uterine cervical diseases


Summary: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.

Top Publications

  1. Casey P, Long M, Marnach M. Abnormal cervical appearance: what to do, when to worry?. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:147-50; quiz 151 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, in some patients, the cervix may be difficult to visualize. Several useful clinical suggestions for the optimal examination of the cervix are presented. ..
  2. Garland S, Smith J. Human papillomavirus vaccines: current status and future prospects. Drugs. 2010;70:1079-98 pubmed publisher
  3. Goodman M, Shvetsov Y, McDuffie K, Wilkens L, Zhu X, Thompson P, et al. Prevalence, acquisition, and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection among women with normal cytology: Hawaii Human Papillomavirus Cohort Study. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest several viral and nonviral determinants of cervical HPV acquisition and clearance that might be used in cervical cancer prevention programs. ..
  4. Liu S, Zhang M, Qu Y, Pan Y, Zhang Y. Increased iodine uptake in the Nabothian cyst. Clin Nucl Med. 2013;38:157-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The subsequent ultrasound examination demonstrated that the site of elevated iodine activity was caused by cervical Nabothian cyst...
  5. Syrjanen S, Shabalova I, Petrovichev N, Podistov J, Ivanchenko O, Zakharenko S, et al. Age-specific incidence and clearance of high-risk human papillomavirus infections in women in the former Soviet Union. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:217-23 pubmed
    ..These distinct age-specific incidence and clearance rates explain the differences in age-specific prevalence of HR HPV infections in the study population. ..
  6. Broccolo F, Cocuzza C. Automated extraction and quantitation of oncogenic HPV genotypes from cervical samples by a real-time PCR-based system. J Virol Methods. 2008;148:48-57 pubmed
  7. Sasieni P, Cuzick J. Could HPV testing become the sole primary cervical screening test?. J Med Screen. 2002;9:49-51 pubmed
  8. Franco E, Villa L, Sobrinho J, Prado J, Rousseau M, Desy M, et al. Epidemiology of acquisition and clearance of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women from a high-risk area for cervical cancer. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:1415-23 pubmed
    ..Although a woman's age did not affect mean duration for oncogenic types (13-14 months), nononcogenic-type infections lasted longer (10. 2 months) among younger (<35 years old) than in older women (5.6 months). ..
  9. Richardson H, Kelsall G, Tellier P, Voyer H, Abrahamowicz M, Ferenczy A, et al. The natural history of type-specific human papillomavirus infections in female university students. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:485-90 pubmed
    ..Whereas the majority of episodes with a type-specific HPV infection cleared within 2 years, there were many women who were either reinfected with a new HPV genotype or presumably experienced reactivation of their initial infection. ..

More Information


  1. Munoz N, Mendez F, Posso H, Molano M, van den Brule A, Ronderos M, et al. Incidence, duration, and determinants of cervical human papillomavirus infection in a cohort of Colombian women with normal cytological results. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:2077-87 pubmed
    ..8 vs. 11.1 months). In this cohort of cytologically normal women, the incidence of cervical HPV infection was high, and the epidemiological profile of high-risk HPV types was different from that of low-risk types. ..
  2. Galloway D. Papillomavirus vaccines in clinical trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2003;3:469-75 pubmed
  3. Arabin B, Halbesma J, Vork F, Hübener M, van Eyck J. Is treatment with vaginal pessaries an option in patients with a sonographically detected short cervix?. J Perinat Med. 2003;31:122-33 pubmed
    ..001). Insertion of a vaginal pessary may be a cost-effective preventive treatment in patients at risk for SPB. Prospective controlled trials are needed. ..
  4. Giuliano A, Harris R, Sedjo R, Baldwin S, Roe D, Papenfuss M, et al. Incidence, prevalence, and clearance of type-specific human papillomavirus infections: The Young Women's Health Study. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:462-9 pubmed
    ..39; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-4.76). The median time to clearance of infection was significantly longer for oncogenic strains (9.8 months) than for nononcogenic strains (4.3 months). ..
  5. Caruso C, Le Donne M, Antico F, De Meo L, La Spada R, Arrigo A, et al. Colposcopy vs Hybrid Capture II assay in detection of cervical human papilloma virus infection. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2005;26:303-5 pubmed
    ..There are necessary further studies to interpretate both the advantages and disadvantages of intermediate triage procedures, like Hybrid Capture II testing, compared with immediate colposcopy. ..
  6. Cohen J. Public health. HPV's peculiarities, from infection to disease. Science. 2005;308:619 pubmed
  7. Bao Y, Li N, Smith J, Qiao Y. Human papillomavirus type-distribution in the cervix of Chinese women: a meta-analysis. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, 45.5%, 32.23% and 4.6%, respectively. HPV-16/18 vaccine has the 69.7% potential prevention in ICC. HPV 58 and 52 were the priority HPV types in Chinese women. ..
