...
  62. Wang C, Yuen L, Lee C, Yen C, Soong Y. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal subtotal hysterectomy. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2005;15:33-7 pubmed
    ..A novel approach in combined laparoscopic and vaginal procedures through the posterior cul-de-sac for subtotal hysterectomy is introduced...
  63. Chargui R, Damak T, Khomsi F, Ben Hassouna J, Chaieb W, Hechiche M, et al. Prognostic factors and clinicopathologic characteristics of invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:43-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with cervical adenocarcinoma and to determine the characteristics and the prognostic factors of this entity...
  64. Bruni V, Pontello V, Luisi S, Petraglia F. An open-label, multicentre trial to evaluate the vaginal bleeding pattern of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;139:65-71 pubmed publisher
  65. Hampton R, Zhang H, Barnowski C, Wan G. Bleeding patterns with monophasic and triphasic low-dose ethinyl estradiol combined oral contraceptives. Contraception. 2008;77:415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective analysis evaluated the association of age and weight with cycle control in women using either of two formulations of low-estrogen-dose oral contraceptives...
  66. Kaunitz A, Portman D, Hait H, Reape K. Adding low-dose estrogen to the hormone-free interval: impact on bleeding patterns in users of a 91-day extended regimen oral contraceptive. Contraception. 2009;79:350-5 pubmed publisher
  67. Promes S, Nobay F. Pitfalls in first-trimester bleeding. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010;28:219-34, x pubmed publisher
    ..Causes of first-trimester vaginal bleeding include implantation bleeding, spontaneous abortions, ectopic pregnancy, and lesions involving the female reproductive system and perineal area infections...
  68. Başaran H, Akgul S, Kanbur N, Gumruk F, Cetin M, Derman O. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding in adolescent girls and evaluation of their response to treatment. Turk J Pediatr. 2013;55:186-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of coagulation disorders and other underlying situations as a cause of menorrhagia in adolescents with DUB and to assess the response to the treatment(s) given. ..
  69. Hatremi R, Sameh A, Azza S, Najla M, Rym B, Sami M, et al. [Emergency embolization in gynaecological bleeding. Two case reports]. Tunis Med. 2005;83:492-4 pubmed
    ..The bleeding was controlled after hyperselective embolisation. Emergency arterial embolisation is a safe and effective means of control of irrepressible genital hemorrhage...
  70. Naim N, Mahdy Z, Ahmad S, Razi Z. The Vabra aspirator versus the Pipelle device for outpatient endometrial sampling. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;47:132-6 pubmed
    ..To compare the effectiveness of the Vabra aspirator and the Pipelle device as an outpatient endometrial assessment tool...
  71. Mohsin F, Nahar N, Azad K, Nahar J. Vaginal bleeding with multicystic ovaries and a pituitary mass in a child with severe hypothyroidism. Mymensingh Med J. 2007;16:S60-62 pubmed
    ..Treatment with thyroxine alone halted the cyclic vaginal bleeding, led to rapid resolution of the ovarian cysts and regression of the pituitary mass...
  72. Glasser M, Heinlein P, Hung Y. Office endometrial ablation with local anesthesia using the HydroThermAblator system: Comparison of outcomes in patients with submucous myomas with those with normal cavities in 246 cases performed over 5(1/2) years. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:700-7 pubmed publisher
  73. Sontas H, Stelletta C, Milani C, Mollo A, Romagnoli S. Full recovery of subinvolution of placental sites in an American Staffordshire terrier bitch. J Small Anim Pract. 2011;52:42-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Five weeks after the diagnosis, the bitch was clinically healthy with no vaginal bleeding and spontaneous recovery occurred without surgical treatment...
  74. Khorrami H, Rackow B. Hysteroscopic resection of a symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in an adolescent. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2011;24:e111-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Uterine leiomyomas or fibroids are rare in the adolescent population. Hysteroscopic resection is an ideal approach for adolescents with symptomatic intracavitary myomas...
  75. Viel A, Goriaux J, Rouge J, Crouet H, Heron J. [Is the progesterone test a generalizable method of screening for neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions of the endometrium?]. Bull Cancer. 1990;77:371-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, one patient presented with an advanced endometrial cancer one year after a negative test. The reliability of such a test clearly needs further evaluation...
  76. Soriano D, Goldstein A, Lecuru F, Darai E. Recovery from vaginal hysterectomy compared with laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001;80:337-41 pubmed
    ..To evaluate short-term recovery of vaginal hysterectomy with those of laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy performed in a prospective, randomized multicentric study...