  8. McKeage K, Romanowski B. Spotlight on AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 vaccine (Cervarix®). BioDrugs. 2011;25:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the AS04-adjuvanted HPV 16/18 vaccine prevents cervical disease associated with certain oncogenic HPV types, thereby reducing the burden of premalignant cervical lesions and, very likely, cervical cancer. ..
  9. Hicks D. Re: oral inosiplex in the treatment of cervical condylomata acuminata: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. BJOG. 2007;114:509; author reply 509-10 pubmed
  10. Lu C, Chang C, Chang M, Chen S, Jan Y, Fu T, et al. Clinical parameters associated with unsatisfactory specimens of conventional cervical smears. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:87-91 pubmed publisher
  11. Williams A. Liquid-based cytology and conventional smears compared over two 12-month periods. Cytopathology. 2006;17:82-5 pubmed
    ..Pick-up rates of dyskaryosis were maintained, and the positive predictive value of a dyskaryotic smear report was improved. ..
  12. Tsivian M, Tsivian M, Sidi A, Tsivian A. Uretero-vesico-cervical fistula following a caesarean section: a unique case report. Int Urogynecol J. 2012;23:1639-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, in the case of surgical treatment, an accurate initial definition of fistula morphology may enable a single-stage reconstructive procedure sparing additional interventions and avoiding any potential complications. ..
  13. MacKenzie I, Naish C, Rees C, Manek S. Why remove all cervical polyps and examine them histologically?. BJOG. 2009;116:1127-9 pubmed publisher
  14. Petros P, Richardson P, Goeschen K, Abendstein B. The Tissue Fixation System provides a new structural method for cystocoele repair: a preliminary report. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;46:474-8 pubmed
    ..The tensioned tape operation is simple and accurate, and appears to work well in the short term. Longer-term studies are required. ..
  15. Kruse A, Slangen B, Dunselman G, Pirens T, Bakers F, Baak J, et al. Neoplastic transformation of endocervicosis into an extraovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:743-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports a müllerian origin and the current approach to extrapolate the results from ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma trials in prescribing treatment for patients with extraovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinomas. ..
  16. Freund P, Schmidlin E, Wannier T, Bloch J, Mir A, Schwab M, et al. Nogo-A-specific antibody treatment enhances sprouting and functional recovery after cervical lesion in adult primates. Nat Med. 2006;12:790-2 pubmed
    ..Recovery of manual dexterity and sprouting of corticospinal axons were enhanced in monkeys treated with Nogo-A-specific antibody as compared to monkeys treated with control antibody. ..
  17. McKeage K, Romanowski B. AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 vaccine (Cervarix®): a review of its use in the prevention of premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer causally related to certain oncogenic HPV types. Drugs. 2011;71:465-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the AS04-adjuvanted HPV 16/18 vaccine prevents cervical disease associated with certain oncogenic HPV types, thereby reducing the burden of premalignant cervical lesions and, very likely, cervical cancer. ..
  18. Kaplan P, Griffo M, Diaz Arias A. Melanosis of the uterine cervix: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2005;50:867-70 pubmed
    ..The existence of this entity is further evidence of a spectrum of melanocytic lesions, including blue nevi and primary melanomas, known to occur within the cervix proper. ..
  19. Chase D, Osann K, Sepina N, Wenzel L, Tewari K. The challenge of follow-up in a low-income colposcopy clinic: characteristics associated with noncompliance in high-risk populations. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2012;16:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, reasons for those patients at highest risk for noncompliance in this clinic may need to be better characterized. ..
  20. Zheng M, Lin Y, Li D, Ruan H, Chen Y, Wu T. [TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions in littoral of Zhejiang province]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2010;24:110-2 pubmed
    ..The higher viral titer in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated. ..
  21. Missaoui N, Hmissa S, Sankaranarayanan R, Deodhar K, Nene B, Budukh A, et al. [p16INK4A overexpression is a useful marker for uterine cervix lesions]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2010;68:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..p16INK4A overexpression is useful in reducing the variability during evaluation of suspicious biopsies of the uterine cervix. ..
  22. Tornesello M, Cassese R, De Rosa N, Buonaguro L, Masucci A, Vallefuoco G, et al. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Eastern European and West African women immigrants in South Italy. APMIS. 2011;119:701-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The implementation of vaccination strategies and cervical cancer surveillance are critical for women in this risk group. ..
  23. Taheri Beni B, Beni B, Motamedi H, Ardakani M. Genotyping of the prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in cervical infections in women in Ahvaz, Iran. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..08). No significant correlation between genogroups and age was found; however, genotype E was somewhat less prevalent among women aged 25-34 years than among other age groups (P=0.08). ..
  24. Perveen K, Gupta R, Al Badr A, Hemal A. Robot-assisted laparoscopic repair of rare post-cesarean section vesicocervical and vesicouterine fistula: a case series of a novel technique. Urology. 2012;80:477-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach is an excellent minimally invasive alternative at centers with robotic technology because these fistulae cannot be repaired vaginally. Experience of the team is important in managing such cases. ..
  25. Nasu K, Narahara H. Management of severe cervical stenosis after conization by detention of nylon threads tied up to intrauterine contraceptive device. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010;281:887-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of recurrent cervical stenosis at follow-up in any of the patients. Detention of nylon threads tied up to IUCD provides an easy and reliable conservative management technique for post-conization cervical stenosis. ..
  26. Conde Ferráez L, Chan May A, Carrillo Martínez J, Ayora Talavera G, González Losa M. Human papillomavirus infection and spontaneous abortion: a case-control study performed in Mexico. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..HPV cervical infection was not associated with spontaneous abortion. HPV in spontaneous abortion and other adverse pregnancy outcomes merits further study. ..
  27. Sosnovski V, Barenboim R, Cohen H, Bornstein J. Complex Nabothian cysts: a diagnostic dilemma. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009;279:759-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Hysterectomy revealed Nabothian cysts. In rare cases in which the intracervical cysts assume very large dimensions, ultrasound and MRI can aid diagnosis, but may not always prevent the need for excision or hysterectomy. ..
  28. MacLean R. Injectable use may increase women's odds of getting chlamydia or gonorrhea. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2005;31:45-6 pubmed
  29. Debby A, Malinger G, Glezerman M, Golan A. Intra-uterine fluid collection in postmenopuasal women with cervical stenosis. Maturitas. 2006;55:334-7 pubmed
    ..Normal endometrium of less than 3mm observed by ultrasound in postmenopausal women without vaginal bleeding does not necessarily need further surgical investigation. ..
  30. Cervantes J, Hong B. Role of next-generation sequencing in understanding the interactions between human papillomavirus and the cervicovaginal microbiome. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2013;76:195-202 pubmed publisher
  31. Myatt L, Eschenbach D, Lye S, Mesiano S, Murtha A, Williams S, et al. A standardized template for clinical studies in preterm birth. Reprod Sci. 2012;19:474-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Adoption of a harmonized template will allow generation of protocols and studies with a basic degree of compatibility and will allow data to be compared, and samples and data sets to be combined for meaningful meta-analyses. ..
  32. Centurioni M, Puppo A, Merlo D, Pasciucco G, Cusimano E, Sirito R, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus cervical infection in an Italian asymptomatic population. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:77 pubmed
    ..The infection rate was 15.9% and the most frequent viral type was HPV 16. Our HPV positivity rate (15.9%) was consistent to that reported by other studies on European populations. ..
  33. Rassu M, Bertoloni G, Mengoli C, Peron A, Benedetti P, Palu G. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:476-81 pubmed
    ..001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend. ..
  34. Akarsu G. Cytotoxic potential of cervical mucus on Trichomonas vaginalis to prevent upper genital tract infections. Saudi Med J. 2006;27:735-6 pubmed
  35. Chih H, Lee A, Colville L, Binns C, Xu D. A review of dietary prevention of human papillomavirus-related infection of the cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:317-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Health professionals shall focus on implementation of a balanced-diet prevention strategy at an early stage for cervical cancer prevention. ..
  36. Wheeler C. The natural history of cervical human papillomavirus infections and cervical cancer: gaps in knowledge and future horizons. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2013;40:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Promising biomarkers are emerging that may aid in defining which HPV-infected women are at risk of developing invasive cervical cancer. ..
  37. Mercado U. [Abnormal cervicovaginal cytology in women with rheumatoid arthritis]. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2010;78:94-8 pubmed
    ..None from them had ever received immunosuppressants. Women with RA have an increased prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology, compared with a control population. It may be related to chronic inflammatory disease and sexual behavior. ..
  38. Banura C, Franceschi S, Doorn L, Arslan A, Wabwire Mangen F, Mbidde E, et al. Infection with human papillomavirus and HIV among young women in Kampala, Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinics for teenagers provide an opportunity to monitor the impact of HPV vaccines and, possibly, to catch up unvaccinated young women who have recently become sexually active. ..
  39. Yokota N, Yoshida H, Sakakibara H, Inayama Y, Hirahara F. A severe vaginal hemorrhage caused by cervical endometriosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:e12-3 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we report a case in which a severe vaginal bleed originated from an endometrial cyst of the cervix and in which diagnosis was confused by the presence of atypical cells. ..