  77. Deligeoroglou E, Fotaki P. [Dysfunctional uterine bleeding in adolescence]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2002;42:17-9 pubmed
    ..The importance of continued follow-up in DUB cases should be underlined, until stabilization of ovulatory menstrual cycles...
  78. Rubod C, Mubiayi N, Robert Y, Vinatier D. [Uterine arteriovenous malformation. A rare cause of recurrent metrorrhagia]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2005;33:511-3 pubmed
    ..We report a case with acquired arteriovenous malformation arising from the left uterine artery. She was diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound and treated with a selective uterine artery embolization...
  79. Slayden O, Zelinski M, Chwalisz K, Hess Stumpp H, Brenner R. Chronic progesterone antagonist-estradiol therapy suppresses breakthrough bleeding and endometrial proliferation in a menopausal macaque model. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:3081-90 pubmed
  80. Franke H, Snaaijer F, Houben P, van der Mooren M. Treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the perimenopause: the effects of adding combined estradiol/norethisterone acetate therapy to goserelin acetate treatment--a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2006;22:692-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the effects of adding combined estradiol/norethisterone acetate therapy (CENT) to goserelin acetate treatment (GA) of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in perimenopausal women...
  81. Vilos G, Edris F, Abu Rafea B, Hollett Caines J, Ettler H, Al Mubarak A. Miscellaneous uterine malignant neoplasms detected during hysteroscopic surgery. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16:318-25 pubmed publisher
  82. Kaunitz A, Darney P, Ross D, Wolter K, Speroff L. Subcutaneous DMPA vs. intramuscular DMPA: a 2-year randomized study of contraceptive efficacy and bone mineral density. Contraception. 2009;80:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..65 mL; DMPA-SC) and achieves highly effective contraception with a similar tolerability profile to intramuscular DMPA (150 mg/mL; DMPA-IM)...
  83. Daayana S, Holland C. Hormone replacement therapy and the endometrium. Menopause Int. 2009;15:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the effects of HRT on the endometrium and the evidence regarding HRT use and risk of endometrial cancer...
  84. Kashanian M, Shahpourian F, Zare O. A comparison between monophasic levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 150/30 and triphasic levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 50-75-125/30-40-30 contraceptive pills for side effects and patient satisfaction: a study in Iran. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;150:47-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study compared the two kinds of OCPs (monophasic; levonorgestrel (LNG)-ethinyl estradiol (EE) 150/30 versus triphasic; LNG-EE 50-75-125/30-40-30) for adverse effects and patient satisfaction...
  85. Schmidt T, Eren Y, Breidenbach M, Fehr D, Volkmer A, Fleisch M, et al. Modifications of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy technique significantly reduce postoperative spotting. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2011;18:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to estimate the benefit of excision of the endocervix during laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) with regard to postoperative cyclical bleeding...
  86. Bonnamy L, Marret H, Perrotin F, Body G, Berger C, Lansac J. Sonohysterography: a prospective survey of results and complications in 81 patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;102:42-7 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the sonohysterography (SHG) for the diagnosis of intrauterine abnormalities and describe complications and failure rate...
  87. Sepou A, Yanza M, Goddot M, Ngbale R, Kouabosso A, Penguélé A, et al. [116 ectopic pregnancies observed in Bangui (Central African Republic)]. Sante. 2003;13:29-30 pubmed
    ..Clearly, African practitioners must imperatively learn to identify the clinical symptoms of this pathology...
  88. Fadare O, Zheng W. A 44-year-old woman with menometrorrhagia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129:e195-8 pubmed
  89. Indman P. Hysteroscopic treatment of submucous myomas. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2006;49:811-20 pubmed
    ..Patient selection and proper surgical technique are essential to achieve good results and reduce the risk of complications. Hysteroscopic treatment can in many cases provide excellent results and eliminate the need for major surgery...
  90. Dricot J, Dubois M, Gaspard U, Salmon C, Herman P. [Image of the month. An intrauterine pregnancy after endometrial ablation]. Rev Med Liege. 2007;62:5-6 pubmed
  91. Bai W, Henneicke von Zepelin H, Wang S, Zheng S, Liu J, Zhang Z, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a medicinal product containing an isopropanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: a randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone. Maturitas. 2007;58:31-41 pubmed
    ..To investigate the efficacy-safety balance of the isopropanolic extract of Actaea (=Cimicifuga) racemosa (iCR, Remifemin) in comparison with tibolone in Chinese women with climacteric complaints...
  92. Bhatla N, Mukhopadhyay A, Kriplani A, Pandey R, Gravitt P, Shah K, et al. Evaluation of adjunctive tests for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. Indian J Cancer. 2007;44:51-5 pubmed
    ..Adjunctive testing may overcome this drawback...