  40. Bansi Matharu L, Gurol Urganci I, Mahmood T, Templeton A, Van Der Meulen J, Cromwell D. Rates of subsequent surgery following endometrial ablation among English women with menorrhagia: population-based cohort study. BJOG. 2013;120:1500-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One in six women have further surgery after EA for HMB, which is a higher rate than reported in clinical trials. This risk of further surgery decreases with age. ..
  41. Gucer F, Altaner S, Mulayim N, Yapicier O. Invasive inflammatory pseudotumor of uterine cervix: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;98:325-8 pubmed
    ..The case we present is the second reported case of cervical IPT. It is unique in showing locally aggressive behavior. Surgical resection appears to be the treatment of choice for IPT. ..
  42. Jiang J, Tu Z, Zhang G, Li J, Zhao L, Zhao C, et al. [Evaluation of genomic amplification of the human telomerase RNA component gene in the screening of cervical lesions]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2008;43:849-53 pubmed
    ..8%, respectively. Testing the gain of chromosome 3q26 in cytological specimens using specific probe for hTERC is powerful in screening of HSIL, and the amplification patterns of 2:4 and 4:4 may serve as potential prognosis markers. ..
  43. Bollmann M, Varnai A, Griefingholt H, Bankfalvi A, Callenberg H, Speich N, et al. Predicting treatment outcome in cervical diseases using liquid-based cytology, dynamic HPV genotyping and DNA cytometry. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:1439-46 pubmed
    ..065) were independent predictors of residual cervical neoplasias. Our results showed that our multimodal surveillance protocol may help to individually assess the anticipated clinical outcome of cervical diseases post-surgery. ..
  44. Fatima S, Arshad S, Ahmed Z, Hasan S. Spectrum of cytological findings in patients with neck lymphadenopathy--experience in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:1873-5 pubmed
    ..FNAC was helpful in establishing the diagnosis in approximately 98% of the cases. ..
  45. Tao P, Bian M, Ou H, Chen Q, Li M, Liu J. [Application research on the flow-through hybridization and gene chip in human papillomavirus detection]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2006;41:43-7 pubmed
    ..It provides useful information on viral genotype and is more suitable for clinical use. The 6 most common genotypes in abnormal cytological group are 16, 18, 52, 58, 33, 31. ..
  46. Hershkovitz R, Sheiner E, Maymon E, Erez O, Mazor M. Cervical length assessment in women with idiopathic polyhydramnios. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006;28:775-8 pubmed
    ..6 weeks vs. 37.2+/-4.2 weeks, respectively, P<0.001). Women with polyhydramnios have a gradual shortening of cervical length with advancing gestational age. However, this finding is not related to the severity of polyhydramnios. ..
  47. Engel J, Heuer S, Segerer S, Rauthe S, Dietl J, Honig A. Cervical endometriosis associated with malignant pleural mesothelioma mimicking cervical cancer--Occam's razor or the "third man". Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1787.e5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an application of Occam's razor to medicine. Our case illustrates that occasionally the simplest and therefore most probable diagnosis can be wrong, and on these occasions one should consider a "third man." ..
  48. Mayaud P, Nagot N, Konate I, Ouedraogo A, Weiss H, Foulongne V, et al. Effect of HIV-1 and antiretroviral therapy on herpes simplex virus type 2: a prospective study in African women. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;84:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..02 to 2.86). HSV-2 reactivations occur more frequently among HIV-infected women, particularly those with low CD4 cell counts, and are only partly reduced by HAART. HSV therapy may benefit HIV-infected individuals during HAART. ..
  49. Doerfler D, Bernhaus A, Kottmel A, Sam C, Koelle D, Joura E. Human papilloma virus infection prior to coitarche. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:487.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We found persistence of genital HPV infection in children, which could be a reservoir for HPV-associated diseases later in life. ..
  50. Bian L, Li Y, Wang X, Wu X, Song L, Liu H. [Study for association between high risk human papillomavirus and cervical lesions in the samples from opportunistic screening]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2011;25:89-91 pubmed
    ..The most common HPV genotypes in random screening were HPV16, 52 and HPV58; Our data demonstrated the pseudo-positivity of HC2 test was 4.0%; HPV16 was a index for progression of HSIL. ..
  51. Powell S, Hariri S, Steinau M, Bauer H, Bennett N, Bloch K, et al. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on HPV 16/18-related prevalence in precancerous cervical lesions. Vaccine. 2012;31:109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary results suggest early impact of the HPV vaccine on vaccine-type disease, but further evaluation is warranted. ..
  52. Dietsch E. Women defining themselves: shared stories of private hell. Contemp Nurse. 2006;21:165-73 pubmed
  53. Akbulut M, Utku Y, Soysal S. Lipogranuloma of the cervix in a postmenopausal patient with a uterine prolapse. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;277:277-9 pubmed